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Acetic acid has been known to humanity for many centuries. It was first discovered in the form of vinegar, when wine got spoiled by the action of bacteria. Ancient Romans cooked soured wine to produce highly sweet syrup. Since then, the importance of acetic acid in food preparation/production steadily grew.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH₃COOH. It is also known as methanecarboxylic acid. When acetic acid is undiluted it is called glacial acetic acid. Acetic Acid is a synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is no less than 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
To purify organic compounds, acetic acid is used as a solvent for recrystallization. Acetic acid is used for the manufacture of inks and dyes. Acetic acid is also used in making perfumes.
Acetic acid can be used as an antiseptic against pseudomonas, staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci and others. It is also used in cervical cancer screening. World Health Organization has listed acetic acid in its list of essential medicines. It is also used for the treatment of outer ear infections like the growth of fungus and bacteria.
Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. Under the IUPAC system nomenclature, the name of acetic acid is ethanoic acid.
Glacial acetic acid is a name for water-free (anhydrous) acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig (ice-vinegar), the name comes from the ice-like crystals that form slightly below room temperature at 16.6 °C (61.9 °F) (the presence of 0.1% water lowers its melting point by 0.2 °C). To learn the difference between acetic acid and glacial acetic acid, click here. Acetic Acid Glacial is a clear, colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar odor. It is miscible with water, alcohol, glycerin and ether.
Acetic Acid Uses And Applications In The United States
Acetic acid may not be a household name to many, but it’s actually a relatively common chemical. As a vital chemical in industry, acetic acid is used for a variety of purposes in many countries around the world.
Acetic acid has many functions, but it is mostly used as a chemical reagent, fungicide, herbicide, microbiocide, pH adjuster, counterirritant, and solvent in a variety of industries, including, but not limited to food, agriculture, cleaning, and cosmetics.
Synthetic fibers, such as cellulose acetate and rayon, are made possible with glacial acetic acid. Personal care products, including perfumes, acetone, and esters, are manufactured with acetic acid. Industrial uses of glacial acetic acid include its use as a solvent in photographic film, in the preparation of dyes and inks, in transforming rubber from latex,, in the fabrication of polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, in the manufacture of substrates, in the manufacture of pesticides, in the production of white lead, and during the creation of soft drinking bottles.
Schools, colleges, and universities rely on glacial acetic acid as a chemical reagent and students marvel at its ability to absorb water from its environment, and to prove its acidic properties by transforming blue litmus paper into red. When mixed with sodium bicarbonate, the reaction causes a sensational amount of carbon dioxide and salt.
Clinical laboratories use glacial acetic acid to test blood. Glacial acetic acid is an excellent polar protic solvent, as noted above. Acetic acid is used as a solvent in the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the raw material for polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Diluted, glacial acetic acid is used in preservation and canning of pickles and other vegetables. It is also used as a descaling agent for cleaning.
Ethanoic/Acetic acid is also used for the treatment of outer ear infections like the growth of fungus and bacteria. Acetic acid is used in vinegar, which is used as a condiment & in the pickling of raw vegetables and other foods. Acetic acid is used for the manufacture of inks and dyes. Acetic acid is also used in making perfumes.
Diluted, glacial acetic acid is used in preservation and canning of pickles and other vegetables. It is also used as a descaling agent for cleaning. Along with cleaning and canning, diluted glacial acetic acid can treat or prevent bacterial or fungal outer ear infections. The distinctly sour flavor of glacial acetic acid accounts for the tang of pickles and brings the “sour” to both sourdough bread and sweet and sour chips.
Dilute acetic acid has been successfully used for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections, and burn wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acetic acid in 1% and 5% concentrations has been widely used in an attempt to reduce pH. Application of sterile gauze swabs soaked in 1%-5% concentrations to ulcers and burn wounds has been used in different studies. Topical application of acetic acid in a concentration of 5% to burn and soft tissue wounds has been found to be an effective treatment for P. aeruginosa infections. A 0.5% acetic acid irrigation solution is effective in clearing P. aeruginosa from contaminated or infected wound beds. Though not bactericidal, acetic acid creates an acidic environment unfavorable for growth of P. aeruginosa.15 Thus, irrigation of wounds with acetic acid solution proved to be effective in clearing P. aeruginosa from wound beds. Lowering of pH on the surface of a wound has been demonstrated to accelerate wound healing.
