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Isopropyl Alcohol For Coronavirus 

If your local store is out of hand sanitizer, buy isopropyl alcohol (better known as rubbing alcohol) at to make do-it-yourself sanitizers. Tests have confirmed that two hand sanitizer formulations recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) inactivate the virus that causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Hand sanitizer can be made out of either ethyl alcohol, like the ethanol in alcoholic beverages, or isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing alcohol that's at least 70% alcohol will also kill coronavirus on surfaces; 60% for your hands. 

ExxonMobil makes isopropyl alcohol to help with the coronavirus effort. The firm recently reconfigured a facility to manufacture medical-grade hand sanitizer, which will be donated to health care providers and first responders.

Buy Ethanol To Make Your Own Hand Sanitizers, Surface Disinfectants And Household Cleaners To Use Against Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)

Properly made homemade hand sanitizer solutions can destroy the coronavirus. Ethanol Alcohol (ethyl alcohol) can be used at home to make your own hand sanitizer mixtures. Alcohol (ethanol) used for alcohol-based hand sanitizers is derived from distillation or fermentation processes typically used for consumable goods. Antiviral hand sanitizer ingredients are for sale online here. 60% ethanol or 70% isopropyl alcohol inactivates viruses. Help protect against coronavirus by cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces and objects in your home like tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, sinks, etc.

Coronavirus Outbreak - Use Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) To Make Household Surface Disinfectants And Commercial Cleaners To Control Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)

To increase the supply of hand sanitizers, the FDA issued guidance for manufacturers that would like to produce alcohol (ethanol or ethyl alcohol) for use in alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumers and health care personnel. has addressed shortages of alcohol-based hand sanitizers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic by stocking the ingredients used to compound alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Buy safe chemical ingredients to make DIY homemade hand sanitizers and commercial cleaning solutions, here. Buy coronavirus disinfectants and sprays for household use, here. Prices for antiviral disinfectants, sanitizers and wipes start at $5.

Drinking methanol, ethanol or bleach DOES NOT prevent or cure COVID-19 and can be extremely dangerous. Methanol, ethanol, and bleach are poisons.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported an outbreak of disease caused by a novel coronavirus (referred to as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)).  This is an evolving situation, and it is recommended that all concerned consult the WHO, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. CDC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) websites frequently for the most updated information regarding the outbreak. 

How To Make Your Own Hand Sanitizer | Dr. Ian Smith



Buy 70% Ethyl Alcohol And 70% Isopropyl Alcohol For Sterilization And To Kill Viruses And Bacteria

Ethyl Alcohol (70%) is the most effective concentration for bactericidal and virucidal uses70% ethyl alcohol sold by is a potent cleaning agent used to kill viruses, destroy microbes, denature proteins and dissolves lipid (fat) membranes surrounding viruses. Alcohol denatures proteins by disrupting the side chain intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Read the CDC disinfection and sterilization guidelines for chemical disinfectants here. U.S. consumers can also buy 100% ethanol without a license at

Canada's Interim Guide On The Production Of Ethanol For Use In Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers
May 8, 2020

On This Page 

This document provides information on the use of ethanol as an ingredient in alcohol-based hand sanitizers sold in Canada. Numerous Canadian entities and industries not currently regulated by Health Canada have expressed interest in providing additional and/or alternate sources of ethanol (also known as anhydrous alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol) for use in the production of hand sanitizers to support the national response to the supply shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic.

To help reduce the risk of infection or spreading infection to others, Health Canada recommends that individuals wash their hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available. Similarly, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that individuals regularly and thoroughly clean their hands with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub, as part of proper hand hygiene.

On March 27, 2020, Health Canada released the Guide on Health Canada's Interim Expedited Licensing Approach for the Production and Distribution of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers. The purpose of that Guide is to support companies that intend to manufacture, package, label and/or distribute alcohol-based hand sanitizers in response to the current shortage by providing a simplified and expedited pathway to obtaining the required authorizations.

This document provides further guidance on the quality requirements for ethanol to be used in the production of hand sanitizers. It also highlights key formulation aspects and points to additional flexibilities that can be leveraged during this emergency situation.

To protect the health and safety of Canadians, Health Canada remains committed to its mandate while balancing the need for exceptional measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, the quality of ethanol used in manufacturing hand sanitizers must be fit for purpose and meet safety, efficacy and quality requirements.

This interim approach takes into account the current policies and best practices of foreign regulatory partners, including the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as well as the recommendations of the WHO and the US Pharmacopeia (USP).

Acceptable Quality Grades

Ethanol used for the production of hand sanitizers should conform to one of the identity and purity criteria published in any of the following quality standards, with any noted deviations provided in this interim guidance. For details on these quality standards, please refer to the weblinks provided below. Please note that some of these references may be accessed for free, while others require payment for full access:

The USP monograph specifies that ethanol must be 94.9% to 96.0% pure by volume, and provides the following concentration limits for impurities commonly found in ethanol:

  • Methanol: No more than 200 µL/L
  • Acetaldehyde and acetal: No more than 10 µL/L, expressed as acetaldehyde
  • Benzene: No more than 2 µL/L
  • Sum of all other impurities: No more than 300 µL/L

Recommended Formulation

All formulations must meet the safety and efficacy requirements established in Health Canada’s Antiseptic Skin Cleansers (Personal Domestic Use) monograph.

Health Canada recommends the manufacturing of ethanol‑based hand sanitizer as per the WHO formulation. Specifically, the WHO-recommended handrub formulations (2010) provides a recipe for the preparation of a hand sanitizer with a final concentration of 80% v/v ethanol. While Health Canada’s monograph stipulates a range of 60%-80 v/v ethanol, an 80% v/v concentration is recommended for increased efficacy.

Formulation For A 10-Litre Preparation 

Other Acceptable Formulations Include: 


Records must be maintained on how the hand sanitizer is prepared, including details on how the final ethanol dilution in the finished product was derived. The amount of ethanol needed in the formulation should be calculated using the following equation (as set out in the USP guidance):

How To Calculate The Amount Of Ethanol In A Hand Sanitizer Formulation

Non-Medicinal Ingredients (NMIs)

All NMIs added to a hand sanitizer product must be listed in Health Canada’s Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID), indicated with an acceptable purpose and comply with all listed restrictions (as per the NHPID). Additional information is outlined below on quality requirements for specific NMIs used in ethanol-based hand sanitizers, based on the WHO guidance:

NMI  Quality Requirements
Hydrogen Peroxide The low concentration of Hydrogen peroxide in the finished product (0.125%) is intended to help eliminate contaminating spores in the bulk solutions and recipients and is not an active substance for hand antisepsis.
Glycerol and other humectants or emollients

Glycerol (also known as glycerine or 1,2,3-Propanetriol) is added as a humectant at a final concentration of 1.45%, to increase the acceptability of the product and not to enhance viscosity.

Other humectants or emollients at a similar concentration may be used for skin care, provided that they are affordable, available locally, miscible (mixable) in water and alcohol, non-toxic, and not likely to cause an allergic reaction. Glycerol has been chosen because it is safe and relatively inexpensive. Lowering the percentage of glycerol may be considered to further reduce the stickiness of the handrub.

Use of proper
While sterile distilled water is preferred, boiled and cooled tap water may also be used as long as it is free of visible particles.
Addition of other additives It is strongly recommended that no ingredients other than those specified in this document be added to the formulations. All NMIs  (including denaturants) must be listed in the Product Licence application. If additions or substitutions of an NMI are made after the product licence is issued, documentation must be maintained on the safety of the additive and its compatibility with the other ingredients. These documents must be available upon request by Health Canada. Any substitutions should come from approved ingredients in the NHPID. If the NMI that you intend to use is not found in NHPID, you can complete a Natural Health Products Ingredients Database Issue Form and submit to this email to add the ingredient. The full list of ingredients must be provided on the product label.
Denaturants The use of denaturants is recommended to avoid the unintentional ingestion of hand sanitizers (particularly by children), but is not required under this interim approach. The NHPID includes a listing of acceptable denaturants that should be used if applicable in your formulation. Once this interim approach ceases to be in effect, to continue with the manufacture of hand sanitizer products, companies will be required to confirm with Health Canada that denaturants will be used from that point on.
Gelling agents No data are available to assess the suitability of adding gelling agents to WHO-recommended liquid formulations; any additives selected for this purpose must be listed in Health Canada’s NHPID and comply with listed restrictions. The addition of a gelling agent must be included in the list of ingredients on the product label.
Fragrances Adding fragrances, while not prohibited, is not recommended because of the risk of potential allergic reactions. As with other ingredients, a fragrance would be considered an NMI and must be included in the Product Licence application and be listed on the product label.


Formula Substitutions

Ingredients adhering to USP (or other acceptable standards, as listed above) should be used as the source of ingredients. However, given that there may currently be shortages of ingredients used to manufacture formulations of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, the following substitutions are acceptable:

  • When components meeting compendial quality standards are not obtainable, components of similar quality – such as those that are chemically pure, analytical reagent grade, or American Chemical Society-certified – may be used.
  • No ingredients should be added to enhance viscosity as they may decrease the effectiveness of the final preparation.

Disinfectant product ingredients, whether registered with the US Environmental Protection Agency or Health Canada, are not suitable as components for manufacturing hand sanitizers as they may not be safe for use on skin (i.e., may cause burns).

Use Of Non-USP Grade Alcohol

As per the Natural Health Products Regulations (NHPR), a Product Licence will not be issued if a product is likely to result in injury to the health of the consumer. Non-USP grade ethanol should be of a level of quality that is fit for human use in the finished hand sanitizer formulation.

For any products containing ethanol with specifications that deviate from the recommended standards, such as higher than permitted level of impurities in the above referenced standards, a risk assessment must be conducted and submitted to Health Canada for review. Each risk assessment will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if the ethanol is safe for use in hand sanitizer production. In the risk assessment, particular attention should be given to identify and quantify impurities, which are expected to be present (or likely to be present) as a result of manufacturing processes, starting materials, etc. An example of some impurities that would be expected in a non-USP or food grade ethanol product include acetaldehyde, benzene and methanol, though there may be others as well. Documentation including certificates of analysis (CoA) must be kept on record and made available at the request of Health Canada.

Excise Tax Implications

The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) administers the Excise Act, 2001 which governs the federal taxation of several commodities, including spirits, and regulates activities involving the manufacture, possession and distribution of these products. For example, persons who produce and package spirits, persons who use non-duty-paid spirits in the manufacture of non-beverage spirit-based products such as cosmetics or hand sanitizers, and persons who operate warehouses to store non-duty-paid alcohol must possess an excise duty licence issued under the Excise Act, 2001.

Depending on the circumstances, a person may require a spirits licence, a user’s licence and/or a specially denatured alcohol registration in order to legally produce hand sanitizer using non-duty-paid alcohol in Canada. There are a number of ways hand sanitizer can be produced by licensees or registrants without incurring an excise duty liability, for example:

  • A user licensee can produce hand sanitizer in accordance with an approved formulation without the payment of excise duty on the final product.
  • There are also provisions that would allow a specially denatured alcohol registrant to possess and use certain grades of specially denatured alcohol to produce hand sanitizer without the payment of duty.
  • A spirits licensee is authorized under the Excise Act, 2001 to denature spirits according to specified criteria, which are not subject to excise duty.
  • Although it could be cost prohibitive, there is also the option to use duty-paid alcohol to produce hand sanitizer. 

The requirements under the Act will vary depending on the circumstances of each case and the proposed activities to be undertaken.

Obtaining A Licence, Registration And/Or Approved Formulation Under The Excise Act, 2001

A number of spirits licensees, licenced users and brewer licensees (excise licensees) have expressed an interest in using non-duty-paid alcohol to make hand sanitizer. These are existing excise licensees who are seeking to temporarily expand their operations in response to the shortage in supply as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In some cases, excise licensees are requesting specially denatured alcohol registrations to allow them to possess and use specially denatured alcohol for this purpose. In other cases, spirits or brewer licensees are requesting users’ licences and approved formulations. The CRA is also receiving enquiries from non-licensees who would like to apply for a specially denatured alcohol registration or user’s licence and approved formulation for the purpose of producing hand sanitizer. In response to the current circumstances, the CRA has implemented a streamlined process to expedite the review and approval of these applications.

Applications for users’ licences and specially denatured alcohol registrations should be submitted to your regional excise duty office using Form L63 Licence and Registration Application Excise Act, 2001. Applications for formulation approval should be submitted using Form Y15D - Request for Formula Approval. Note that a sample is not currently required for excise licensees applying for an approved formulation for the production of hand sanitizer. For questions or further information, please visit this website Excise Duties, Excise Taxes, Fuel Charge and Air Travellers Security Charge, which also includes the contact information for your regional excise duty office. These regional offices are your best source for information on excise taxes.

End Of Interim Approach

This interim approach is in effect immediately, and will be in effect until March 31, 2021 or until a notice is issued by Health Canada to licence holders (whichever is earliest). When the approach expires, production must cease, although existing product stock can be exhausted.

Contact Health Canada

If you have questions in relation to this Guide or the licensing of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, please contact Health Canada's Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate at

Information On Hand Sanitizer Ingredients From Wikipedia

Hand sanitizer is a liquid, gel, or foam generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. In most settings, hand washing with soap and water is generally preferred. Hand sanitizer is less effective at killing certain kinds of germs, such as norovirus and Clostridium difficile and unlike soap and water, it cannot remove harmful chemicals. People may incorrectly wiped off hand sanitizer before it has dried, and some are less effective because their alcohol concentrations are too low.

In most healthcare settings alcohol-based hand sanitizers are preferable to hand washing with soap and water. Reasons include it being better tolerated and more effective. Hand washing with soap and water; however, should be carried out if contamination can be seen, or following the use of the toilet. The general use of non-alcohol-based hand sanitizers has no recommendations.

Alcohol-based versions typically contain some combination of isopropyl alcohol, ethanol (ethyl alcohol), or n-propanol, with versions containing 60% to 95% alcohol the most effective. Care should be taken as they are flammable. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer works against a wide variety of microorganisms but not spores. Compounds such as glycerol may be added to prevent drying of the skin. Some versions contain fragrances; however, these are discouraged due to the risk of allergic reactions. Non-alcohol based versions typically contain benzalkonium chloride or triclosan; but are less effective than alcohol-based ones. 

Alcohol has been used as an antiseptic at least as early as 1363 with evidence to support its use becoming available in the late 1800s. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer has been commonly used in Europe since at least the 1980s. The alcohol-based version is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$1.40–3.70 per liter bottle.


General Public 

The Clean Hands campaign by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) instructs the public in hand washing. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is recommended only if soap and water are not available.

When using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer:

  • Apply product to the palm of one hand.
  • Rub hands together.
  • Rub the product over all surfaces of hands and fingers until hands are dry.
  • Do not go near flame or gas burner or any burning object during applying hand sanitizer.
  • The current evidence for the effectiveness of school hand hygiene interventions is of poor quality.

Alcohol-based hand sanitizers may not be effective if the hands are greasy or visibly soiled. In hospitals, the hands of healthcare workers are often contaminated with pathogens, but rarely soiled or greasy. In community settings, on the other hand, grease and soiling is common from activities such as handling food, playing sports, gardening, and being active outdoors. Similarly, contaminants like heavy metals and pesticides (generally found outdoors) cannot be removed by hand sanitizers. Hand sanitizers may also be swallowed by children, especially if brightly-coloured.

Some commercially-available hand sanitizers (and online recipes for homemade rubs) have alcohol concentrations that are too low. This makes them less effective at killing germs. Poorer people in developed countries and people in developing countries may find it harder to get a hand sanitizer with an effective alcohol concentration. Fraudulent labelling of alcohol concentrations has been a problem in Guyana.

Health Care 

Hand sanitizers were first introduced in 1966 in medical settings such as hospitals and healthcare facilities. The product was popularized in the early 1990s.

Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is more convenient compared to hand washing with soap and water in most situations in the healthcare setting. Among healthcare workers, it is generally more effective for hand antisepsis, and better tolerated than soap and water. Hand washing should still be carried out if contamination can be seen or following the use of the toilet.

Hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol or contains a "persistent antiseptic" should be used. Alcohol rubs kill many different kinds of bacteria, including antibiotic resistant bacteria and TB bacteria. They also kill many kinds of viruses, including the flu virus, the common cold virus, coronaviruses, and HIV.

90% alcohol rubs are more effective against viruses than most other forms of hand washing. Isopropyl alcohol will kill 99.99 % or more of all non-spore forming bacteria in less than 30 seconds, both in the laboratory and on human skin.

The alcohol in hand sanitizers may not have the 10–15 seconds exposure time required to denature proteins and lyse cells in too low quantities (0.3 ml) or concentrations (below 60%). In environments with high lipids or protein waste (such as food processing), the use of alcohol hand rubs alone may not be sufficient to ensure proper hand hygiene.

