Phenol is a transparent crystalline solid. Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. Phenolic compounds, have been studied extensively (biologically and chemically) due to their extensive antiviral activities. Learn about the cytotoxic,antiviral propertiesand anti-HSV-1 activities of phenolic compoundshere. They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and handwashes. Phenol is probably the oldest known disinfectant as it was first used byJoseph Lister (pioneer of antiseptic surgery), when it was called carbolic acid.
Phenol is also calledcarbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, oxybenzene, phenylic acid. a white, crystalline, water-soluble, poisonous mass, C6H5OH, obtained from coal tar, or a hydroxyl derivative of benzene: used chiefly as a disinfectant, as an antiseptic, and in organic synthesis.
Phenols are widely used in household products and as intermediates for industrial synthesis. For example, phenol itself is used (in low concentrations) as a disinfectant in household cleaners and in mouthwash. Phenol may have been the first surgical antiseptic.Read more here.
Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group (−C6H5) bonded to a hydroxy group (−OH). Mildly acidic, it requires careful handling because it can cause chemical burns.Read more here.
About Phenol Liquid
Phenol liquid is often used in molecular biology with trichloromethane and chloroform to separate RNA, DNA, or proteins, and isolate them in the pure form. This process is known as liquid-liquid extraction. Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or additives for industrial wood processing and for chemical industries.Phenol extractionalso is a laboratory process to purify DNA samples.
About Phenol Crystals
Phenol crystals are used to describe the solid forms that result from the phenol compound, which is also known as the carbolic acid. It is an organic compound that has the molecular structure of C6H5OH. It is an extremely volatile white crystalline solid that is mildly acidic.
Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C₆H₅OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group bonded to a hydroxy group. Mildly acidic, it requires careful handling because it can cause chemical burns.
Chemical Properties Of Phenols And Reference Resources
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Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and handwashes. Phenol (carbolic acid) is one of the oldest antiseptic agents. Phenols are used as antiviral agents in the treatment of HIV. Phenol has good penetrating power into organic matter and is mainly used for disinfection of equipment or organic materials that are to be destroyed (eg, infected food and excreta).
Phenolic compounds are derived from the secondary plant metabolism, although they can also be obtained by synthetic processes. Many studies have shown a great range of pharmacological effects for these substances, including vasodilatation, antiallergenic, antiinflammatory and antiviral properties, among others. Read more here.
A number of antiseptics were tested for their inactivating effect upon the virus of influenza during a brief period of exposure. This was accomplished by preparing mixtures of the antiseptics and virus, allowing them to remain in contact for 3 minutes, diluting the mixtures to the point where they would not be toxic for chick embryos and then injecting the material into embryonated eggs. Survival of the embryos indicated inactivation of the virus. The following preparations were found to inactivate the virus in 3 minutes or less:phenol, 3 per cent; tincture ofiodine, U.S.P. XII, 0.1 per cent;Lugol's solution, U.S.P. XII, 1 per cent;mercuric chloride, 1:1000;potassium permanganate, 1:1000;copper sulfate, 1 per cent;propylene glycol, 90 per cent; liquor antisepticus, N.F. VII, 80 per cent.Read more here.
Phenolic disinfectants (e.g. Meytol, Dettol, etc.) are widely used for domestic purposes. Instructions on the bottles are clearly given with regards to the dilutions that should be used. In domestic cleaning, these instructions are often ignored and higher concentrations are used with the thinking that 'the more I pour, the cleaner it gets!'. Furthermore, cleaning equipment is sometimes stored without prior rinsing with fresh water. As water evaporates much faster than phenol, the solution on stored mops/ brushes, etc. becomes progressively more and more concentrated and can cause chemical burns when these utensils are handled at a later time. We therefore suggest that two further instructions should be added to the usual instructions on bottles of household phenolic disinfectants, namely: 'wear gloves when performing domestic cleaning' and 'wash all cleaning equipment with plenty of fresh water after use'. We support this by a case report of a 65-year-old man who sustained full-thickness, painless chemical burns to his right hand after handling a moist mop which had been used for cleaning a carpet with a phenolic household disinfectant solution 2 days earlier. Read more here.
In fact, phenolic compounds have been extensively studied for their application in the food industry for improving the shelf life of perishable products. ... In this sense, phenolic compounds are beginning to replace chemical additives in food and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Read more here.
Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting cell cycle, regulating carcinogen metabolism and ontogenesis expression, inhibiting DNA binding and cell adhesion, migration, proliferation or differentiation, and blocking signaling pathways. This review covers the most recent literature to summarize structural categories and molecular anticancer mechanisms of phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants. Read more here.
Phenolic compounds are a class of the most widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants. They may function as pollination, pigment constituents and protection against UV radiation and predation for plants. Plant phenols have been studied for hundreds of years, and have acted as the major class of compounds that show great activity against various viruses such as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr virus, equid herpesvirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, respiratory syncytial and canine distemper viruses. Because of the extensive antiviral activities, phenolic compounds have been widely investigated both chemically and biologically. The distribution of hydroxyl groups and ester group accounts for different antiviral activities of phenolic compounds, and research of these compounds has revealed that phenols have great potential for the development as therapeutic agents against various viruses. As a result, dozens of phenols in functional foods have been discovered to display antiviral activity.
Objective: This review emphasizes structure classification and antiviral activities of plant phenolic compounds, which are expected to provide guides for rational design of antiviral drugs. Read more here.
Phenolic compounds, one of the most widely distributed groups of secondary metabolites in plants, have received a lot of attention in the last few years since the consumption of vegetables and beverages with a high level of such compounds may reduce risks of the development of several diseases.Read more here.