Acetic Acid For Colposcopy
Acetic acid (vinegar) washes away mucus and allows abnormal areas to be seen more easily with the colposcope. Moreover, the acetic acid stains the abnormal areas white. The areas that stain white after the acetic acid wash are called "acetowhite lesions."
Acetic Acid For Skin
Acetic acid and apple cider vinegar have keratolytic effects, basically helping unplug blocked pores. And alpha hydroxy acid helps to exfoliate the skin and help in smoothing and improving skin texture, and also helps to absorb excess oils of the skin." In addition, ACV can help balance your skin's pH levels.
Acetic acid is the acid in clear white vinegar and is a natural all-purpose cleaning agent. It is best for general household cleaning on surfaces that can tolerate a strong, acidic product. Because acetic acid kills fungus and microbes, it is great for general disinfecting and combating mold and mildew. It can be found in several conventional and green cleaning products, such as mold and mildew cleaners, floor cleaners, window cleaners, surface cleaners, cleaning and dusting sprays, and roof cleaners, in the form of vinegar or as an ingredient by itself.
Acetic Acid For Otitis Externa
Acidification with a topical solution of 2 percent acetic acid combined with hydrocortisone for inflammation is effective treatment in most cases and, when used after exposure to moisture, is an excellent prophylactic. Otitis externa is an inflammatory process of the external auditory canal.
Acetic Acid For Food Preservation In The Food Industry
A common preservative is acetic acid, which is used to stop bacterial growth in dressings, sauces, cheese and pickles. Acetic acid is used in the preservation of food as a natural preservative and antimicrobial agent not only in vegetable pickling, but as an active component of edible films and in hurdle technology of preservation. It is added to mayonnaise to deactivate Salmonella. In addition, it is acidulant, gives a characteristic flavor profile to food, can be used for microbial decontamination of meat and as mild descaling agent in food industry. As a food ingredient, it is found commonly in marinades, mustard, catsup, vinaigrettes and salad dressings, sauces, canned fruits, and mayonnaise. It may also be found in pickled products such as pickled sausages and pigs feet.
Industrial Uses Of Acetic Acid
Acetic acid is used in several industries, such as the chemical (acidifier and neutralizer), agricultural (e.g., herbicide to control weeds), canning (e.g., flavoring for pickles), textile and dye (e.g., nylon production, dye catalyst), food (preservative for livestock grains and hay), cosmetics (bleaching agent), and manufacturing industries (e.g., production of lacquers). BP is planning on building a huge acetic acid manufacturing facility in China. The Middle East is expected to contribute 43% to global acetic acid capacity additions.
Acetic Acid Structure
Acetic acid is an organic acid which is the main component of vinegar. It is also called glacial acetic acid, ethanoic acid or methane carboxylic acid. The chemical formula of acetic acid is CH3COOH. Its molecular formula is C2H4O2 and its molar mass is 60.05 g/mol.
Acetic Acid Safety, Hazards And Storage
Acetic acid can be a hazardous chemical if not used in a safe and appropriate manner. This liquid is highly corrosive to the skin and eyes and, because of this, must be handled with extreme care. Acetic acid can also be damaging to the internal organs if ingested or in the case of vapor inhalation.
According to the FDA, acetic acid and its sodium salt, sodium diacetate, are GRAS or "generally recognized as safe." The EPA notes there is no need for concern.
Exposure to acetic acid can pose serious hazards to your health. This chemical is especially dangerous when it comes in contact with either the skin or eyes. In any instance of acetic acid exposure, it is important to seek help from a medical professional right away to help prevent damaging health effects.
Breathing in acetic acid can cause respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, difficulty breathing, and sore throat as well as nervous system issues, such as headache and dizziness. Contact with the eyes can result in burns, vision loss, pain, and redness, and skin contact can cause pain, redness, burns, and blisters. Also, ingesting citric acid may result in a sore throat, burning sensation, abdominal pain. vomiting, shock, or collapse. Due to these concerns, NIOSH suggests preventive measures for those working with acetic acid such as protecting the skin and eyes and providing appropriate ventilation and breathing protection.
Acetic acid should be stored in an approved area away from heat or other sources of ignition. Keep away from incompatible materials including oxidizing agents, reducing agents, metals, acids and alkalis. Store acetic acid in a cool, well-ventilated area in a tightly sealed container.