For health care settings like hospitals and clinics, optimum alcohol concentration to kill bacteria is 70% to 95%. Products with alcohol concentrations as low as 40% are available in American stores, according to researchers at East Tennessee State University.

Alcohol rub sanitizers kill most bacteria, and fungi, and stop some viruses. Alcohol rub sanitizers containing at least 70% alcohol (mainly ethyl alcohol) kill 99.9% of the bacteria on hands 30 seconds after application and 99.99% to 99.999% in one minute.

For health care, optimal disinfection requires attention to all exposed surfaces such as around the fingernails, between the fingers, on the back of the thumb, and around the wrist. Hand alcohol should be thoroughly rubbed into the hands and on the lower forearm for a duration of at least 30 seconds and then allowed to air dry.

Use of alcohol-based hand gels dries skin less, leaving more moisture in the epidermis, than hand washing with antiseptic/antimicrobial soap and water.


There are certain situations during which hand washing with soap and water are preferred over hand sanitizer, these include: eliminating bacterial spores of Clostridioides difficile, parasites such as Cryptosporidium, and certain viruses like norovirus depending on the concentration of alcohol in the sanitizer (95% alcohol was seen to be most effective in eliminating most viruses). In addition, if hands are contaminated with fluids or other visible contaminates, hand washing is preferred as well as after using the toilet and if discomfort develops from the residue of alcohol sanitizer use. Furthermore, CDC states hand sanitizers are not effective in removing chemicals such as pesticides.


Alcohol gel can catch fire, producing a translucent blue flame. This is due to the flammable alcohol in the gel. Some hand sanitizer gels may not produce this effect due to a high concentration of water or moisturizing agents. There have been some rare instances where alcohol has been implicated in starting fires in the operating room, including a case where alcohol used as an antiseptic pooled under the surgical drapes in an operating room and caused a fire when a cautery instrument was used. Alcohol gel was not implicated.

To minimize the risk of fire, alcohol rub users are instructed to rub their hands until dry, which indicates that the flammable alcohol has evaporated. Igniting alcohol hand rub while using it is rare, but the need for this is underlined by one case of a health care worker using hand rub, removing a polyester isolation gown, and then touching a metal door while her hands were still wet; static electricity produced an audible spark and ignited the hand gel. Fire departments suggest refills for the alcohol-based hand sanitizers can be stored with cleaning supplies away from heat sources or open flames.

Research shows that alcohol hand sanitizers do not pose any risk by eliminating beneficial microorganisms that are naturally present on the skin. The body quickly replenishes the beneficial microbes on the hands, often moving them in from just up the arms where there are fewer harmful microorganisms.

However, alcohol may strip the skin of the outer layer of oil, which may have negative effects on barrier function of the skin. A study also shows that disinfecting hands with an antimicrobial detergent results in a greater barrier disruption of skin compared to alcohol solutions, suggesting an increased loss of skin lipids.

In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) controls antimicrobial handsoaps and sanitizers as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) because they are intended for topical anti-microbial use to prevent disease in humans.

The FDA requires strict labeling which informs consumers on proper use of this OTC drug and dangers to avoid, including warning adults not to ingest, not to use in the eyes, to keep out of the reach of children, and to allow use by children only under adult supervision. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, there were nearly 12,000 cases of hand sanitizer ingestion in 2006. If ingested, alcohol-based hand sanitizers can cause alcohol poisoning in small children. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommends using hand sanitizer with children to promote good hygiene, under supervision, and furthermore recommends parents pack hand sanitizer for their children when traveling, to avoid their contracting disease from dirty hands.

There have been reported incidents of people drinking the gel in prisons and hospitals, where alcohol consumption is not allowed, to become intoxicated leading to its withdrawal from some establishments.


On April 30, 2015, the FDA announced that they were requesting more scientific data based on the safety of hand sanitizer. Emerging science suggests that for at least some health care antiseptic active ingredients, systemic exposure (full body exposure as shown by detection of antiseptic ingredients in the blood or urine) is higher than previously thought, and existing data raise potential concerns about the effects of repeated daily human exposure to some antiseptic active ingredients. This would include hand antiseptic products containing alcohol and triclosan.

Surgical Hand Disinfection

Hands must be disinfected before any surgical procedure by hand washing with mild soap and then hand-rubbing with a sanitizer. Surgical disinfection requires a larger dose of the hand-rub and a longer rubbing time than is ordinarily used. It is usually done in two applications according to specific hand-rubbing techniques, EN1499 (hygienic handwash), and EN 1500 (hygienic hand disinfection) to ensure that antiseptic is applied everywhere on the surface of the hand.


Some hand sanitizer products use agents other than alcohol to kill microorganisms, such as povidone-iodine, benzalkonium chloride or triclosan. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the CDC recommends "persistent" antiseptics for hand sanitizers. Persistent activity is defined as the prolonged or extended antimicrobial activity that prevents or inhibits the proliferation or survival of microorganisms after application of the product. This activity may be demonstrated by sampling a site several minutes or hours after application and demonstrating bacterial antimicrobial effectiveness when compared with a baseline level. This property also has been referred to as "residual activity." Both substantive and nonsubstantive active ingredients can show a persistent effect if they substantially lower the number of bacteria during the wash period.

Laboratory studies have shown lingering benzalkonium chloride may be associated with antibiotic resistance in MRSA. Tolerance to alcohol sanitizers may develop in fecal bacteria. Where alcohol sanitizers utilize 62%, or higher, alcohol by weight, only 0.1 to 0.13% of benzalkonium chloride by weight provides equivalent antimicrobial effectiveness.

Triclosan has been shown to accumulate in biosolids in the environment, one of the top seven organic contaminants in waste water according to the National Toxicology Program Triclosan leads to various problems with natural biological systems, and triclosan, when combined with chlorine e.g. from tap water, produces dioxins, a probable carcinogen in humans. However, 90–98% of triclosan in waste water biodegrades by both photolytic or natural biological processes or is removed due to sorption in waste water treatment plants. Numerous studies show that only very small traces are detectable in the effluent water that reaches rivers.

A series of studies show that photodegradation of triclosan produced 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD). The 2,4-dichlorophenol itself is known to be biodegradable as well as photodegradable. For DCDD, one of the non-toxic compounds of the dioxin family, a conversion rate of 1% has been reported and estimated half-lives suggest that it is photolabile as well. The formation-decay kinetics of DCDD are also reported by Sanchez-Prado et al. (2006) who claim "transformation of triclosan to toxic dioxins has never been shown and is highly unlikely."

Alcohol-free hand sanitizers may be effective immediately while on the skin, but the solutions themselves can become contaminated because alcohol is an in-solution preservative and without it, the alcohol-free solution itself is susceptible to contamination. However, even alcohol-containing hand sanitizers can become contaminated if the alcohol content is not properly controlled or the sanitizer is grossly contaminated with microorganisms during manufacture. In June 2009, alcohol-free Clarcon Antimicrobial Hand Sanitizer was pulled from the US market by the FDA, which found the product contained gross contamination of extremely high levels of various bacteria, including those which can "cause opportunistic infections of the skin and underlying tissues and could result in medical or surgical attention as well as permanent damage". Gross contamination of any hand sanitizer by bacteria during manufacture will result in the failure of the effectiveness of that sanitizer and possible infection of the treatment site with the contaminating organisms.


Alcohol-based hand rubs are extensively used in the hospital environment as an alternative to antiseptic soaps. Hand-rubs in the hospital environment have two applications: hygienic hand rubbing and surgical hand disinfection. Alcohol based hand rubs provide a better skin tolerance as compared to antiseptic soap. Hand rubs also prove to have more effective microbiological properties as compared to antiseptic soaps.

The same ingredients used in over-the-counter hand-rubs are also used in hospital hand-rubs: alcohols such ethanol and isopropanol, sometimes combined with quaternary ammonium cations (quats) such as benzalkonium chloride. Quats are added at levels up to 200 parts per million to increase antimicrobial effectiveness. Although allergy to alcohol-only rubs is rare, fragrances, preservatives and quats can cause contact allergies. These other ingredients do not evaporate like alcohol and accumulate leaving a "sticky" residue until they are removed with soap and water.

The most common brands of alcohol hand rubs include Aniosgel, Avant, Sterillium, Desderman and Allsept S. All hospital hand rubs must conform to certain regulations like EN 12054 for hygienic treatment and surgical disinfection by hand-rubbing. Products with a claim of "99.99% reduction" or 4-log reduction are ineffective in hospital environment, since the reduction must be more than "99.99%".

The hand sanitizer dosing systems for hospitals are designed to deliver a measured amount of the product for staff. They are dosing pumps screwed onto a bottle or are specially designed dispensers with refill bottles. Dispensers for surgical hand disinfection are usually equipped with elbow controlled mechanism or infrared sensors to avoid any contact with the pump.


In 2010 the World Health Organization produced a guide for manufacturing hand sanitizer, which received renewed interest because of shortages of hand sanitizer in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Dozens of liquor and perfume manufactures switched their manufacturing facilities from their normal product to hand sanitizer. In order to keep up with the demand, local distilleries started using their alcohol to make hand sanitizer. Distilleries producing hand sanitizer originally existed in a legal grey area in the United States, until the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau declared that distilleries could produce their sanitizer without authorization.

There are cautions against making your own hand sanitizer. Some widely-circulated home recipes are ineffective or even poisonous.


World Health OrganizationThe has published a guide to producing large quantities of hand sanitizer from chemicals available in developing countries, where commercial hand sanitizer may not be available:

FORMULATION 1  10-L prep. Active ingredient (v/v) FORMULATION 2 10-L prep. Active ingredient (v/v)
Distilled water added to 10000 mL 18.425% Distilled water added to 10000 mL 23.425%
Ethanol 96% 8333 mL 80% Isopropyl alcohol 99.8% 7515 mL 75%
Glycerol 98% 145 mL 1.45% Glycerol 98% 145 mL 1.45%
Hydrogen peroxide 3% 417 mL 0.125% Hydrogen peroxide 3% 417 mL 0.125%


The WHO formulation are less viscous than commercial sanitizer gel, so like alcohol, they are a greater fire hazard.

Consumer alcohol-based hand sanitizers, and health care "hand alcohol" or "alcohol hand antiseptic agents" exist in liquid, foam, and easy-flowing gel formulations. Products with 60% to 95% alcohol by volume are effective antiseptics. Lower or higher concentrations are less effective; most products contain between 60% and 80% alcohol.

In addition to alcohol (ethanol, isopropanol or n-Propanol), hand sanitizers also contain the following:

Hydrogen peroxide may be added to inactivate spores within bottle of hand sanitizer but does not play a role when the hand sanitizer is used.

Buy Coronavirus (COVID-19) Disinfectant Cleaners That Meet EPA Standards To Protect Yourself, Your Family, Your Employees And Customers

This website provides key EPA resources on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). 70% antibacterial and antifungal denatured alcohol and ethanol sold online at are great virucidal disinfectants and hand sanitizers against non-enveloped viruses as well as single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses such as coronaviruses (CoVs). Coronavirus is enveloped which means that it has a coating on the outside

Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol are used throughout the world for disinfecting environmental surfaces in health care communities and for hand disinfection and hand rubbing. It has been noted that ethanol has a stronger and broader virucidal activity than propanols such as isopropanol.

Coronaviruses are host-specific and can infect humans as well as animals, cats and dogs causing a variety of clinical syndromes. Dogs can contract coronaviruses, most commonly the canine respiratory coronavirus. This specific novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is not a health threat to dogs, but dogs can test positive for the virus.

Coronaviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses with a genome of approximately 30 kb, the largest genome among RNA viruses. These viruses were named coronaviruses because by electron microscopy they have club-shaped surface projections that give them a crownlike appearance. Coronaviruses derive their name from the fact that under electron microscopic examination, each virion is surrounded by a “corona,” or halo.

Non-enveloped viruses do not have a lipid-bilayer membrane. Non-enveloped viruses reproduce by breaching the membrane of a target host cell to get access to cytoplasm of the cell. A virus encased within a lipid bilayer is called an enveloped virus and a virus that does not have a bilayer is classified as a non-enveloped virus.

Buy Coronavirus Disinfectants Online At For Infection Control In U.S. Households And Community Facilities

Due to the coronavirus outbreak, U.S. businesses and consumers order EPA recommended disinfectants and sanitizers in bulk at for cleaning and disinfecting for the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and to kill germs on surfaces in households and community facilities.

The 70% ethyl alcohol sold by is a better virucide than the 70% isopropyl alcohol and is quickly antimicrobial against viruses, bacteria and fungi on hard surfaces. 

Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol ) and ethyl alcohol in aqueous solutions between 60% and 90% alcohol with 10% to 40% purified water, kill bacteria and viruses by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipid membranes. When a bacterial cell is exposed to a solution of ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, the amphiphile alcohol molecules bond with the molecules of the bacteria's cell membrane, making it more soluble in water. This reaction causes the cell membrane to lose its structural integrity and then fall apart.

Buy Ethyl Alcohol And Isopropyl Alcohol At To Kill Coronaviruses And Be Sure To Also Use Soap And Water

Ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and soap all kill the coronavirus. Soap contains fat-like substances known as amphiphiles, which are structurally very similar to lipids in virus membranes. Soap loosens the bond between viruses and skin which helps decrease the spread of viruses. Soap also loosens the Velcro-like interactions that hold the proteins, lipids and RNA in the virus together. Alcohol-based disinfectant products sold at that contain a high-percentage alcohol solution (normally 70% ethanol and 70% isopropyl alcohol) kill viruses in the same way. Additionally, the mechanical action of hand washing with soap loosens viruses and bacteria from the skin.

The CDC recommends using an alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) with greater than 60% ethanol or 70% isopropyl alcohol in healthcare environments. Unless hands are visibly soiled, an ABHR is recommended over soap and water in clinical situations because of evidence of better compliance compared to soap and water. Hand rubs are normally less irritating to hands and are effective in the absence of a sink.  Hands should be washed with soap and water for at least 20 seconds when visibly soiled, before eating, and after using the restroom. Learn more about hand hygiene in healthcare facilities here.

Buy Alcohol-Based Disinfectants At To Compound Hand Sanitizers And To Keep Viruses From Replicating

Alcohol-based hand sanitizer compounders protect children by using denatured ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. The FDA provides guidance on the production of alcohol-based hand sanitizer to help boost supply and protect public health during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. Viruses intricately interact with and modulate cellular membranes at several stages of their replication, but much less is known about the role of viral lipids compared to proteins and nucleic acids.

All animal viruses have to cross membranes for cell entry and exit, which occurs by membrane fusion (in enveloped viruses), by transient local disruption of membrane integrity, or by cell lysis. The CDC and the FDA are helping to keep children safe by recommending that compounders use denatured alcohol and isopropyl alcohol to formulate and manufacture hand sanitizers and coronavirus disinfectants. 

Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites that are simple in structure and composition, but engage in multiple and complex interactions with their host. Virus replication occurs exclusively inside the respective host cell. Accordingly, viruses have to cross the host cell boundary at least twice during their replication cycle, for entry and exit. Because these viral membranes are derived from the host, they may contain a complement of membrane-bound host cell proteins.

Because denatured alcohol (ethanol/ethyl alcohol) tastes awful and it smells bad, this hand sanitizer ingredient discourages young children from eating coronavirus disinfectants. Denaturants in alcohol make it unfit for human consumption.

Buy 70% Denatured Alcohol And 70% Isopropyl Alcohol To Combat Coronavirus

Both 70% denatured ethanol (140 proof) and 70% isopropyl alcohol are excellent disinfectants for surface-cleaning uses. 70% isopropyl alcohol is frequently used as an antiseptic in hospitals. Because of an increased demand for alcohol-based hand sanitizers during the COVID-19 pandemic, many U.S. healthcare facilities are augmenting their cleaning supplies by ordering ethyl alcohol (70%) and 70% isopropyl alcohol at In April of 2020, tons of 70% alcohol were ordered online at for large-scale disinfection efforts against coronavirus and for household cleaningsanitation and sterilization purposes in the U.S.

Buy antimicrobial disinfectants such as ethanol 70%, sodium hypochlorite and isopropanol to control Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in homes and healthcare settings. Buy ingredients for safe recipes for DIY homemade hand sanitizers hereBuy coronavirus disinfectants here. Buy hospital grade disinfectants online here

    Buy The Best Virus Disinfectants, Antimicrobial Sprays, Antibacterial Wipes And Household Cleaning Supplies Online

    Important Virus And Infection Protection Information For The Public

    Does Hydrogen Peroxide Kill Coronavirus?

    Yes, in all probability, SARS-CoV-2 can be efficiently inactivated with surface disinfection procedures that use hydrogen peroxide ordered at That being said, no hydrogen product exists in the U.S. market that has been tested to kill SARS-CoV-2 and approved by U.S. regulatory agencies such as the EPA or FDA.

    Vaporized hydrogen peroxide is an effective decontamination method for masks and N95 respirators that have been contaminated by SARS-CoV-2. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) to decontaminate compatible N95 or N95-equivalent respirators with vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilizers.

