Homogeneous Mixtures Composed Of Two Or More Substances
Chemical solutions are homogeneous mixtures composed of two or more substances, where one substance (called the solute) is uniformly dispersed in another substance (called the solvent). In a chemical solution, the solute particles are evenly distributed at a molecular or ionic level throughout the solvent, resulting in a uniform composition and appearance.
Solutions can be formed with various types of solutes, such as solid, liquid, or gas, dissolved in a liquid solvent. Some examples include:
- Hydrochloric acid: Hydrogen chloride gas (solute) dissolved in water (solvent).
- Ethanol solution: Ethanol (solute) dissolved in water (solvent) or other organic solvents.
- Dilute solutions: Solutions with a relatively small amount of solute dissolved in the solvent.
- Concentrated solutions: Solutions with a high amount of solute dissolved in the solvent.
- Saturated solutions: Solutions in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved at a given temperature.
- Supersaturated solutions: Solutions that contain more dissolved solute than theoretically possible at a given temperature. These solutions are usually unstable and can be easily triggered to crystallize.