This volume is concerned throughout with the question of whether or not there is a regulatory role of phenolic compounds in the metabolism of plants and animals. Several such compounds are well known as hormonal mediators of metabolic events in animals; in plants, however, the metabolic roles of phenolic compounds are less well defined. As presented here-we believe for the first time this area of metabolic control is considered on a comparative basis. The similarities and differences between plant and animal systems in their phenolic constituents and in their metabolic responses to the presence of phenolics are discussed, together with a discussion of some pathological metabolic pathways. The contributors, in their consideration of physiological relationships, were invited to speculate as well as to present estab lished data. Emphasis has been placed on the critical review and appraisal of the considered topics rather than a mere presentation of extensive individual experimental results. Read more here.
Phenol red added as a component to tissue culture media can be autoclaved. Phenol red can be used to measure hydrogen peroxide in supernatants from cultured macrophages in multiwell plates.Read more here.
Phenol Red Broth is a general-purpose differential test medium typically used to differentiate gram negative enteric bacteria. It contains peptone, phenol red (a pH indicator), a Durham tube, and one carbohydrate. Phenol red is a pH indicator which turns yellow below a pH of 6.8 and fuchsia above a pH of 7.4.Read more here.
Although the CBs were either nontoxic or slightly toxic, as vehicles of phenol red, they played an essential role in the cytotoxicity induced by phenol red. However, MWNTs showed an intrinsic cytotoxicity independent of phenol red. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.Read more here.
It is a weak acid with pKa = 8.00 at 20 °C (68 °F). A solution of phenol red is used as a pH indicator, often in cell culture. Its color exhibits a gradual transition from yellow (λmax = 443 nm) to red (λmax = 570 nm) over the pH range 6.8 to 8.2.Read more here.
Phenol Red Broth is a general-purpose differential test medium typically used to differentiate gram negative enteric bacteria. It contains peptone, phenol red (a pH indicator), a Durham tube, and one carbohydrate. We use three different kinds of phenol red broths.Read more here.
Phenol red (also known as phenolsulfonphthalein or PSP) is a pH indicator frequently used in cell biology laboratories.
Indicator For Cell Cultures
Phenol red, 40 μM: colors in cell culture medium at a pH range from 6.0 to 8.0. Most living tissues prosper at a near-neutral pH; that is, a pH close to 7. The pH of blood ranges from 7.35 to 7.45, for instance. When cells are grown in tissue culture, the medium in which they grow is held close to this physiological pH. A small amount of phenol red added to this growth medium will have a pink-red color under normal conditions. Typically, 15 mg/l are used for cell culture. In the event of problems, waste products produced by dying cells or overgrowth of contaminants will cause a change in pH, leading to a change in indicator color. For example, a culture of relatively slowly dividing mammalian cells can be quickly overgrown by bacterial contamination. This usually results in an acidification of the medium, turning it yellow. Many biologists find this a convenient way to rapidly check on the health of tissue cultures. In addition, the waste products produced by the mammalian cells themselves will slowly decrease the pH, gradually turning the solution orange and then yellow. This color change is an indication that even in the absence of contamination, the medium needs to be replaced (generally, this should be done before the medium has turned completely orange). Since the color of phenol red can interfere with some spectrophotometric and fluorescent assays, many types of tissue culture media are also available without phenol red.
Phenol red is a weak estrogen mimic, and in cell cultures can enhance the growth of cells that express the estrogen receptor. It has been used to induce ovarian epithelial cells from post-menopausal women to differentiate into cells with properties of oocytes (eggs), with potential implications for both fertility treatment and stem cell research.
Use In Swimming Pool Test Kits
Phenol red, sometimes labelled with a different name, such as "Guardex Solution #2", is used as a pH indicator in home swimming pool test kits. Chlorine can result in the bleaching of the dye in the absence of thiosulfate to inhibit the oxidizing chlorine. High levels of bromine can convert phenol red to bromophenol red (dibromophenolsulfonephthalein, whose lowered pKa results in an indicator with a range shifted in the acidic direction – water at pH 6.8 will appear to test at 7.5). Even higher levels of bromine (>20 ppm) can result in the secondary conversion of bromophenol red to bromophenol blue with an even lower pKa, erroneously giving the impression that the water has an extremely high pH despite being dangerously low.
Ingrowing toenails were the commonest problem dealt with and phenol cauterization, either partial or complete, was the standard form of treatment. Over a 2-year period 1013 phenol cauterizations were carried out on 631 patients. After a minimum of 12 months follow-up, the recurrence rate was 2.96%. Read more here.
The Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) or Folin's phenol reagent or Folin–Denis reagent, also called the gallic acid equivalence method (GAE), is a mixture of phosphomolybdate and phosphotungstate used for the colorimetric in vitro assay of phenolic and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is named after Otto Folin, Vintilă Ciocâlteu, and Willey Glover Denis.
The reagent does not measure only phenols, but will react with any reducing substance. It therefore measures the total reducing capacity of a sample, not just phenolic compounds. This reagent is part of the Lowry protein assay, and will also react with some nitrogen-containing compounds such as hydroxylamine and guanidine. The reagent has also been shown to be reactive towards thiols, many vitamins, the nucleotide base guanine, the trioses glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone, and some inorganic ions. Copper complexation increases the reactivity of phenols towards this reagent.
This reagent is distinct from Folin's reagent, which is used to detect amines and sulfur-containing compounds. Read more here.
Phenol is used in some throat sprays that can help numb your throat and relieve symptoms caused by a sore throat, or irritation in the mouth caused by canker sores. You can buy over-the-counter phenol spray almost anywhere. The most common brand is Chloraseptic. It contains about 1.4 percent phenol. Read more here.