    3% hydrogen peroxide purchased online at is used as a spray sanitizer to kill rhinovirus on surfaces. Because scientists claim that coronaviruses are easier to kill than rhinovirus, hydrogen peroxide should kill SARS-CoV-2. Hydrogen peroxide should not be used to treat COVID-19, which is the disease caused by the novel coronavirus.

    Because the first confirmation of a case of 2019-nCoV (original name) was just confirmed on January 21, 2020, scientific studies and research to unequivocally validate that hydrogen peroxide will completely inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus are still ongoing. However, many products on the EPA List N Disinfectants For Use Against SARS-CoV-2 contain hydrogen peroxide. Duke University and Health System, will begin using hydrogen peroxide vapor to decontaminate and reuse N95 respirators.

    Hydrogen peroxide is active against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses, and spores. The CDC provides information on the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide solutions against viruses. The hydrogen peroxide solutions listed on the CDC website include 0.5% accelerated hydrogen peroxide, 3% concentration, 6% hydrogen peroxide, 10% hydrogen peroxide solution, 7% stabilized hydrogen peroxide and 13.4% hydrogen peroxide.

    Shop Online For The Best Rated Coronavirus Disinfectants And Virus Killers To Prevent The Spread Of Infectious Diseases At

    How To Make Antiviral Hand Sanitizers, Cleaning Products And Disinfectants

    Buy Antiviral Disinfectants, Antiviral Chemical Compounds, Antiviral Ingredients For Food And Medicine, Antiviral Drug Components, Antiviral Substances And Antiviral Cleaning Products Online Here Or By Phone: 512-668-9918

    If you have questions about ordering antiviral products online here at or would like to place an order, call 512-668-9918 or email to talk with an Antiviral Product Specialist. Use this 10% discount code to buy antiviral products online or by phone in the U.S: LAB10OFF.  

    Get information from Google to help your small business manage through the uncertainty caused by COVID-19 here. Buy bulk natural ingredients and antiviral raw materials for safe recipes for DIY homemade hand sanitizers here. Buy antiviral compounds for research and manufacturing. Get information about virus disinfectant efficacy testing here. Learn about disinfectant efficacy protocols and studies here. Learn about FDA disinfectant efficacy here.

    Find out how to kill viruses here. Viruses can be eliminated with soap, bleach, alcohol, food or UV light. Almost all cleaning products are in high demand in April 2020 because of allergies, the flu season and the coronavirus crisis. Buy the best EPA-approved disinfectants to kill the coronavirus here. 

    Clorox Disinfecting Wipes, Bleach Free Cleaning Wipes Fresh, Fresh Scent

    Clorox Disinfecting Wipes, Bleach Free Cleaning Wipes Fresh, Fresh Scent

    Advanced Fresh Scent formula. Removes tough soap scum. Eliminate 99.9% of household germs. DISINFECTING WIPES: Clean and disinfect with a powerful antibacterial wipe killing 99.9% of bacteria and viruses and remove common allergens around your home. ALL PURPOSE WIPE: The canister allows you to keep the cleaning wipes easily accessible where and when you need to clean up a mess. MULTI-SURFACE CLEANER: Germs and messes occur on more than kitchen counters and bathroom surfaces - conveniently tackle any tough surface including finished wood, sealed granite and stainless steel. DISPOSABLE WIPES: This 35 count canister of disposable, antibacterial wipes features a Fresh Scent (do not flush wipes). NO BLEACH: Disinfect and deodorize with the fresh smell of Clorox disinfecting wipes for a bleach-free, all-in-one cleaning alternative. Safely wipe down toys, remotes, or clean up car spills with these sanitizing wipes. Packaging May Vary. Clorox Disinfecting Wipes is an all-purpose wipe that cleans and disinfects with antibacterial power killing 99.9% of viruses and bacteria in a Fresh Scent. These disposable wipes remove common allergens, germs and messes on kitchen counters, bathroom surfaces and more. Each wipe can kill cold and flu viruses and bacteria including Human Coronavirus, Influenza A2 Virus, Staph, E. coli, MRSA, Salmonella, Strep and Kleb that can live on surfaces for up to 48 hours. Conveniently and safely tackle any tough surface including finished wood, sealed granite and stainless steel. Use on hard, nonporous, non-food-contact surfaces found in the home, office, classroom, pet area, dorm and locker room. Disinfect and deodorize with the fresh smell of Clorox clean in this bleach-free formula that you can keep anywhere dirt or germs may build up. Clean with the trusted power of Clorox Disinfecting Wipes.

    Clorox Disinfecting Bathroom Cleaner, Spray Bottle, 30 Ounces


    Clorox Disinfecting Bathroom Cleaner, Spray Bottle, 30 Ounces

    Clorox Disinfecting Bathroom Spray cleaner has been proven to cut through dirt, grime and soap scum faster than the leading bathroom cleaner. It also kills germs commonly found in the bathroom such as Salmonella choleraesuis (Salmonella), Staphylococcus aureus (Staph), Rhinovirus Type 37 and Influenza A virus (Hong Kong). This cleaner leaves behind no dull residue and is perfect for freshening and cleaning tubs, tile, toilets, sinks and counters. The Smart Tube technology insures you spray every stain fighting drop. Behind every sparkling clean bathroom, there is Clorox Disinfecting Bathroom Spray. BATHROOM CLEANER: Make your bathroom sparkle with Clorox Disinfecting Bathroom Cleaner in a spray bottle that cleans, disinfects and kills 99.9% of viruses and bacteria.

    Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Compounders Protect Children By Using Denatured Ethanol Or Isopropyl Alcohol

    The FDA provides guidance on the production of alcohol-based hand sanitizer to help boost supply and protect public health during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. The CDC and the FDA are helping to keep children safe by recommending that compounders use denatured alcohol and isopropyl alcohol to formulate and manufacture hand sanitizers and coronavirus disinfectants. Because denatured alcohol (ethanol/ethyl alcohol) tastes awful and it smells bad, this hand sanitizer ingredient discourages young children from eating coronavirus disinfectants. Denaturants in alcohol make it unfit for human consumption.

    To protect young children from accidental poisoning caused by unintentionally ingesting coronavirus disinfectants and hand sanitizers, the CDC and FDA are recommending that compounders and consumers use denatured alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, glycerin (glycerol) and sterile water to prepare alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumer use and for use as health care personnel hand rubs. Get updated core disinfection/cleaning guidance from the CDC here

    The USP Compounding Expert Committee (CMP EC) provides recommendations for compounding alcohol-based hand sanitizers for use during shortages associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Download the USP recommendations here (PDF).

    Coronavirus disinfectants ordered online at are used to clean the things that people touch the most such as phones, shopping carts, remote controls, tables, toilets, toothbrush holders, faucets, doorknobs, computer keyboards, light switches, desks, sinks and door handles.

    Consumers and alcohol-based hand sanitizer manufacturers can order approved denatured alcohol (isopropyl alcohol and denatured ethyl alcohol), hydrogen peroxide, USP and FCC grade glycerin (glycerol)antiviral disinfectants, hospital grade disinfectants, raw materials for hand sanitizer ingredients and sterile water online at to make products to fight COVID-19.

    Distilleries, compounders, sanitizer manufacturers, botanical makers and American households purchase disinfectants and other cleaning supplies online at to kill common viruses, mold, mildew, fungi, bacteria, pathogens and the novel coronavirus on contaminated surfaces. Online orders of ingredients used to make coronavirus disinfectants, aerosol disinfectants and multipurpose cleaners surged in March of 2020.

    To learn more about U.S. regulations concerning the use of denatured alcohol, please refer to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations here. For guidance from the FDA for using denatured alcohol to make commercial hand sanitizers, please refer to this PDF titled, "Policy for Temporary Compounding of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Products During the Public Health Emergency Immediately in Effect Guidance for Industry".

    A+ Virus Killers | Soap, Bleach, Alcohol, Lysol, Peroxide

    Almost all cleaning products are in high demand in April 2020 because of allergies, the flu season and the coronavirus crisis. Buy the best EPA-approved disinfectants to kill the coronavirus here. Learn how to kill viruses in your body and home. Get information on the best methods for killing viruses here. There is scientific research that indicates that the following items can mitigate and inactivate viruses: soap, Clorox Disinfecting Bleach, EPA-registered disinfectants, Lysol Clean & Fresh Multi-Surface Cleaner, hydrogen peroxide, Clorox Toilet Bowl Cleaner with Bleach, Microban, 70% alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, Clorox Pet Solutions Stain & Odor Remover, household cleaners, herbs, antiviral drugs, food, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, UV light, copper, essential oils, detergents, chlorine and vaccines.

    U.S. medical supply firms and online retailers of antiviral hospital grade sanitizers and coronavirus disinfectants such as, have been challenged by U.S. tariffs on imports of hand sanitizers and chemical disinfectants such as glutaraldehyde, used to fight the COVID-19 pandemic

    List N: Products With Emerging Viral Pathogens And Human Coronavirus Claims For Use Against SARS-CoV-2


      Antimicrobial Products That Are Effective Against Norovirus (Norwalk-Like Virus)
      April 8, 2020

      For pesticide registration information, review this list from the EPA, "List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against Norovirus (Norwalk-Like Virus)". 

      Notes About This List

      • All EPA-registered pesticides must have an EPA registration number, which consists of a company number and a product number (e.g., 123-45). Alternative brand names have the same EPA registration number as the primary product.
      • When purchasing a product for use against a specific pathogen, check the EPA Reg. No. versus the products included on this list.
      • In addition to primary products, distributors may also sell products with formulations and efficacy identical to the primary products. Distributor products frequently use different brand names, but you can identify them by their three-part EPA registration number (e.g., 123-45-678, which represents a distributor product identical to the product example listed above, EPA Reg. No. 123-45).
      • If you would like to review the product label information for any of these products, please visit the EPA product label system.
      • Information about listed products is current as of the date on this list.
      • Inclusion on this list does not constitute an endorsement by EPA.

      View more information about EPA lists of registered antimicrobial products here. You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. 

      • Download List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against Norovirus (PDF)(6 pp, 130 K, March 4, 2020)
      • Contact the EPA about pesticide labels, to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. 

      About The EPA Pesticide Product and Label System

      The Pesticide Product and Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been accepted by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on April 08, 2020.

      • Search EPA Registration, Distributor Product, or Special Local Need Number Here
      • The EPA Registration Number (EPA Reg. No.) appears on all registered pesticides sold in the United States. It is usually found on the back panel of the label along with the detailed instructions for use.
      • Enter the company number (the first set of digits before the dash) to see all products marketed by that company or the entire number (including the dash) to view the label for a particular product.
      • To search by Special Local Need Number, please enter two-letter state abbreviations with or without 6 digit number (i.e. OH123456).
      • Search Buy Product or Alternative Brand Name: Enter the name of the product. As you type, options will be presented to you. Keep in mind that product names may vary, so if you don’t find the product you are looking for, try the EPA Registration Number Search.
      • Search By Company Name: Enter the name of the company. Some companies may have several divisions that manufacture and market pesticides products. You can select among these divisions using the drop-down list or choose the root of the company name (e.g., "Bayer" or "3M") to see products associated with all of the divisions.
      • Search By Company Number: Enter the company number. Please use digit without dash.
      • Search By Chemical Name (Active Ingredient): Enter the name of the chemical (Active Ingredients only) you are interested in. Because there are many naming conventions for chemicals, you can enter the common chemical name of the chemical or other variants, including scientific names or partial names. This search function will help guide you to products that contain that active ingredient.
      • Search By CAS Number Or PC Code: Enter the CAS Number or PC Code you are interested in. You may use the % wild card before and/or after your entry to enter a partial value.

      About Pesticide Labels

      Regulation Of Pesticide Labels

      Information On Pesticide Product Label Topics

      Get Help With Pesticide Label Issues


      Types of Disinfectants With Examples | Microbiology with Sumi 

      The "Microbiology With Suma" YouTube channel cover various topics related to several branches of microbiology including virology


      EPA Announced New Surface Disinfectant Products Added to List N in Effort to Combat COVID-19
      The National Law Review | Saturday, April 4, 2020

      On April 2, 2020, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the addition of new surface disinfectants on EPA’s List N: Disinfectants for Use Against SARS-CoV-2 (List N) that may be used to combat SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. List N now contains 357 products. The webpage for List N also now has enhanced functionality to allow users to sort these products by surface type and use site. EPA states that it continues to expedite the review process for new disinfectants.

      Previously, all products on List N had to have either an EPA emerging viral pathogen claim or have demonstrated efficacy against another human coronavirus. EPA now has expanded List N to include products on EPA’s List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective against Norovirus and List L: Products Effective against the Ebola Virus, as these products also meet EPA’s criteria for use against SARS-CoV-2.

      EPA has updated List N to include the types of surfaces on which products can be used (e.g., hard or soft) and use sites (e.g., hospital, institutional or residential). Products applied via fogging or misting are now noted in the formulation column. This additional information allows the public to choose products that are appropriate for their specific circumstances.

      Additionally, EPA has updated the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) EPA has posted about disinfectants related to coronavirus. The FAQ update provides new information on pesticide safety, enforcement, and pesticide devices. It also includes enhanced explanations of why List N products are qualified for use against SARS-CoV-2 and how these products can be used most effectively.

      EPA states that it has continued to adapt its processes to ensure the supply of disinfectants keeps pace with demand. EPA recently announced additional flexibility that allows manufacturers of already-registered EPA disinfectants to obtain certain active and inert ingredients from any source of suppliers without prior approval by EPA. EPA also added 48 additional chemicals to its list of commodity inert ingredients. EPA states that this regulatory flexibility aims to help ease the production and availability of EPA-registered disinfectants.

      EPA also is expediting all requests for company numbers and establishment numbers to enable new pesticide-producing establishments to come online as quickly as possible. 

      Additional information on EPA’s efforts to address the novel coronavirus is available here.

      Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations

      This Guide to Local Production of WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations is separated into two discrete but interrelated sections. Part A provides a practical guide for use at the pharmacy bench during the actual preparation of the formulation. Users may want to display the material on the wall of the production unit. Part B summarizes some essential background technical information and is taken from WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care (2009). Within Part B the user has access to important safety and cost information and supplementary material relating to dispensers and distribution. Read more here.

      Protection For U.S. Consumers From Fraudulent Coronavirus Disinfectant Claims
      Posted on April 4, 2020 

      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Andrew Wheeler hosted an interactive telephone call with U.S. retailers and third-party marketplace platforms to discuss imposter disinfectant products and those that falsely claim to be effective against the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19. The E.P.A. has threatened legal proceedings against vendors of bogus coronavirus (COVID-19) cleaners, disinfectants and sanitizers. While such products might not be harmful, they offer the public a dangerously false sense of protection that could deter social distancing and promote the spread of COVID-19. The federal government is asking online retailers to take unregistered products that falsely claim protection from coronavirus off the market. The EPA has continued to add new surface disinfectant products to List N in an effort to combat COVID-19. Any brand that claims to kill or repel bacteria or viruses should be tested and registered by the E.P.A. and with the federal government. 

      Coronavirus In NY: Amazon Pilots Disinfectant Fog At Staten Island Warehouse

      April 7, 2020 | New York Post Inc told Reuters it is piloting the use of disinfectant fog starting on Tuesday at a warehouse on Staten Island, New York, within days of protests at the worksite over health concerns during the coronavirus pandemic. The world’s largest online retailer said it is testing the practice commonly used by airlines and hospitals to clean facilities further, on top of introducing temperature checks and masks for staff. Last week, 15 workers at the New York warehouse known internally as JFK8 protested to demand the building’s closure following a case of the coronavirus that was reported among staff. An additional demonstration took place Monday. Read more here.

      How To Make (And Use) A Disinfectant Against Coronavirus
      New York Times | April 7, 2020

      Here's a guide to working with sprays, wipes and a bleach-based solution to clean surfaces of the pathogen. 

      The coronavirus that causes Covid-19 may survive for several days on some surfaces. Estimates of its life span vary, but the virus can clearly hang around long enough to make disinfecting frequently touched surfaces a priority. Normally, disinfectants, like Lysol and Clorox wipes, are available and would do the trick in cleaning most surfaces of contagions, but many of these items have been widely out of stock across the United States. If you cannot find any of these products, you can make an effective homemade disinfectant from a mixture of water and bleach. Read more here.

      16 Safer Disinfectants To Use Against Coronavirus
      April 7, 2020

      Both the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Chemistry Council have lists (here and here) of products that do one of two things. Each product either complies with the EPA’s emerging viral pathogen guidance, with demonstrated efficacy against viruses harder to kill than SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), or have demonstrated efficacy against another human coronavirus similar to SARS-CoV-2. Read more here.

