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Types Of Alcohols Used In Chemistry Applications
- Primary Alcohol
- Straight-Chain Primary Alcohol
- Simple Alcohol
- Secondary Alcohol
- Tertiary Alcohol
- Monohydric Alcohol (Mono-Alcohol)
- Polyhydric Alcohol
- Amino Alcohol
About Alcohols Used In Chemistry
- Structure and Classification of Alcohols
- Information About Alcohol From Wikipedia
- Safe Handling Of Alcohol
- Science Experiments You Can Do At Home With Alcohol And Then Drink, Because Learning
- Main Types Of Alcohol: Isopropyl Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol And Methyl Alcohol
In chemistry, alcohols are organic compounds that carry at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH. Simple monoalcohols that are the subject of this article include primary (RCH2OH), secondary (R2CHOH) and tertiary (R3COH) alcohols.
The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority. When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-.
Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, which is the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols:
- methanol, mainly for the production of formaldehyde and as a fuel additive
- ethanol, mainly for alcoholic beverages, fuel additive, solvent
- 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and isobutyl alcohol for use as a solvent and precursor to solvents
- C6–C11 alcohols used for plasticizers, e.g. in polyvinylchloride
- fatty alcohol (C12–C18), precursors to detergents
Methanol is the most common industrial alcohol, with about 12 million tons/y produced in 1980. The combined capacity of the other alcohols is about the same, distributed roughly equally.
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- Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) Formula, Uses, Solubility, Miscibility, Hazards, Density, Structure, Chemical Properties, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Hazards And CAS Registry Number
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- Ethanol Density: 789 kg/m³
- Ethanol Formula: C2H5OH
- Ethanol Solubility: Soluble In Water, Hexane, Chloroform, Water, Hexane, Diethyl Ether, Ethyl Acetate, Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Kerosene, Gasoline (Petrol), Carbon Tetrachloride (Tetrachloromethane/CCl4) And Heptane
- Solvent Miscibility Table
- Ethanol Miscibility: Completely Miscible
- Ethanol Structure: AKA Ethyl Alcohol, Abbreviated As EtOH, Ethanol Has One Methyl (-CH3) Group, One Methylene (-CH2-) Group And One Hydroxyl (-OH) Group
- Ethanol Boiling Point: 173.1°F (78.37°C)
- Ethanol Melting Point: -173.5°F (-114.1°C)
- Ethanol CAS Registry Number: 64-17-5
- Molar Mass: 46.07 g/mol
- Boiling Point: 173.1°F (78.37°C)
- IUPAC ID: Ethanol
- Ethanol ChemSpider ID: 682
- Ethanol PubChem CID: 702
- Ethanol Chemical Formula: C2H5OH | Can Be Written As CH3CH2OH
- Pka: Ethanol's pKa Value Is About 15.9
- Wikipedia Description Of Ethanol: Ethanol is a chemical compound and a simple alcohol. It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.
- PubChem Description Of Ethanol: Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Indeed, ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines.
Ethanol And Alcohol Uses
- Ethanol Is Used For Cleaning
- Ethanol Is Used For Drinking
- Ethanol Is Used For Botanical Extraction
- Ethanol Is Used For Sterilization
- Ethanol Is Used As A Solvent To Manufacture Varnishes
- Ethanol Is Used As A Solvent To Manufacture Perfumes
- Ethanol Is A Preservative For Biological Specimens
- Ethanol Is Used To Prepare Essences And Flavorings
- Ethanol Is Used To Treat Methanol Poisoning
- Ethanol Is Used For Fuel And Gasoline Additive
- Ethanol Is Used As A Disinfectant
- Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) Is Used As A Principal Ingredient To Make Alcoholic Beverages, Beer, Wine, Brandy And Liquor
- Ethanol Is Used For DNA Extraction
- Ethanol Is Used To Dissolve Aspirin
- Ethanol Is Used In Many Medicines And Drugs
- Ethanol Is Used For Agriculture
- Ethanol Is Used In Tinctures Such As Iodine
Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol are used throughout the world for disinfecting environmental surfaces in health care communities and for hand disinfection and hand rubbing. It has been noted that ethanol has a stronger and broader virucidal activity than propanols such as isopropanol.
Non-enveloped viruses do not have a lipid-bilayer membrane. Non-enveloped viruses reproduce by breaching the membrane of a target host cell to get access to cytoplasm of the cell. A virus encased within a lipid bilayer is called an enveloped virus and a virus that does not have a bilayer is classified as a non-enveloped virus.
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Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol ) and ethyl alcohol in aqueous solutions between 60% and 90% alcohol with 10% to 40% purified water, kill bacteria and viruses by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipid membranes. When a bacterial cell is exposed to a solution of ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, the amphiphile alcohol molecules bond with the molecules of the bacteria's cell membrane, making it more soluble in water. This reaction causes the cell membrane to lose its structural integrity and then fall apart.
Ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and soap all kill the viruses. Soap contains fat-like substances known as amphiphiles, which are structurally very similar to lipids in virus membranes. Soap loosens the bond between viruses and skin which helps decrease the spread of viruses. Soap also loosens the Velcro-like interactions that hold the proteins, lipids and RNA in the virus together. Alcohol-based disinfectant products sold at LabAlley.com that contain a high-percentage alcohol solution (normally 70% ethanol and 70% isopropyl alcohol) kill viruses in the same way. Additionally, the mechanical action of hand washing with soap loosens viruses and bacteria from the skin.
The CDC recommends using an alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) with greater than 60% ethanol or 70% isopropyl alcohol in healthcare environments. Unless hands are visibly soiled, an ABHR is recommended over soap and water in clinical situations because of evidence of better compliance compared to soap and water. Hand rubs are normally less irritating to hands and are effective in the absence of a sink. Hands should be washed with soap and water for at least 20 seconds when visibly soiled, before eating, and after using the restroom. Learn more about hand hygiene in healthcare facilities here.
Both 70% denatured ethanol (140 proof) and 70% isopropyl alcohol are excellent disinfectants for surface-cleaning uses. 70% isopropyl alcohol is frequently used as an antiseptic in hospitals. Because of an increased demand for alcohol-based disinfectants during the pandemic, many U.S. healthcare facilities are augmenting their cleaning supplies by ordering ethyl alcohol (70%) and 70% isopropyl alcohol at LabAlley.com. In April of 2020, tons of 70% alcohol were ordered online at LabAlley.com for large-scale disinfection efforts against viruses and for household cleaning, sanitation and sterilization purposes in the U.S.
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