      U.S. Distilleries Buy Ethanol, Glycerin And Hydrogen Peroxide At To Make Hand Sanitizers And Handrub Formulations
      March 23, 2020

      Sales of hand sanitizers in the U.S. are way up. These products are becoming scarce in the face of the growing COVID-19 outbreak. Download the World Health Organization's recipe for recommended handrub formulations here

      Distilleries in the U.S. purchase alcohol and ethanol at to produce a 160-proof clear spirit to use as a hand sanitizer. Get a complete list of distilleries (Including Anheuser-Busch) making hand sanitizers instead of spirits here.  Anheuser-Busch and distilleries are racing to make hand sanitizers amid the Coronavirus pandemic.

      American distilleries are assisting their communities by producing their own hand sanitizer using a recipe from the World Health Organization. The recipe "starts with ethanol, which is what we have plenty of in the distillery, then you add glycerin, hydrogen peroxide water and you mix it up," Scott Jendrek, owner of Patapsco Distilling Co. in Sykesville, Maryland, told a local NBC News affiliate.

      Buy Coronavirus Disinfectants For Professional Cleaning Staffs

      Cleaning professionals use coronavirus disinfection products ordered online at to clean and safely disinfect for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The ISSA (Worldwide Cleaning Industry Association) offers education, training, and business resources to help cleaning workers manage the COVID-19 outbreak. Learn how to get trained to clean and disinfect for coronavirus here.

      Antiviral Products For Sale Online

      Sales of hand sanitizers, disinfectants, chemical sanitizers and medical cleaners have skyrocketed in 2020. Ingredients for hand sanitizer recipes are selling at a brisk pace online at

      A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Several new antiviral compounds and potent and selective antiviral agents against herpes virus infections have been developed. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. 

      Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses can be pathogenic to higher plants. To transmit from one plant to another and from one plant cell to another, plant viruses must use strategies that are usually different from animal viruses. Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Researchers from the University of the Mediterranean in Marseille, France have found tenuous evidence that suggest a virus common to peppers, the Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) may have moved on to infect humans. Read more here.

      Learn about antiviral chemicals for plant disease control here. Learn about the existing gaps in plant virus disease control where there is a commercial need for chemotherapeutants here. Learn about the effects of animal antiviral chemicals on plant viruses, here.

      Viruses are very tiny germs made of genetic material inside of a protein coating. Viral infections play a key role in human diseases. Quercetin, morin, rutin, taxifolin, dihydrofisetin, leucocyanidin, pelargonidin chloride, apigenin, catechin, hesperidin, and naringin have been reported to possess antiviral activity against some of 11 types of viruses.

      Because lots of viruses lack efficient antiviral therapies and preventive vaccines, antiviral compounds sold at, such as Quinine Sulfate and Benzalkonium Chloride are used medicinally because of their antiviral effect

      Because viruses use vital metabolic pathways within host cells to replicate, they are difficult to eliminate without using drugs that cause toxic effects to host cells in general. The most effective medical approaches to viral diseases are vaccinations to provide immunity to infection, and antiviral drugs that selectively interfere with viral replication.

      Phenolic compounds are derived from the secondary plant metabolism, although they can also be obtained by synthetic processes. Many studies have shown a great range of pharmacological effects for these substances, including vasodilatation, antiallergenic, antiinflammatory and antiviral properties, among others.

      Antiviral drugs are used in the U.S. to treat viral infections rather than bacterial infections. Buy antiviral phenolic compounds at for disinfection, food and medicinal uses here.

      Hospitals in the United States by hospital grade disinfectants and antiviral cleaning chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, isopropyl alcohol, 100% alcohol, 95% alcohol and 70% alcohol at American consumers, businesses and healthcare facilities buy supplies and chemical ingredients to manufacture Coronavirus infection protection products here.

      U.S. firms buy chemical substances and antiviral substances online at to manufacture antiviral agents which inhibit production of viruses that cause disease. Food manufacturing facilities order hydrochloric acid and ascorbic acid to kill viruses. Acidic ozone water made with hydrochloric acid can deactivate H1N1 viruses very effectively. Agricultural and botanical businesses in the U.S. buy chemical supplies from to make medicinal oils and tinctures that kill viruses. Home-based cosmetic manufacturers order antiviral substances such as trichloroacetic acid to make skin care products and personal care products.

      A number of different organic acids sold online at produce residual antirhinoviral activity. Salicylic acid, fumaric acid, and benzoic acid produced at least a 2-log reduction in viral titersHydrogen peroxide sold online at is antiviral, antibacterial and anti-fungal. Hospitals frequently order this product for virus inactivation processes. H2O2 is a convenient means for virus inactivation.

      Does Lysol Kill The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)?

      The EPA has established a list of disinfectants (List N) that meet their criteria for use against SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19. The following Lysol products are those that meet either the EPA Viral Emerging Pathogen Policy or have human coronavirus claims. Listed below are Lysol products with their EPA registration numbers.



      Buy EPA Certified Lysol Disinfectant Sprays To Kill Viruses 

      Buy EPA Certified Lysol Disinfecting Wipes To Kill Viruses 

      Buy EPA Certified Lysol Multi-Purpose Cleaners To Kill Viruses

      Buy Lysol Bathroom Cleaners To Kill Viruses

      Lysol Laundry Sanitizer To Kill Bacteria

      Please Refer To The CDC Website For Additional Information

      DIY Hand Sanitizers, Face Masks And Disinfecting Sprays | DIY Alternatives for When Stores Are Out of Coronavirus-Fighting Products
      April 4, 2020

      DIY hand sanitizers were the index species in the current wave of shelf extinctions, with usually plentiful supplies of Purell gel and similar products vanishing fast. Even without sanitizers, epidemiologists stress there is an exceedingly reliable alternative that works just as well: wash your hands with soap and water. Read more here.

      Learn About The U.S. National Pandemic Strategy 

      These documents guide the United States’ preparedness and response in an influenza pandemic, with the intent of stopping, slowing or otherwise limiting the spread of a pandemic to the United States; limiting the domestic spread of a pandemic, mitigating disease, suffering and death; and sustaining infrastructure and mitigating impact to the economy and the functioning of society. 

      CleanSmart Disinfectant Spray Mist Kills 99.9% Of Viruses, Bacteria, Germs, Mold And Fungus

      CleanSmart Disinfectant Spray Mist leaves no chemical residue and is great to clean and sanitize CPAP masks and parts. Simply spray, no rinsing, no wiping, air dry. Safe for food contact on counters and all appliances. Free of alcohol, ammonia, bleach, fragrances and dyes. 100% safe to spray and store around children and it breaks down to saline after use. Read more here.

      Chemical Disinfection Of Virus‐Contaminated Surfaces

      Chemical disinfection is widely practiced as a means of controlling and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although disinfection of bacteria has been widely studied, much less attention has been paid to the virucidal potential of commonly used disinfectants in spite of the low infective dose of many human pathogenic viruses. This review considers what is known about the disinfection of viruses and the virucidal properties of different classes of disinfectant chemicals. It focuses on virus disinfection from a practical viewpoint and also critically evaluates the testing techniques currently used for examining the efficacy of disinfectant products. Read more here.

      Factors In The Selection Of Surface Disinfectants For Use In A Laboratory Animal Setting

      Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the ‘gold standard’ for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. Read more here.

      Antiviral Compounds And Bioactive Compounds

      COVID-19 is novel type of coronavirus that is affecting the entire planet. Viral infections such as COVID-19, continuously imperil worldwide public health because of a shortage of good antiviral therapeutics. Antiviral compounds are deployed against fatal viruses like HIV, Hepatitis C, Human herpesvirus 6 and Hepatitis B

      Antiviral compounds (AVCs) are a category of antimicrobial drugs used specially for treating viral infections by inhibiting the development of the viral pathogen inside the host cell. Review a list of antiviral drugs here. Several potent and selective antiviral agents against herpes virus infections have been developed. Research other methods for killing viruses here

      Some natural small molecules that could reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, possibly by inhibiting viral lipid-dependent attachment to host cells, are currently being studied. Companies such as R&D Systems (a brand of Bio-Techne) and Lab Alley sell antiviral compounds online. Firms such as BioGems (PeproTech brand), CPC Scientific, Sigma-Aldrich and R&D Systems sell antiviral compounds and products such as bioactive small molecules, small drug molecules and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Enveloped viruses can be killed by antimicrobial peptides.

      The four FDA-approved antiviral flu drugs recommended by CDC to treat the flu are oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza), baloxavir marboxil (trade name Xofluza®) and peramivir (Rapivab). The FDA assists sponsors in the development of antiviral drugs and biological products. 

      A bioactive compound is a type of chemical found in small amounts in plants and certain foods. Studies are being conducted to evaluate the medicinal potential of bioactive compounds against COVID-19. Bioactive compounds have actions in the body that may promote good health. They are being studied in the prevention of diseases. Bioactive compounds are substances that have biological activity, related to their ability to modulate one or more metabolic processes. Bioactive compounds such as fatty acids have an effect on the body as a whole or specific tissues or cells. Bioactive compounds have a positive role in human health.

      Medium-chain saturated and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids are highly active against enveloped viruses. Bioactive compounds sold online at include saturated fatty acids such as stearic acid and palmitic acid

      Antiviral Activity Of Lugol's Solution (Lugol's Iodine)

      Lugol's Iodine, also known as aqueous iodine and strong iodine solution, is a solution of potassium iodide with iodine in water. Iodine products and Lugol's Iodine are sold online at Cleaning with iodine may stop the spread of virusesJean Guillaume Auguste Lugol (18 August 1786 – 16 September 1851) was a French physician. It has been know for a long time that iodine kills viruses. Povidone iodine has been used in hospitals under the brand name Betadine. BETADINE® is used for upper respiratory tract infection care.

      ViruScrub Coronavirus Disinfectant, Mildewcide, Fungicide & Virucide Cleaner

      For use as a general, hospital, medical disinfectant, fungicide and virucide cleaner. Kills HIV, HBV and HCV on pre-cleaned hard, non-porous surfaces/objects previously soiled with blood/body fluids. This product can also be used as a non-acid toilet bowl and urinal disinfectant/cleaner. Cleans and disinfects shower rooms, locker room and other large, open areas with floor drains.

      Applicable Locations:
      Ideal for hospitals, medical and dental offices and clinics, healthcare facilities, nursing homes, day care centers and nurseries, kindergartens, and preschools, restaurants and bars, kitchens, cafeterias, fast food operations, supermarkets, convenience stores, retail and wholesale establishments. Institutional facilities, laboratories, factories, business and office buildings, restrooms, hotels and motels, schools, colleges, churches, athletic facilities and locker rooms, exercise facilities, gymnasiums. Read more here.

      Quinine And Synthetic Derivatives Are Antiviral, Bactericidal, Antibacterial, Antimicrobial And Antimalarial

      • Quinine sulfate (Quinine Hydrogen Sulfate) is a organic sulfate salt obtained from guanethidine and sulfuric acid in a 2:1 ratio. It has a role as an antimalarial. It contains a quinine and a quinine(1+).
      • Chloroquine is a semisynthetic derivative of quinine.
      • Currently in 2020, the synthetic form of quinine, Chloroquine is being researched and studied to see if it can effectively treat infectious diseases such as coronavirus (COVID-19). 
      • Some scientists theorize that chloroquine interferes with ACE2 receptor glycosylation thus preventing SARS-CoV-2 binding to target cells. The sythetic form of quinine, chloroquine has been shown to improve the clinical outcome of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)
      • FDA approved drugs such as quinine sulfate inhibit Dengue virus (DENV) replication.

      Coronavirus Pandemic Sparks Price Surge for Alcohol Used in Hand Sanitizer
      April 4, 2020 

      A leap in demand for isopropyl alcohol pushes prices to record highs in U.S. and Europe. A key ingredient in hand sanitizers and medical disinfectants has become hard to obtain, triggering its price to surge to an all-time high. Isopropyl-alcohol prices have more than tripled in the U.S. since March 10. Read more here.

      Antiviral Compound Database 

      In spite of significant success in medicine in last decades, development of effective new antiviral agents and vaccines continue to be a challenging task for the modern drug discovery. Viruses share most of the metabolic processes of host cells, thereby making difficult search of selective antiviral agents. However, some enzymes are only present in viruses and these are potential and most attractive targets for antiviral drugs.

      For instance, there are several key enzymes, which are involved in the processes with nucleic acids like DNA- and RNA-polymerases. Also, reverse transcriptases possess high potential as antiviral targets. The success of previously approved anti-HCV drug Sofosbuvir has demonstrated the potency of small molecules and the important role of viral RNA-polymerases as drug targets. The series of new drug candidates with nucleoside-like scaffolds introduced by Gilead have shown promising results in treating of serious viral infections such as recently emerged Coronavirus, Ebola and RSV. Read more here.

      Types Of Antiviral Products Sold Online At

      About EPA Approved Disinfectants

      3M™ Disinfectant Concentrates and U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy

      Due to the 2019-nCoV being a newly emerging pathogen there is no U.S. EPA registered disinfectant currently available on the market with the 2019-nCoV efficacy claim specifically listed on their container label. The U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy allows for professional judgments on effectiveness of disinfectants with current registrations with similar, representative microorganism families based on their cell structures. A person with the appropriate knowledge and technical skills to analyze such information can make a determination based on published information on disinfectant cleaners that meet the U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy for use on non-critical, hard, non-porous surfaces as defined by U.S. EPA. The following products are U.S. EPA-registered 3M disinfectants that meet U.S. EPA’s Emerging Pathogen Policy.

      EPA Registered, Quaternary Disinfectant Cleaners | Kills HIV-1, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), MRSA, VRE, KPC, Rotavirus, Acinetobacter, VRE, Herpes Simplex I And Other Pathogens

      EcoLab Virasept Surface Disinfectant Cleaner

      According to the company, Virasept is a patented ready-to-use, one-step detergent-disinfectant, virucide, bactericide, tuberculocide, fungicide, and sporicide that effectively cleans, disinfects, and deodorizes. It won't harm fixtures and is formulated for daily use. Buy it online at

      Shop Online At For Hand Sanitizer Ingredients

      Buy Safe Ingredients And Chemicals For DIY Homemade Hand Sanitizers, Cosmetics, Makeup, Lotions, Soaps, Household Cleaning Products, Laboratory Sterilization, Food And Beverage Processing, Skin Care Formulations, Hospital Disinfectants, Personal Care Products, Botanical And Essential Oils, Botanical Extracts, Pharmaceutical Drugs, Herbal Tinctures, Kid Safe Pools, Pest Control Products, Lawn Care Products, Chemistry Labs, Natural Health Supplements And Vitamins, Coronavirus Disinfection Products, Perfumes, Hospital Grade Detergents, Disinfecting Wipes And Disinfectant Sprays At

      Buy bulk natural ingredients and antiviral chemicals, bulk food grade chemicals and organic raw materials for safe recipes for DIY homemade hand sanitizers here. Buy antiviral hand sanitizer ingredients, antiviral disinfectants, antiviral products and antiviral chemical compounds here. Buy antiviral hospital grade disinfectants, pharmaceutical grade substances, hand sanitizers, sterilization sprays, wipes, cleaners and detergents here

      Buy lab supplies, laboratory glassware, chemical crystals and powders, oils, gels, spray bottles and stock chemical solutions to make Coronavirus disinfectants here. You can also buy other compounds and additives for safe hand sanitizer recipes, cosmetics and personal care products at Find out how chemicals are made, sold, priced, bought, shipped and used in the United States here.

      Popular additives for skin care products purchased online in bulk at wholesale prices at include food grade ethanol, 100% alcohol, 95% alcohol, 70% alcohol, 99% isopropyl alcohol, 91% isopropyl alcohol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 6% hydrogen peroxidefood grade hydrogen peroxide, food grade (FCC) vegetable glycerin, Food Grade (FCC) glycerol, solvents, aqueous acids and acids in crystalline powder form.

      Shop for popular ingredients used to formulate DIY homemade personal care products such as high purity water, citric acid, menthol crystalsnatural peppermint oil, Polysorbate 80, phenol, trichloroacetic acid  (TCC), denatured alcoholn-Propanol, MCT (Coconut Oil), sodium hypochloritesalicylic acid, fumaric acidsodium hydroxide, triethanolaminebenzalkonium chloridetriethylene glycolpropylene glycol, ammonium hydroxide, olive oil at Buy antiviral hand sanitizer ingredients, antiviral disinfectants, antiviral products and antiviral chemical compounds here. Buy antiviral hospital grade disinfectants, pharmaceutical grade substances, hand sanitizers, sterilization sprays, wipes, cleaners and detergents here. Buy lab supplies, chemical powders, oils, gels, spray bottles and chemical solutions to make Coronavirus disinfectants here at

      US IPA Prices Soar On Rising Global Demand And Supply Shortage
      Author: Deniz Koray | Published By ICIS On March 19, 2020
      Posted Here On March 27, 2020

      HOUSTON (ICIS)--US isopropanol (IPA) prices surged this week on heavy demand for hand sanitizer during the coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis, and there are no quick fixes for either the strong demand or the shortages of product. While European prices had risen to even higher numbers in the past month, US increases had been modest. However, prices surged this week, as domestic IPA spot prices are now assessed at 62-85 cents/lb ($1,367-1,874/tonne) FOB (free on board) US Gulf. IPA prices DEL (delivered) to the US Gulf are assessed at 64-90 cents/lb. 

      Until this week, prices in the US were increasing at much smaller rates than in Europe, generally in the range of 5 cents/lb or less. However, this week was a tipping point for the domestic market, as the US response to the coronavirus was heightened. Isopropyl alcohol is used in many hand sanitizers, which are in high demand among consumers because of their ability to kill germs. Hand sanitizers were among the first products to sell out at grocery stores and pharmacies, but demand has increased since then. It was believed that the US was not seeing the level of IPA price increases as in Europe since it had more ethanol. However, due to the increase in US exports to Europe as well as the rapid rise domestic demand, supply of IPA was nevertheless overwhelmed. One market participant said many producers were on sales allocations, but this could not be confirmed.

      Last week, an export deal for Europe was heard at $1,350/tonne (61.24 cents/lb) CFR (cost and freight) Europe. Another was heard at $1,700/tonne CFR Europe. This week, prices for individual deals were heard for up to triple these numbers in Europe on imported IPA. However, these are not yet considered representative for the market. According to a market source, prices of exports to Asia in the past several days doubled, while another market participant said that Latin American demand began to heavily increase this week, but that there was almost no supply to provide to buyers there. Export prices now range from 57.52-95.00 cents/lb, although much higher individual spot prices were heard. IPA is a solvent principally used in industrial and consumer products including cosmetics and personal-care products, paints and resins, pharmaceuticals, food, inks and adhesives. It is also used in de-icers in the winter. US IPA suppliers include ExxonMobil, Dow Chemical, LyondellBasell, Monument Chemical and Shell Chemical.

      Glycerol Inactivates Viruses

      Effect of glycerol on intracellular virus survival: implications for the clinical use of glycerol-preserved cadaver skin. 

      Glycerol has long been used for the preservation of skin allografts. The antimicrobial activity of glycerol has not been fully documented. This paper reports the results of an investigation of a model studying the effect of glycerol on the inactivation of intracellular viruses. Two viruses--herpes simplex type I (HSV-1) and poliovirus--were cultured within human dermal fibroblasts. These intracellular viruses were incubated with 50 per cent, 85 per cent and 98 per cent glycerol at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C for 4 weeks. Each week, the cultures in glycerol and controls in fibroblast maintenance medium were assayed for virus infectivity by examining the ability of harvested viruses to infect further fibroblasts. At 4 degrees C, 85 per cent glycerol could not fully inactivate intracellular HSV-I or poliovirus even after 4 weeks; 98 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (after 3 weeks) but could not fully inactivate intracellular poliovirus after 4 weeks. At 20 degrees C, 85 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (within 1 week) but could not fully inactivate intracellular poliovirus after 4 weeks; 98 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (within 1 week) and inactivated intracellular poliovirus (after 2 weeks). It is suggested that, on the basis of this study, glycerol can reduce intracellular virus infectivity but that its effects are very dependent on concentration, time and temperature such that we would recommend that allograft skin be exposed to 98 per cent glycerol for a minimum of at least 4 weeks at a minimum temperature of 20 degrees C before clinical use.

      Monolaurin, also known as glycerol monolaurate (GML), glyceryl laurate or 1-lauroyl-glycerol, is a monoglyceride. It is the mono-ester formed from glycerol and lauric acid. Monolaurin is known to inactivate lipid-coated viruses by binding to the lipid-protein envelope of the virus, thereby preventing it from attaching and entering host cells, making infection and replication impossible. Other studies show that Monolaurin disintegrates the protective viral envelope, killing the virus.Monolaurin has been studied to inactivate many pathogens including Herpes simplex virus and Chlamydia trachomatis. Read more here.

      Ethanol Plants Seek Rule Changes To Resupply Hand Sanitizer
      By David Pitt Associated Press March 26, 2020

      Hospitals and nursing homes are desperately searching for hand sanitizer amid the coronavirus outbreak and the ethanol industry is ready to step in to provide the alcohol, a key ingredient.

      DES MOINES, Iowa -- As hospitals and nursing homes desperately search for hand sanitizer amid the coronavirus outbreak, federal regulators are preventing ethanol producers from providing millions of gallons of alcohol that could be transformed into the germ-killing mixture. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's roadblock has been frustrating the health care and ethanol industries, which have been calling for a relaxed regulation to deal with the public health care emergency. “Hand sanitizer is a big part of our lives,” said Eric Barber, CEO of Mary Lanning Healthcare, a hospital in Hastings, Nebraska. “We can’t get any. We order it and it’s just not available.” The problem for the ethanol industry is that most plants make food-grade ethanol, one step below the highest pharmaceutical grade. But since the plants aren't certified to comply with stringent production standards designed to protect quality of medicines, food ingredients and dietary supplements, the FDA doesn't want the alcohol used for a product to be applied to the skin. In addition, the alcohol is not denatured or mixed with a bitter additive to make it undrinkable. The FDA insists this step is “critical” because of cases of poisoning, sometimes fatal, among young children who have accidentally ingested hand sanitizers. An FDA spokesman said Thursday that regulators have already seen a rise in poisonings linked to hand sanitizers in recent weeks, “heightening this public concern.” The FDA is also skeptical of industry claims that undenatured sanitizers could be distributed in a way that would keep them away from children. “It is unclear what, if any, measure could be instituted to ensure that the product does not make its way into consumer hands, where children could have access,” FDA’s Jeremy Kahn said in an emailed statement. Facing a nationwide shortage, Barber said the FDA should temporarily relax regulations to allow alternative production. “You’re talking about alcohol. Does it matter if it's fuel grade or whatever the stuff is they’re trying to price gouge now? I think its common sense,” he said. “We may need to consider a range of possible solutions that were not on the table before the pandemic,” said Nancy Foster, a vice president with the group, in an emailed statement to the AP. The Consumer Brands Association, formerly the Grocery Manufacturers Association, has had conversations with the FDA to push the agency to reconsider its guidelines. The group, which represents branded food, consumer products and beverage companies, said that hand sanitizer supplies are running so low that its members have had to ration it out to workers in stores, distribution centers and manufacturing plants. "We need a temporary solution," said Mike Gruber, vice president of regulatory and technical affairs at the trade association. “This goes toward ensuring basic food safety practices.” Distillers that produce vodka, whisky and other alcoholic drinks have been given some regulatory waivers by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau allowing them to produce hand sanitizer. Many have done that, but they produce much smaller volumes of alcohol than an ethanol plant could produce. They also receive a benefit in the Senate-passed stimulus bill. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, which represents dozens of large and small distillers, applauded Congress for easing taxes on distillers who make hand sanitizer. Under the stimulus package passed late Wednesday, distillers don’t have to pay federal excise taxes on alcohol used for hand sanitizer through Jan. 1, 2021. “Hundreds of U.S. distillers are stepping up to produce hand sanitizer and they should not be hit with a huge tax bill for producing this much-needed item, especially at a time when so many of them are struggling,” said Chris Swonger, the group’s president and CEO. But the council said it’s urging the FDA to update its guidance and let distillers use undenatured alcohol for hand sanitizer. The stimulus bill requires distillers to follow the FDA’s guidance if they want to receive the tax breaks. The FDA has waived dozens of regulations in recent weeks to boost production of key medical supplies, including coronavirus tests, ventilators, gloves and hand sanitizers. Under the latest FDA guidelines, regulators maintain standards for alcohol, requiring new producers to use alcohol that meets federal or international standards for use in either drugs or food products. The regulatory hurdles are especially frustrating for Midwest ethanol producers who are facing plunging fuel demand and a petroleum fight between Saudi Arabia and Russia that caused prices to plummet. The factors are forcing more plants to curtail production and close. For ethanol producers relaxed rules, including a requirement of the hard-to-acquire denaturant, would allow them to step in an help in a national emergency. “If we could get the FDA to say yes you can use the beverage grade and for the duration of this emergency at least for some point in time here for the next two weeks you can waive the denaturant we would literally have millions of gallons of hand sanitizer available within a matter of days,” said Monte Shaw, CEO of Iowa Renewable Fuels Association, an ethanol trade group. “Every one of our plants has gotten contacted by people who want this stuff and we can’t send it to them.” Andrew Vrbas owner of Pacha Soap, a boutique soap shop in Hastings, Nebraska, had just finished renovating a 100,000-square-foot former bread factory as a project to boost the community. Now, he’s preparing to set up hand sanitizer production there to supply to hospitals. He’s received calls from hospitals in Nebraska, Florida and New York City seeking hand sanitizer. “We are literally three miles from a plant that has as much ethanol as you could imagine,” he said. “We’re sitting on millions of gallons of alcohol. If we could rally the federal government to say look if you just let us work with local ethanol producers we have the expertise, we have the ability to provide hand sanitizer to hospitals not only in Nebraska but all across the country that are just reaching out through my network saying if you could send us hand sanitizer, we’re out.”

      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Provides Guidance On Production Of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer To Help Boost Supply, Protect Public Health
      March 20, 2020

      As part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s ongoing commitment to address the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the agency has issued two guidance documents to communicate its policy for the temporary manufacture of certain alcohol-based hand sanitizer products. These guidance documents will be in effect for the duration of the public health emergency declared by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) on January 31, 2020.

      “We are aware of significant supply disruptions for alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Many manufacturers make hand sanitizers, and several have indicated that they are working to increase supply,” said FDA Commissioner Stephen M. Hahn, M.D. “In the meantime, these guidances provide flexibility to help meet demand during this outbreak. We will continue to work with manufacturers, compounders, state boards of pharmacy and the public to increase the supply of alcohol-based hand sanitizer available to Americans.”

      Because of an increased demand for alcohol-based hand sanitizers during the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been reports of some consumers attempting to make hand sanitizers for personal use. The agency lacks information on the methods being used to prepare such products and whether they are safe for use on human skin.

      The guidance Temporary Policy for Preparation of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Products During the Public Health Emergency (COVID-19), is immediately in effect and outlines that the agency does not intend to take action against manufacturing firms that prepare alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumer use and for use as health care personnel hand rubs during this ongoing public health emergency as described in the guidance .

      The second guidance, Policy for Temporary Compounding of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Products During the Public Health Emergency, is in effect for the temporary compounding of certain alcohol-based hand sanitizers by pharmacists in state-licensed pharmacies or federal facilities and registered outsourcing facilities. Compounding is generally a practice in which a licensed pharmacist, a licensed physician, or, in the case of an outsourcing facility, a person under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist, combines, mixes, or alters ingredients of a drug to create a tailor-made medication. The temporary policy outlined by the agency does not require compounders to obtain a patient-specific prescription.

      The FDA’s guidance documents apply only to handrub products prepared using the United States Pharmacopoeia or Food Chemical Codex grade ingredients specifically described in the guidance, consistent with World Health Organization recommendations. The guidance documents also discuss product labeling and certain manufacturing methods and reporting requirements, such as that manufacturers must have a way to accept and submit adverse event reports to FDA for any products they manufacture.

      The agency realizes that manufacturers and compounders will need time to ramp up production as they obtain the ingredients needed to make these hand sanitizers. During this time the FDA will work to assist them as they develop hand sanitizers to make available for the American public.

      The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation's food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.

      Coronavirus Resource Hub For Manufacturing Companies
      March 23, 2020

      Thomas has been the backbone of North American manufacturing for more than 120 years. Visit the Thomas Coronavirus Resource Hub for industrial professionals here. Get information on mission-critical pharmaceutical and medical sourcing options here.

      New Antiviral Vaccines And Treatments

      Several pharmaceutical and biotech companies are racing to develop vaccines and treatments for COVID-19. Gilead Sciences is currently looking to develop a treatment for COVID-19, namely a drug called remdesivir. Gilead Sciences has been moving rapidly to get remdesivir on the market. In late February, the company announced that it had initiated two phase 3 studies to investigate the efficacy of remdesivir as a treatment for COVID-19.

      Johnson & Johnson partnered up with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop a vaccine for the disease. In a press release, Johnson & Johnson said it was looking to "screen its library of existing antiviral compounds with the goal of identifying those with antiviral activity against COVID-19."

      Another company trying to develop a vaccine for COVID-19 is Moderna. This biotech company created a potential vaccine for the disease in record time and recently shipped a batch of this vaccine to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to begin a phase 1 study. Read more here.

      Hydroxychloroquine For COVID-19 Treatment

      Doctors and pharmacists from more than half a dozen large healthcare systems in New York, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Ohio, Washington and California told Reuters they are routinely using hydroxychloroquine on patients hospitalized with COVID-19. At the same time, several said they have seen no evidence that the drug, used for years to treat malaria and autoimmune disorders, has any effect on the virus. Use of hydroxychloroquine has soared as the United States has quickly become the epicenter of the pandemic. The Food and Drug Administration has not approved hydroxychloroquine as a COVID-19 treatment, but the agency has provided an emergency use authorization for the anti-malarial drugs to be used in clinical trials or for hospitalized patients when a doctor deems it appropriate. Read more here.

      Buy Chemical Compounds, Excipients, Powders And Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Substances From To Develop And Produce Antiviral Drugs (Antiviral Agents)

      Most of the antiviral drugs and antiviral agents now available are designed to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and influenza A and B viruses. Researchers are working to extend the range of antivirals to other families of pathogens. Antibiotic drugs are often classified by their spectrum of activity. These classifications include antibacterial medications, antifungal drugs, antimycobacterial drugs, antiparasitic/antiprotozoal/anthelminthic drugs and antiviral formulations. LabAlley sells chemicals and supplies used to manufacture antiviral medications. 

      Viruses consist of a genome and sometimes a few enzymes stored in a capsule made of protein (called a capsid), and sometimes covered with a lipid layer (sometimes called an 'envelope'). Viruses cannot reproduce on their own, and instead propagate by subjugating a host cell to produce copies of themselves, thus producing the next generation. Researchers working on such "rational drug design" strategies for developing antivirals have tried to attack viruses at every stage of their life cycles

      Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones. Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development.

      Viruses represent a large group of infective agents that are composed of a core of nucleic acids, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a layer of protein. They are not really living organisms according to general understanding, since they lack the cell membrane that is associated with living cells. Viruses can reproduce only inside a living cell, and they cause many diseases. Viruses are not normally affected by antibiotics but a small number of viruses can either be destroyed or have their growth stopped by antiviral drugs.

      Lab Alley sells lab equipment, chemical compounds, reagents, scientific instruments and laboratory supplies to drug manufacturing companies and pharmaceutical firms. Lab Alley customers synthesize antiviral drugs and produce pharmaceutical formulations through various processes which include milling, powder blending, granulation, coating, hot metal extrusion, tablet pressing and others. Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product. The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form.

      Common chemicals purchased online at by antiviral drug manufacturers include solvents used for extraction. Lab Alley also sells excipients and chemicals in powder form that are used in the pharmaceutical industry. Common excipients purchased online at by pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises include starch, cellulose, alginates, silicon, silica compounds, stearic acid and magnesium stearate. Antiviral drug manufacturing operations and pharmaceutical companies in the U.S. purchase chemicals in a powdered, crystal, flake or crystalline form online at

      Antiviral Wipes, Sprays And Soaps

      Clorox wipes kill bacteria and viruses, and I don't have to wash after using them. Quote: Clorox Disinfecting Wipes kill 99.9% of viruses and bacteria, including cold and flu, E. Coli, Salmonella, Staph, and Strep. Read more here. Buy Conzerol Antiviral Molluscum Treatment Soap, here. Anti-viral disinfectant sprays help to stop the spread of bacterial and viral diseases such as PMV and Newcastle Disease.

      Is Ethanol A Disinfectant?

      Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH) and 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol, (CH3)2CHOH) have similar disinfectant properties. They are active against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and lipid-containing viruses but not against spores. Their action on non-lipid-containing viruses is variable. Read more here. Learn about the viral activity of 70% ethanol vs enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, here.

      Isopropyl Alcohol vs Ethanol

      These two alcohols are the same actually when it comes to disinfectant properties. However, they have slight differences when it rubbed on the skin. Ethanol is the type of alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. Isopropyl alcohol is also known as isopropanol, 2-propanol or rubbing alcohol. Read more here.

      Antiviral Activity Of Alcohol For Surface Disinfection

      Bacteria and viruses from the patient's mouth travel with dental splatter and spills. A surface disinfectant should possess antiviral activity as well as antibacterial action. Because of frequent and 'open' application in the dental office, such a disinfectant should be non-toxic, non-allergenic and safe for the hygienist. It now appears that high-concentration alcohol mixtures (i.e. 80% ethanol + 5% isopropanol) are not only excellent antibacterials, but quickly inactivate HIV as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. Compared to alternative surface disinfectants, use of high-concentration alcohol for the spray-wipe-spray method of surface disinfection in dentistry appears safe and efficient. However, dried matter should be wiped and hydrated first. Read more here.

      Use Antiviral Herbs to Boost Immune System and Fight Infection

      Did you know that there are more than 400 different viruses that can cause infections, including the common cold, the flu, hepatitis, mononucleosis and HIV? Today, many people choose to have an annual influenza vaccination, or flu shot, but this is only 80 percent effective because of the mutating strains of the influenza virus; plus, these vaccines educate the immune system in an improper and unnatural manner, and often contain dangerous chemicals and preservatives. Luckily, there are a number of powerful antiviral herbs that boost the immune system, reduce inflammation and fight infections. The dried petals of the plant are used in tinctures, ointments and washes to treat infections, burns, wounds and cuts. Read more here.

      How Much Do Antiviral Agents And Antiviral Drugs Cost?

      Review prices and dosages for antiviral agents used for the treatment of Episodic Genital Herpes here. See the prices for antiviral drugs used to treat HIV, here.

      Use Benzalkonium Chloride To Inactivate Viruses

      Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 minutes of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Read more here

      Type A influenza viIrus was inactivated by concentrations of benzalkoniunm chloride as low as 0.025 mng/iml. Measles and canine distemper viruses were also sensitive to the quaternary. Feline pneuiinonitis and miieningopneumionitis agents were inactivated by benzalkonium chloride after 10 minutes of exposure at room temperature. Rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, Seliliki Forest, and herpes simplex viruses were rapidly inactivated by low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride. Review more information on the virucidal activity of benzalkonium chloride for 13 viruses here.

      Use Benzalkonium Chloride To Deactivate Viruses

      Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 minutes of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Read more here

      Type A influenza viIrus was inactivated by concentrations of benzalkoniunm chloride as low as 0.025 mng/iml. Measles and canine distemper viruses were also sensitive to the quaternary. Feline pneuiinonitis and miieningopneumionitis agents were inactivated by benzalkonium chloride after 10 minutes of exposure at room temperature. Rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, Seliliki Forest, and herpes simplex viruses were rapidly inactivated by low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride. Review more information on the virucidal activity of benzalkonium chloride for 13 viruses here.

      Is Benzalkonium Chloride An Antiviral?

      Benzalkonium Chloride Demonstrates Concentration-Dependent Antiviral Activity Against Adenovirus In Vitro. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a common preservative in ophthalmic medications and is the active ingredient in some skin disinfectants and hand sanitizers. Read more here.

      Benzalkonium Chloride Disinfectant

      Benzalkonium chloride is widely used as a preservative in eyedrops; in higher concentrations it is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Read more here.

      Antiviral Phenolic Compounds And Phenolic Household Disinfectant Ingredients For Sale Online At

      Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. Phenolic compounds, have been studied extensively (biologically and chemically) due to their extensive antiviral activities. Learn about the cytotoxic, antiviral properties and anti-HSV-1 activities of phenolic compounds here. They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and handwashes. Phenol is probably the oldest known disinfectant as it was first used by Joseph Lister (pioneer of antiseptic surgery), when it was called carbolic acid.

      Phenol is also called carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, oxybenzene, phenylic acid. a white, crystalline, water-soluble, poisonous mass, C6H5OH, obtained from coal tar, or a hydroxyl derivative of benzene: used chiefly as a disinfectant, as an antiseptic, and in organic synthesis.

      Phenols are widely used in household products and as intermediates for industrial synthesis. For example, phenol itself is used (in low concentrations) as a disinfectant in household cleaners and in mouthwash. Phenol may have been the first surgical antiseptic. Read more here.

      Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group (−C6H5) bonded to a hydroxy group (−OH). Mildly acidic, it requires careful handling because it can cause chemical burns. Read more here.

      What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs

      Can flu be treated?
      Yes. There are prescription medications called “antiviral drugs” that can be used to treat flu illness. CDC recommends prompt treatment for people who have flu infection or suspected flu infection and who are at high risk of serious flu complications, such as people with asthma, diabetes (including gestational diabetes), or heart disease.

      What are antiviral drugs?
      Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an inhaled powder, or an intravenous solution) that fight against flu viruses in your body. Antiviral drugs are not sold over-the-counter. You can only get them if you have a prescription from a health care provider. Antiviral drugs are different from antibiotics, which fight against bacterial infections. Read more here.

      Buy Antiviral Phenolic Compounds Online At

      Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and hand washes. Phenol (carbolic acid) is one of the oldest antiseptic agents. Phenol has good penetrating power into organic matter and is mainly used for disinfection of equipment or organic materials that are to be destroyed (eg, infected food and excreta).

      Compounding Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer During COVID-19 Pandemic
      March 24, 2020

      This document is for informational purposes only and is intended to address shortages of alcohol-based hand sanitizers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This does not reflect the Compounding Expert Committee’s opinions on future development or revisions to official text of the USP-NF. USP is actively monitoring the evolving situation and will update this document accordingly.

      Background and Introduction 

      In light of the rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic, there is an expected shortage of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends washing hands with soap and water whenever possible because handwashing reduces the amounts of all types of germs and chemicals on hands. If soap and water are not available, using a hand sanitizer with a final
      concentration of at least 60% alcohol can help you avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Noting that consumers are experiencing difficulties in accessing alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing at least 60% alcohol, on March 14, 2020, FDA released an Immediately in Effect Guidance titled, “Policy for Temporary Compounding of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer
      Products During the Public Health Emergency.” During this pandemic, USP supports State Boards and other regulators using risk-based enforcement discretion related to the compounding of alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumer use.

      The USP Compounding Expert Committee (CMP EC) provides the following recommendations for compounding alcohol-based hand sanitizers for use during shortages associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of the public health emergency posed by COVID-19, this document was developed without a public comment period. This document is not a USP compendial standard; rather, it reflects considerations developed by the USP CMP EC, based on their scientific and professional expertise, and with input from regulatory agencies at the federal and state level. If implementing the provisions in this document, the expectation is that compounders follow USP General Chapter <795>
      Pharmaceutical Compounding – Nonsterile Preparations, including the following:

      • Personnel trained in the compounding procedures
      • USP, NF or Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) grade ingredients as the recommended source of ingredients | When components meeting compendial quality standards are not obtainable, components of equivalent quality – such as those that are chemically pure, analytical reagent grade or American Chemical Society-certified – may be used.
      • All equipment to be clean, properly maintained, and used appropriately
      • A Master Formulation Record and Compounding Record to be prepared
      • A Beyond-Use Date to be assigned
      • The preparation to be appropriately labeled | Label to note the final concentration of ethanol or isopropyl alcohol 

      The following are three formulations for compounding alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Formulation 1 and 2 were developed based on WHO recommendations.

      Formulation 1: Ethanol Antiseptic 80% Topical Solution

      Prepare Ethanol Antiseptic Topical Solution containing ethanol 80% (v/v) as follows (see Pharmaceutical Compounding—
      Nonsterile Preparations <795>).

      • Ethanol 96% 8333 mL
      • Hydrogen Peroxide 3% 417 mL
      • Glycerol 98% 145 mL
      • Water, a sufficient quantity to make 10000 mL | Water may be distilled water, cold boiled potable water, reverse osmosis water, or filtered water

      Measure the quantities of Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Glycerol in suitable containers. Transfer the Ethanol and Hydrogen Peroxide into a suitable calibrated container and mix gently. Transfer the Glycerol stepwise and quantitatively into the calibrated container and mix gently after each addition. Rinse the container containing glycerol several times with water and add the contents to the calibrated container. Add sufficient Water to bring to final volume. Mix well. Transfer the solution into suitable containers.

      • Packaging and Storage: Package in suitable containers and store at controlled room temperature.
      • Labeling: Label to state for external use only, the percentage of ethanol, and the Beyond-Use Date.
      • Beyond-Use Date: NMT 30 days after the date on which it was compounded, when stored at controlled room temperature. 

      Formulation 2: Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic 75% Topical Solution

      Prepare Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic Topical Solution containing isopropyl alcohol 75% (v/v) as follows (see Pharmaceutical Compounding—Nonsterile Preparations <795>)

      Measure the quantities of Isopropyl Alcohol, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Glycerol in suitable containers. Transfer the Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide into a suitable calibrated container and mix gently. Transfer the Glycerol stepwise and quantitatively into the calibrated container. Mix gently after each addition. Rinse the container containing glycerol several times with Water and add the contents to the calibrated container. Add sufficient Water to bring to final volume. Mix well. Transfer the solution into suitable containers.

      • Packaging and Storage: Package in suitable containers and store at controlled room temperature.
      • Labeling: Label to state for external use only, the percentage of isopropyl alcohol, and the Beyond-Use Date.
      • Beyond-Use Date: NMT 30 days after the date on which it was compounded, when stored at controlled room temperature.

      Formulation 3: Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic 60% Topical Solution

      Prepare Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic Topical Solution containing isopropyl alcohol 60% (v/v) as follows (see Pharmaceutical Compounding—Nonsterile Preparations <795>).

      Measure the quantities of Isopropyl Alcohol, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Glycerol in suitable containers. Transfer the Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide into a suitable calibrated container and mix gently. Transfer the Glycerol stepwise and quantitatively into the calibrated container. Mix gently after each addition. Rinse the container containing glycerol several times with Water and add the contents to the calibrated container. Add sufficient Water to bring to final volume. Mix well. Transfer the solution into suitable containers.

      • Packaging and Storage: Package in suitable containers and store at controlled room temperature.
      • Labeling: Label to state for external use only, the percentage of isopropyl alcohol, and the Beyond-Use Date.
      • Beyond-Use Date: NMT 30 days after the date on which it was compounded, when stored at controlled room temperature.

      Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity Of Phenolic Compounds And Derivatives Against Rabies Virus

      Phenolic compounds are derived from the secondary plant metabolism, although they can also be obtained by synthetic processes. Many studies have shown a great range of pharmacological effects for these substances, including vasodilatation, antiallergenic, antiinflammatory and antiviral properties, among others. Read more here.

      Book | Phenolic Compounds in Food: Characterization and Analysis

      Phenolic compounds, one of the most widely distributed groups of secondary metabolites in plants, have received a lot of attention in the last few years since the consumption of vegetables and beverages with a high level of such compounds may reduce risks of the development of several diseases. Read more here.

      Phenolic Household Disinfectants | Further Precautions Required

      Phenolic disinfectants (e.g. Meytol, Dettol, etc.) are widely used for domestic purposes. Instructions on the bottles are clearly given with regards to the dilutions that should be used. In domestic cleaning, these instructions are often ignored and higher concentrations are used with the thinking that 'the more I pour, the cleaner it gets!'. Furthermore, cleaning equipment is sometimes stored without prior rinsing with fresh water. As water evaporates much faster than phenol, the solution on stored mops/ brushes, etc. becomes progressively more and more concentrated and can cause chemical burns when these utensils are handled at a later time. We therefore suggest that two further instructions should be added to the usual instructions on bottles of household phenolic disinfectants, namely: 'wear gloves when performing domestic cleaning' and 'wash all cleaning equipment with plenty of fresh water after use'. We support this by a case report of a 65-year-old man who sustained full-thickness, painless chemical burns to his right hand after handling a moist mop which had been used for cleaning a carpet with a phenolic household disinfectant solution 2 days earlier. Read more here.

      Lab Alley Supplies Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Firms With Raw Materials And Equipment Used To Manufacture Antiviral Medications

      Common antiviral drugs manufactured by Lab Alley customers in the United States include: Abacavir, Abacavir sulfate, Adefovir, Adefovir Dipivoxil, Amantadine HCL, Amprenavir, Arbidol hydrochloride, Asunaprevir, Atazanavir, Balapiravir, Baloxavir marboxil, BCX 4430 hydrochloride, BCX4430 freebase, Bictegravir, BMS 806, Boceprevir, Brivudine, Cabotegravir, Carbovir triphosphate triethylamine, Cidofovir anhydrous, Cidofovir dihydrate, Cobicistat, Combivir (Lamivudine), Copegus (Ribavirin), Cytarabine, Daclatasvir, Darunavir ethanolate, Delavirdine mesylate, Dolutegravir, Doravirine, Efavirenz, Elbasvir, Elvitegravir, Emtricitabine, Emtricitabine, Enfuvirtide acetate, Enocitabine, (1R,3S,4R)-Entecavir, Entecavir hydrate, Equisetin, Etravirine, Faldaprevir, Famciclovir, Famvir, Favipiravir, Foscarnet (Foscavir), Foscarnet sodium, Ganciclovir, GS 331007, GS 441524 NEW, GS 441524 triphosphate, GS 5734, GSK 2838232, GSK 8175, N-Boc-protected -Guanidino Oseltamivir, Hepcinat (Sovaldi), HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, IFN-alpha products, Indinavir sulfate, Lamivudine, Ledipasvir, Lersivirine, Letermovir, Lopinavir, Maraviroc, Nelfinavir mesylate, Nevirapine,  oseltamivir (Tamiflu), Oseltamivir acid, Penciclovir, Peramivir (Rapivab), Peramivir trihydrate, Pibrentasvir, Pimodivir, Pleconaril, Raltegravir, Raltegravir, Raltegravir potassium, Ribavirin, Rilpivirine, Rimantadine hydrochloride, Ritonavir, RYL 634, Saquinavir, Saquinavir mesylate, Simeprevir, Simeprevir sodium, Sofosbuvir, Sofosbuvir, Telaprevir, Tenofovir, Tenofovir diphosphate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tipranavir, Tizoxanide - 98%, Umifenovir, L-Valacyclovir hydrochloride, Vicriviroc, Vicriviroc malate, Vidarabine (Vira-A), Vidarabine monohydrate, Zalcitabine, zanamivir (Relenza), Zanamivir hydrate, Zidovudine, Ziresovir and Zovirax.

      Antiviral Product Development — Conducting and Submitting Virology Studies to the FDA Agency

      The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the development of antiviral drugs and biological products (i.e., therapeutic proteins and monoclonal antibodies) from the initial preIND through the new drug application (NDA) and postmarketing stages. This guidance should serve as a starting point for understanding what nonclinical and clinical virology data are important to support the submission of an investigational new drug application (IND), NDA, or biologics license application (BLA) for approval of an antiviral product. This guidance focuses on nonclinical and clinical virology study reports and makes recommendations for collecting and submitting resistance data to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Nonclinical and clinical virology study reports, based on collected data, are essential for the FDA’s review of antiviral drug investigational and marketing applications. Specific topics discussed in this guidance include:

      • Defining the mechanism of action
      • Establishing specific antiviral activity of the investigational product
      • Assessing the potential for antagonism of other antiviral products that might be used in combination with the investigational product
      • Providing data on the development of viral resistance to the investigational product
      • Providing data that identify cross-resistance to approved antiviral products having the same target

      The recommendations in this guidance are based on the antiviral product review experience of the Division of Antiviral Products and input from pharmaceutical sponsors and the scientific community. Because of the experience, history, and lessons learned with HIV-1 studies, this guidance employs studies commonly used to evaluate HIV-1 products as a paradigm for studies of products to treat other viruses. Although assays and model systems vary with different viruses, many of the principles in this guidance can be applied to antiviral products in development for the treatment of other viral infections (e.g., hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, influenza virus, rhinovirus, cytomegalovirus, and human papillomavirus). Since the field of virology is dynamic and continually evolving, this guidance will be revised as new information accumulates and as circumstances warrant. Read more here.

      Plant Phenolic Compounds as Potential Lead Compounds in Functional Foods for Antiviral Drug Discovery

      Phenolic compounds are a class of the most widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants. They may function as pollination, pigment constituents and protection against UV radiation and predation for plants. Plant phenols have been studied for hundreds of years, and have acted as the major class of compounds that show great activity against various viruses such as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr virus, equid herpesvirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, respiratory syncytial and canine distemper viruses. Because of the extensive antiviral activities, phenolic compounds have been widely investigated both chemically and biologically. The distribution of hydroxyl groups and ester group accounts for different antiviral activities of phenolic compounds, and research of these compounds has revealed that phenols have great potential for the development as therapeutic agents against various viruses. As a result, dozens of phenols in functional foods have been discovered to display antiviral activity.

      Objective: This review emphasizes structure classification and antiviral activities of plant phenolic compounds, which are expected to provide guides for rational design of antiviral drugs. Read more here.

      Influenza (Flu) Antiviral Drugs And Related Information | Get Information On Medicines And Vaccine For The Flu

      The term influenza refers to illness caused by influenza virus. This is commonly called the flu, but many different illnesses cause flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, aches and pains, cough, and sore throat. Influenza virus infection can cause different illness patterns, ranging from mild common cold symptoms to typical flu. Some people may be at increased risk for bacterial complications of influenza such as pneumonia, ear or sinus infections, or bloodstream infections. There are a number of drugs approved by the FDA for the treatment and prevention of influenza but they are not a substitute for yearly vaccination. Yearly vaccination is the primary means of preventing and controlling influenza. Antibiotics are used to treat illnesses caused by bacteria like strep throat, tuberculosis and many types of pneumonia. Antibiotics do not treat viral illnesses like flu, colds, and most sore throats. Read more here.

      Antiviral, Antibacterial, and Anti-fungal Foods: The What, Why, and How

      Just like the human body, plant-based foods have their own built-in defense mechanisms. When humans eat certain foods with these defenses, the body can actually ingest and invest in those same defenses. This is why current health trends boast hot topic words such as antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-fungal. Yet, besides the implication of cold-fighting properties, do we really know what these terms mean? Beyond simply understanding the terms, do we know how these substances work in the human body, where to obtain the best sources of them, and what the best way is to ingest them? If you already know the answers to this question, then you’re far ahead of the rest of us! If you don’t, read on further to find out. Antiviral refers to a property that fights viruses. So, let’s start our education of antiviral by unpacking what a virus is and how natural antiviral foods can help fight it. Viruses cause diseases, some serious and some not so serious. They are “tiny package[s]” of DNA or RNA “jacketed in a protein covering.” The only goal of a virus is to create more viruses, which is exactly what happens when a virus infects a cell. Once the infected cell dies, it releases all of the newly created viruses that go on to infect more cells, and so on and so forth. Read more here.

      15 Impressive Herbs with Antiviral Activity

      Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural treatments for various illnesses, including viral infections. Due to their concentration of potent plant compounds, many herbs help fight viruses and are favored by practitioners of natural medicine. At the same time, the benefits of some herbs are only supported by limited human research, so you should take them with a grain of salt. Here are 15 herbs with powerful antiviral activity: Oregano, Sage, Basil, Fennel, Garlic, Lemon Balm, Peppermint, Rosemary, Echinacea, Sambucus, Licorice, Astragalus, Ginger, Ginseng And Dandelion. Read more here.

      What Are Antiviral Drugs?

      Antiviral drugs are medicines that decrease the ability of flu viruses to reproduce. When used as directed, antiviral drugs may help reduce the duration of flu symptoms in otherwise healthy children and adults and may reduce the severity of common flu symptoms. Read more here.

      Antiviral Drug Supply

      CDC is in regular contact with influenza antiviral manufacturers regarding supply and other issues. There are currently no major market shortages of antiviral drugs for treatment of influenza being reported. Read more here.

      Antiviral Compounds And Their Mode Of Action

      Many antiviral compounds are nucleoside or nucleotide analogues whose mechanism of action is inhibition of viral nucleic acid synthesis. Foscarnet is not a nucleoside or nucleotide analogue but rather a pyrophosphate that blocks the pyrophosphate-binding site on the viral DNA polymerase. Read more here.

      Top Ten Natural Anti-Viral Agents

      Winter is the time of year when we seem to be particularly vulnerable to all kinds of illnesses that are caused by viruses including colds, flu and cold sores. A virus is not to be confused with bacteria, which causes infection. Viruses are tiny bits of nucleic acids that contain information and use your body’s cells tor create more copies of themselves. There are very few treatments, allopathic or natural that can kill a virus outright, as usually a virus must run its course. However the list of natural remedies here come as close to stopping a virus in its tracks as Mother Nature can get. | COLLOIDAL SILVER, ELDERBERRY, ECHINACEA, GARLIC, GREEN TEA, Liquorice, OLIVE LEAF, PAU D’ARCO, ST JOHN’S WORT | Read more here.

      With Minimal Evidence, Trump Asks F.D.A. to Study Malaria Drugs for Coronavirus

      Antibacterial, Antiviral and Immunity Items to Stock Up on ASAP | March 13, 2020

      As the threat of COVID-10 continues to rise in the United States, everyone is clamoring to get their hands on any disinfecting and sanitizing products they can. While it’s unclear the impact particular products will have in improving the situation, it’s always good to be prepared for whatever comes our way. There’s nothing worse than showing up to a store only to be greeted by empty shelves in this trying time. And clicking a link on Amazon and seeing that said product is not in stock is just as frustrating. Read more here.

      Antiviral Compounds From Plants

      A range of active compounds have been identified which could be the potential antiviral agents for future drug development. Some plants like Allium sativum, Daucus maritimus, Helichrysum aureonitens, Pterocaulon sphacelatum and Quillaja saponaria emerged to have broad spectrum antiviral activity. Read more here.

      Antiviral Agents From Plants And Herbs: A Systematic Review

      BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many antiviral compounds presently in clinical use have a narrow spectrum of activity, limited therapeutic usefulness and variable toxicity. There is also an emerging problem of resistant viral strains. This study was undertaken to examine the published literature on herbs and plants with antiviral activity, their laboratory evaluation in vitro and in vivo, and evidence of human clinical efficacy.

      METHODS: Independent literature searches were performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CISCOM, AMED and Cochrane Library for information on plants and herbs with antiviral activity. There was no restriction on the language of publication. Data from clinical trials of single herb preparations used to treat uncomplicated viral infections were extracted in a standardized, predefined manner.

      RESULTS: Many hundreds of herbal preparations with antiviral activity were identified and the results of one search presented as an example. Yet extracts from only 11 species met the inclusion criteria of this review and have been tested in clinical trials. They have been used in a total of 33 randomized, and a further eight nonrandomized, clinical trials. Fourteen of these trials described the use of Phyllanthus spp. for treatment of hepatitis B, seven reporting positive and seven reporting negative results. The other 10 herbal medicines had each been tested in between one and nine clinical trials. Only four of these 26 trials reported no benefit from the herbal product.

      CONCLUSIONS: Though most of the clinical trials located reported some benefits from use of antiviral herbal medicines, negative trials may not be published at all. There remains a need for larger, stringently designed, randomized clinical trials to provide conclusive evidence of their efficacy. 

      Antiviral Drugs Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Drug Class, By Application (HIV, Hepatitis, Influenza), By Type (Branded, Generic), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2020 - 2027

      The global antiviral drugs market size was valued at USD 56.4 billion in 2019 and is expected to register a CAGR of -2.3% over the forecast period. Antiviral drugs are used for the treatment of viral infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis, and influenza. Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs can be used to treat a range of viruses. Moreover, several investigational drugs for the treatment of HIV infection are currently in the pipeline. Increasing instances of HIV infections are estimated to drive the demand for antiviral drugs. Increasing prevalence of viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza is expected to drive the demand for antiviral drugs. For instance, according to data published by the WHO, hepatitis B caused around 887,000 deaths in 2015. Moreover, it was estimated that around 257 million patients were living with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 2015. This is expected to drive the demand for efficient treatment solutions such as antiviral drugs. Read more here.

      What Are The Modes Of Action Of Antiviral Drugs?

      For over 60 years, the use of microbially-produced or semi-synthetic antibiotics has helped to cure life-threatening bacterial diseases in many millions of people. The development of drugs to effectively combat viral diseases, however, has proven to be much more difficult. But advances in understanding the detailed molecular biology of virus replication cycles, coupled with determination of detailed three dimensional structures of viral molecules, are now making possible the development of highly specific and effective anti-viral drugs.

      In principle, a molecule can act as an anti-viral drug if it inhibits some stage of the virus replication cycle, without being too toxic to the body's cells. The possible modes of action of anti-viral agents would include being able to ...

      1. Inactivate extracellular virus particles.
      2. Prevent viral attachment and/or entry.
      3. Prevent replication of the viral genome.
      4. Prevent synthesis of specific viral protein(s).
      5. Prevent assembly or release of new infectious virions.

      The first types of somewhat effective anti-viral drugs were nucleoside analogues, developed several decades ago, which are able to interfere with viral genome replication. Nucleoside analogs are the most frequently used drugs, and for activation they have to be converted to their triphosphate form. A type of nucleoside analogs may inhibit SARS-CoV RdRP. Nucleoside analog inhibitors are dNTPs or rNTPs that lack 3'-OH group. The 1990's saw the development of the first specific inhibitors of viral protease activity. The 2000's have seen the development of a few new enzyme-inhibitor type drugs and research on the possibility of short-length RNA molecules being able to inhibit viral gene expression. As we investigate how some of these drugs work at the molecular level, we must keep in mind that the potential problem of the emergence of mutant virus strains resistant to a drug is always a concern. Read more here.

      Cytopathogenesis and Inhibition of Host Gene Expression by RNA Viruses

      Many viruses interfere with host cell function in ways that are harmful or pathological. This often results in changes in cell morphology referred to as cytopathic effects. However, pathogenesis of virus infections also involves inhibition of host cell gene expression. Thus the term “cytopathogenesis,” or pathogenesis at the cellular level, is meant to be broader than the term “cytopathic effects” and includes other cellular changes that contribute to viral pathogenesis in addition to those changes that are visible at the microscopic level. The goal of this review is to place recent work on the inhibition of host gene expression by vigorous antiviral defense. Such observations support the idea that the role of the virus-induced inhibition of host gene expression is to inhibit the host antiviral response. This idea is not new. Some of the earliest papers that describe the virus-induced inhibition of host RNA and protein synthesis relate these effects to the inhibition of the host cell interferon response (see, e.g., references 132 and 139). The argument will be made in this review that the ability to inhibit the host antiviral response through the inhibition of host gene expression is a critical aspect of viral pathogenesis. The principle that viruses may inhibit host gene expression in order to inhibit the antiviral defense of the host is pretty straightforward. However, sorting out the relationship between viral cytopathogenesis and the host antiviral response can be difficult in practice. Read more here.

      Antiviral Potential Of Medicinal Plants Against HIV, HSV, Influenza, Hepatitis, And Coxsackievirus: A Systematic Review

      Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are alarming threats and a serious health concern. For viral hepatitis, the interferon and vaccine therapies solely are not ultimate solutions due to recurrence of hepatitis C virus. Owing to the growing incidences of viral infections and especially of resistant viral strains, the available therapeutic modalities need to be improved, complemented with the discovery of novel antiviral agents to combat refractory viral infections. It is widely accepted that medicinal plant heritage is nature gifted, precious, and fueled with the valuable resources for treatment of metabolic and infectious disorders. The aims of this review are to assemble the facts and to conclude the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants in the eradication and management of various viral diseases such as influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis, and coxsackievirus infections, which have been proven in diverse clinical studies. The articles, published in the English language since 1982 to 2017, were included from Web of Science, Cochrane Library, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed by using relevant keywords including plants possessing antiviral activity, the antiviral effects of plants, and plants used in viral disorders. The scientific literature mainly focusing on plant extracts and herbal products with therapeutic efficacies against experimental models of influenza, HIV, HSV, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus were included in the study. Pure compounds possessing antiviral activity were excluded, and plants possessing activity against viruses other than viruses in inclusion criteria were excluded. Hundreds of plant extracts with antiviral effect were recognized. However, the data from only 36 families investigated through in vitro and in vivo studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. The inferences from scientific literature review, focusing on potential therapeutic consequences of medicinal plants on experimental models of HIV, HSV, influenza, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus have ascertained the curative antiviral potential of plants. Fifty-four medicinal plants belonging to 36 different families having antiviral potential were documented. Out of 54 plants, 27 individually belong to particular plant families. On the basis of the work of several independent research groups, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants against listed common viral diseases in the region has been proclaimed. In this context, the herbal formulations as alternative medicine may contribute to the eradication of complicated viral infection significantly. The current review consolidates the data of the various medicinal plants, those are Sambucus nigra, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Hypericum connatum, holding promising specific antiviral activities scientifically proven through studies on experimental animal models. Consequently, the original research addressing the development of novel nutraceuticals based on listed medicinal plants is highly recommended for the management of viral disorders.

      Antiviral Face Mask

      A regular face mask won't stop the coronavirus. Biomask™ inactivates 99.99% of tested influenza viruses on 5min contact with the surface of the face mask.
      Tested on specific seasonal flu viruses, pandemic H1N1, avian and swine & equine, the biomask has a hydrophilic plastic coating that rapidly absorbs aerosol droplets away from the outer surface of the mask. The first and second layers of the mask are treated with different compounds that inactivate influenza viruses. Rapid absorption ensures the influenza A & B viruses are wicked away from the outer surface. In the outer active layer, viruses are inactivated by exposure to a low pH environment. Read more here.

      What Are Antiviral Agents?

      Antiviral agents are used to inhibit production of viruses that cause disease. Most antiviral agents are only effective while the virus is replicating. It is difficult to find medicines that are selective for the virus as viruses share most of the metabolic processes of the host cell. However, some enzymes are only present in viruses and these are potential targets for antiviral drugs. Agents that inhibit the transcription of the viral genome are DNA polymerase inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Protease inhibitors inhibit the post-translational events. Other antiviral agents inhibit the virus from attaching to or penetrating the host cell. Immunomodulators induce production of host cell enzymes, which stop viral reproduction. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors prevent integration of the viral DNA into the host DNA by inhibiting the viral enzyme integrase. Neuraminidase inhibitors block viral enzymes and inhibit reproduction of the viruses. Read more here

      Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agents 

      Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. Current development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents targeting viral infectivity and modulating host defense system has substantially advanced the fields of virology and pharmaceutics and significantly contributed to the health care of human and animals. However, there are concerns of viral resistance associated with agents targeting viral components and non-specific side effects associated with agents targeting cellular machineries. Accordingly, how to reduce viral resistance and increase drug specificity are current challenges to be addressed. Whether combined uses of agents to target both viral components and cellular machineries may improve antiviral efficacy, reduce viral resistance, and minimize toxicity in the control of viral infection and epidemic viral diseases needs to be clarified. Read more here.

      Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines
      by LT Lin - ‎2014 | Liang-Tzung Lin, Wen-Chan Hsu, and Chun-Ching Lin

      Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines.

      Viruses are responsible for a number of human pathogeneses including cancer. Several hard-to-cure diseases and complex syndromes including Alzheimer's disease, type 1 diabetes, and hepatocellular carcinoma have been associated with viral infections.Moreover, due to increased global travel and rapid urbanization, epidemic outbreaks caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses represent a critical threat to public health, particularly when preventive vaccines and antiviral therapies are unavailable. Examples include the recent emergence of dengue virus, influenza virus, measles virus, severe acute espiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, and West Nile virus outbreaks. To date, however, many viruses remain without effective immunization and only few antiviral drugs are licensed for clinical practice. The situation is further exacerbated by the potential development of drug-resistant mutants, especially when using viral enzyme-specific inhibitors, which significantly hampers drug efficacy. Hence, there is an urgent need to discover novel antivirals that are highly efficacious and cost-effective for the management and control of viral infections when vaccines and standard therapies are lacking.

      Herbal medicines and purified natural products provide a rich resource for novel antiviral drug development. Identification of the antiviral mechanisms from these natural agents has shed light on where they interact with the viral life cycle, such as viral entry, replication, assembly, and release, as well as on the targeting of virus–host-specific interactions. In this brief report, we summarize the antiviral activities from several natural products and herbal medicines against some notable viral pathogens including coronavirus (CoV), coxsackievirus (CV), dengue virus (DENV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza virus, measles virus (MV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

      CoV is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family. The CoV family consists of several species and causes upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections in mammals and birds. In humans, it mainly causes common cold, but complications including pneumonia and SARS can occur. The known human CoV (HCoV) includes HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63, -HKU1, and the more widely known severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) which caused a global threat with high mortality in 2003. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated a sixth type of HCoV infection identified as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) which is associated with high fatality.

      There are no specific treatments for CoV infection and preventive vaccines are still being explored. Thus, the situation reflects the need to develop effective antivirals for prophylaxis and treatment of CoV infection. We have previously reported that saikosaponins (A, B2, C, and D), which are naturally occurring triterpene glycosides isolated from medicinal plants such as Bupleurum spp. (柴胡 Chái Hú), Heteromorpha spp., and Scrophularia scorodonia (玄參 Xuán Shēn), exert antiviral activity against HCoV-22E9. Upon co-challenge with the virus, these natural compounds effectively prevent the early stage of HCoV-22E9 infection, including viral attachment and penetration. Extracts from Lycoris radiata (石蒜 Shí Suàn), Artemisia annua (黃花蒿 Huáng Huā Hāo), Pyrrosia lingua (石葦 Shí Wěi), and Lindera aggregata (烏藥 Wū Yào) have also been documented to display anti–SARS-CoV effect from a screening analysis using hundreds of Chinese medicinal herbs. Natural inhibitors against the SARS-CoV enzymes, such as the nsP13 helicase and 3CL protease, have been identified as well and include myricetin, scutellarein, and phenolic compounds from Isatis indigotica (板藍根 Bǎn Lán Gēn) and Torreya nucifera (榧 Fěi). Other anti-CoV natural medicines include the water extract from Houttuynia cordata (魚腥草 Yú Xīng Cǎo), which has been observed to exhibit several antiviral mechanisms against SARS-CoV, such as inhibiting the viral 3CL protease and blocking the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity.

      CV, including subgroups A (CVA) and B (CVB), is a member of the Picornaviridae family, and the non-enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus is typically transmitted by fecal–oral route and contact with respiratory secretions. While the symptoms of infection can include mild illnesses such as fever, malaise, rashes, and common cold-like presentation, more severe cases may result in diseases of the central nervous system, including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and paralysis. CVA is best known as one of the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children.

      Unfortunately, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy available to prevent CV infection or the diseases it causes. Nevertheless, drugs discovered from natural products, herbs, and traditional decoctions have shown some promise for the development of therapeutics against CV infection. The aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, and bioactive compounds including linalool, apigenin, and ursolic acid from the popular culinary/medicinal herb Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) (羅勒 Luó Lè) have been observed to possess antiviral activity against CVB1. In particular, ursolic acid interferes with CVB1 replication post-infection. Raoulic acid from Raoulia australis has also been reported as a potential antiviral agent against several CVB subtypes, but the mechanism of its effect is unclear. In addition, we have previously reported that both the medicinal prescription Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (小柴胡湯 Xiǎo Chái Hú Tang) and its major component herb Bupleurum kaoi (柴胡 Chái Hú) inhibit CVB1 infection via the induction of type I interferon response. This finding suggests that type I interferon inducers may be helpful in controlling CVB infection and could be further explored as a treatment strategy.

      DENV is an enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. As a prominent arbovirus in Southeast Asia, DENV is transmitted by mosquito bites, typically by Aedes aegypti. Four serotypes of the virus exist (DENV1 − 4) and all can cause dengue fever. Clinical manifestations of DENV infection can include inapparent/mild febrile presentation, classical dengue fever (fever, headache, myalgias, joint pains, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash), and life-threatening hemorrhagic diseases, specifically dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) in severe cases.

      Despite being an old disease, current immunization and therapeutic options available for prevention and control of DENV infection are severely limited. Management of dengue-associated diseases consists of preventing the viral infection by mosquito control and relieving symptoms in the infected individuals. Development of prophylactic/therapeutic treatment against DENV infection using natural products may help address some of these current limitations. The flavone baicalein, for example, exerts potent activity against DENV adsorption to the host and post-entry viral replication. In addition, several natural products such as quercetin and narasin, as well as marine seaweed extracts have been observed to possess significant anti-DENV properties. Recently, we have reported chebulagic acid and punicalagin, two hydrolysable tannins isolated from Terminalia chebula (訶子 Hē Zǐ), as broad-spectrum antiviral agents against several viruses including DENV. Specifically, chebulagic acid and punicalagin can directly inactivate free DENV particles and interfere with the attachment and fusion events during early viral entry. Identification of these natural viral inhibitors could help the development of therapeutics against DENV infection and reduce the risks of DHF/DSS.

      EV71 is a member of the Picornaviridae family, possessing a positive-sense ssRNA genome and is non-enveloped. EV71 is ordinarily transmitted by fecal–oral route, but transmission by respiratory droplet is also possible. It is one of the major causes of HFMD in children, is sometimes associated with severe neurological diseases, and can be fatal. The transmission rate in children under 5 years of age is typically high in endemic areas and several outbreaks have occurred over the past few decades.

      Medication and preventive vaccines against EV71 are presently in development and palliative care is used to ameliorate the symptoms. Nevertheless, several natural products and herbal medicines have been shown to possess inhibitory activity against EV71 infection. Extracts and pure constituents of O. basilicum effectively block EV71 infection and replication. In addition, raoulic acid, which has previously been mentioned as an inhibitor to CVB, also suppresses EV71. Gallic acid from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers (蝦子花 Xiā Zǐ Huā) has also been observed to exert anti-EV71 activity. Finally, epigallocatechin gallate from green tea has been identified to interfere with EV71 replication via modulation of the cellular redox environment. Without efficient medical treatment for the prevention and control of infection by EV71, further studies in identifying novel antivirals against the enterovirus are encouraged.

      HBV is the prototype virus of the Hepadnaviridae family. It is an enveloped virus possessing a relaxed circular, partially double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. HBV causes hepatitis B and the infection is transmitted by exposure to blood or body fluids containing the virus. Although spontaneous recovery is common following acute hepatitis B, medication is recommended for chronic infection because of the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The development of HBV vaccine and nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in endemic countries such as Taiwan have helped control HBV infection as well as reduce the incidence of childhood HCC.

      Despite the existence of preventive vaccines, the present HBV-infected population, including those in areas where vaccination program is unavailable, remains at risk for end-stage liver diseases. Therapeutic treatment against HBV includes nucleotide/nucleoside analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, tenofovir, telbivudine, and entecavir, as well as the immune modulator pegylated interferon-α (Peg-IFN-α). However, eradication of HBV from the host proves difficult once persistent infection is established, and the situation is further aggravated by risks of selecting drug-resistant viral mutants, treatment failure in non-responders, and potential future viral reactivation. Therefore, anti-HBV drug discovery is still a matter of importance for supporting current therapy and hepatitis B management program to treat some current 300-400 million carriers globally.

      Extensive studies have been conducted over the past few decades to identify anti-HBV agents from natural products and herbal medicines, and some have been thoroughly covered elsewhere. As examples, isochlorogenic acid A from Laggera alata, amide alkaloid from Piper longum (假蒟 Jiǎ Jù), and dehydrocheilanthifoline from Corydalis saxicola have been reported for their anti-HBV activities. We have also previously demonstrated the antiviral effects of the herbal prescription Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (小柴胡湯 Xiǎo Chái Hú Tang), the saikosaponins from Bupleurum species (柴胡 Chái Hú), and the ethanol extract from Polygonum cuspidatum sieb. et zucc (虎杖 Hǔ Zhàng) against HBV in vitro. Another example is curcumin, which has been shown to inhibit HBV gene replication and expression by down-regulating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), the coactivator of HBV transcription. As novel anti-HBV inhibitory agents are being discovered, future studies should also evaluate potential combination treatments with standard nucleotide/nucleoside analogs or IFN-α-based therapies for the management of hepatitis B.

      HCV is an enveloped flavivirus possessing a positive-sense ssRNA. Transmission of HCV mainly occurs by blood-to-blood contact, such as through intravenous injections, blood transfusion, and various exposures to blood contaminants (tattooing, piercing, razor and toothbrush sharing, etc.). Due to the highly mutable nature of HCV, a preventive vaccine is not yet available. About 70% of infections become persistent, resulting in an estimated 300 million carriers worldwide of which 1-3% may progress to end-stage liver diseases including cirrhosis and HCC. The present standard of care consists of parenteral Peg-IFN-α plus oral ribavirin, and will soon incorporate the new protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir for combination therapy. However, several obstacles remain in the current method of therapeutic treatment against HCV, including limited efficacy for certain viral genotypes, inevitable selection of drug-resistant mutants, serious side-effects, high cost of medication, patient adherence issues, and challenges in the difficult-to-treat populations such as non-responders and liver transplant patients. Thus, continuous development of anti-HCV agents is necessary to meet these shortcomings.

      Various natural products have been explored for their antiviral effects against HCV infection. Silybum marianum (also known as “Milk Thistle” or “silymarin”) and its flavonolignans have been demonstrated to exert anti-HCV activity in vitro, and several clinical evaluations have shown promising effects in reducing the viral load. Curcumin has been identified as a potential inhibitor of HCV replication, potentially by suppressing sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)-Akt pathway, and more recently its negative effect on HCV entry has been demonstrated. Other natural compounds have been observed to prevent HCV entry as well, and these include epigallocatechin-3-gallate, griffithsin, ladanein, and tellimagrandin I. Similarly, we have recently identified the hydrolyzable tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin as potent inhibitors of HCV entry. The two tannins inactivate free virus particles, prevent viral attachment and penetration into the host cell, and disrupt post-infection cell-to-cell transmission of HCV. Since immunization against HCV is at present unavailable, the discovery of novel anti-HCV entry inhibitors could help develop preventive therapies/measures against hepatitis C.

      Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are enveloped dsDNA viruses belonging to the Herpesviridae family. HSV infection usually causes mucocutaneous lesions that occur in oral/perioral (typically by HSV-1) and genital (commonly by HSV-2) areas, as well as on other body sites. HSV causes lifelong infection by establishing itself in sensory neurons and can be reactivated by various stimuli including sunlight, fever, immunosuppression, menstruation, or stress. Transmission of HSV results from contact with infected lesions and can occur via vertical transmission from infected mother to newborn. Although the disease is usually self-limited and can be treated with antivirals, severe complications can occur, particularly in neonates and immunosuppressed individuals, leading to risk of blindness with keratoconjunctivitis, and the potentially fatal meningitis and encephalitis.

      No vaccine is available against HSV and there are currently no drugs that can eradicate latent HSV infection. Although primary and recurrent infections can be controlled by nucleoside analogs such as acyclovir, penciclovir, and their prodrugs, the development of drug-resistant virus is becoming a serious problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. Thus, identifying novel anti-HSV agents that act with different mechanisms is crucial for clinical management of HSV. We have previously reported several natural products and herbal medicines that inhibit HSV infection and replication. For instance, ent-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, extracted from Cassia javanica, inhibits HSV-2 replication; the herbal prescriptions Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tan (龍膽瀉肝湯 Lóng Dǎn Xiè Gān Tāng) and Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (茵陳蒿湯 Yīn Chén Hāo Tang) both possess broad efficiency in diminishing HSV-1 and HSV-2 infectivity; hippomanin A, geraniin, 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose, and excoecarianin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria (葉下珠 Yè Xià Zhū) can potently impede HSV infection. In addition, we have also identified the hydrolyzable tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin as cell surface glycosaminoglycan (GAG) competitors that can inhibit HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-1 and also a multitude of viruses employ GAGs as initial attachment receptors during infection of their host cell. Both chebulagic acid and punicalagin are observed to target HSV-1 glycoproteins that interact with GAGs and, in turn, prevent their association with cell surface GAGs as well as subsequent binding receptors. This inhibitory effect is shown (1) against cell-free virus, (2) during the viral attachment and fusion stages, and (3) in the intercellular junction spread of HSV-1, which is mediated by its glycoproteins. Thus, both tannins are demonstrated to be efficient entry inhibitors to HSV-1 and similar effects have been observed on another herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus, as well as on several other viruses known to engage GAGs for entry.

      Besides the natural products and traditional decoctions mentioned above, a plethora of other natural anti-HSV agents have also been identified. Meliacine derived from Melia azedarach is observed to stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IFN-g production, and reduce HSV-2 shedding with improvement of virus-induced pathogenesis in a mouse vaginal model of herpetic infection. Houttuynoids A-E are flavonoids isolated from Houttuynia cordata (蕺菜 Jí Cài), which have been found to exhibit potent anti–HSV-1 activity. Similarly, the aqueous extract from Rhododendron ferrugineum L., blackberry extract, and proanthocyanidin-enriched extract from Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw. have been reported to inhibit HSV-1 infection. Another example is glucoevatromonoside, a cardenolide from Digitalis lanata, which has been suggested to alter cellular electrochemical gradient and block HSV-1 and HSV-2 propagation in cells. In addition, natural products from the marine environment represent a whole biodiversity in which many algae and sponges have been observed to contain active metabolites with anti-HSV activity. The abundance of natural anti-HSV agents discovered should provide novel pharmacological activities against the virus, which could be further explored for potential application in the management of HSV infections.

      HIV is a lentivirus of the Retroviridae family. The enveloped virus is characterized by targeting of the immune cells for infection, reverse transcription of its ssRNA genome, and integration into the host chromosomal DNA. Transmission of HIV occurs via exchange of virus-containing blood and body fluids, such as through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles/sharp instruments, childbirth, as well as breastfeeding. HIV is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is a progressive failure of the immune system due to CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion that leads to manifestation of life-threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies. To date, AIDS has resulted in more than 25 million deaths and there are currently about 34 million HIV-infected individuals with an estimated 2-3 million newly diagnosed cases annually.

      Despite nearly 30 years of research since its discovery, at present there is no effective preventive vaccine or cure for HIV infection. The high antigenic diversity and multiple mechanisms that the virus employs to subvert recognition by the human immune system have made prophylactic/therapeutic management of HIV infection difficult. Nevertheless, the development of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which consists of a cocktail of nucleoside analog/non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, has dramatically decreased the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS. However, there is still a pressing need for alternative treatment strategies against HIV infection due to drug resistance problems, treatment-associated toxicity, patient adherence, and restricted accessibility in resource-poor areas.

      An exhaustive list of natural products has been evaluated for anti-retroviral/anti-HIV activity and recently reviewed. Moreover, many marine natural products with anti-HIV activities have also been identified in search of novel therapeutics against the AIDS virus. To briefly mention some examples, the crude extracts of Artemisia annua (黃花蒿 Huáng Huā Hāo) and Artemisia afra have recently been reported as potential anti-HIV medicines. The Calophyllum species is known to contain several coumarins that are observed to exert inhibitory effect against HIV. More recently, a tricyclic coumarin derived from the stem bark of Calophyllum brasiliense has been shown to inhibit HIV replication in in vitro models by suppressing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Another novel anti-HIV agent is the small peptide melittin, which is the active component of bee venom. The nanoformulated melittin is demonstrated to possess robust efficiency in capturing and inactivating HIV particles by disrupting the viral lipid envelope. Based on the discoveries made so far, the recent progress in identifying natural antivirals against HIV should yield potential novel therapeutics that could play an important role in overcoming the current urgency in anti-HIV/AIDS therapies.

      The influenza A, B, and C viruses (IFA, IFB, and IFC) are enveloped, negative-sense ssRNA viruses classified in the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses cause respiratory infection yielding symptoms that include fever, headache, sore throat, sneezing, and muscle and joint pains, and can develop into more severe and potentially fatal conditions such as pneumonia. IFA (most epidemic) has a wide host range including birds and humans as well as other mammals, whereas IFB seems to naturally infect humans and IFC (less frequently encountered) can be isolated from humans and swine. Influenza virus infection has produced considerable morbidity in humans. An estimated 250,000-500,000 deaths occur annually due to seasonal epidemics, and in major pandemics, this number has been observed to rise to some 20-40 million deaths, as in the case of the 1918 H1N1 Spanish Flu.

      Despite the availability of vaccines based on predicted circulating strains, influenza viruses are known to continuously evolve their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) envelope proteins. This variation renders any preexisting circulating antibody from earlier exposure or immunization ineffective at neutralizing the virus, hence making the host vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, potential risks of cross-species transmission and host adaptation of influenza viruses between animals and humans resulting in highly pathogenic strains have also raised concerns. Another issue is the widespread development of drug resistance, which has been observed with the first generation of anti-influenza medications, specifically the M2 ion channel blockers amantadine and rimantadine. Resistant strains against the currently approved neuraminidase inhibitors (which prevent the release of mature influenza viruses) including oseltamivir and zanamivir have also already appeared. Due to the drug resistance problems, the rapid evolution of influenza viruses, and the occurrence of several recent outbreaks (e.g., H5N1, H1N1, H7N9), more sophisticated antiviral strategies are urgently needed to prevent and control potential pandemics with emerging influenza strains.

      Several natural products have been examined for their effects against influenza. Standardized elderberry (接骨木 Jiē Gǔ Mù; Sambucus nigra) liquid extract exerts in vitro antiviral effects against IFA, IFB, as well as respiratory bacterial pathogens. A licensed commercial extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots inhibits the entry of IFA, impairs viral hemagglutination as well as neuraminidase activity, and improves the symptoms of influenza-infected mice. The aqueous extract from dandelion (蒲公英 Pú Gōng Yīng; Taraxacum officinale) impedes IFA infection and decreases its polymerase activity as well as the nucleoprotein (NP) RNA level. Spirooliganone B from the roots of Illicium oligandrum exhibits potent anti-IFA activities. A multitude of secondary plant metabolites have also been identified as potential influenza NA inhibitors, and more recent ones include chalcones from Glycyrrhiza inflata, xanthones from Polygala karensium, and homoisoflavonoids from Caesalpinia sappan (蘇木Sū Mù). Further exploration of these natural anti-influenza agents for clinical application will help broaden the drug portfolio for prophylactic/therapeutic treatment of potential flu epidemics or pandemics.

      MV is an enveloped, negative-sense ssRNA virus of the Morbillivirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. MV causes measles, an acute infection of the respiratory system characterized by fever, conjunctivitis, coughing, runny nose, nausea, and a generalized macular red rash over the body. Complications can occur leading to pneumonia and encephalitis, which can be potentially fatal.[123] Although highly contagious through contact of respiratory droplets or airborne aerosols, immunization against measles given as a three-part MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella) has made MV infection relatively uncommon in developed countries. As recovery usually follows uncomplicated MV infection, there are currently no specific antiviral treatments for measles. Despite the existence of a successful vaccine against MV, the virus remains a major killer of children in developing countries. Another serious problem is the re-emergence of measles in vaccinated populations and in non-immunized adults, as highlighted by outbreaks in recent years. These issues emphasize MV's medical importance and the need to develop suitable drug therapies.

      Efforts have been made at identifying natural products that inhibit MV and include a number of East and Southeast Asian traditional medicines, the herbal decoction Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (升麻葛根湯 Shēng Má Gé Gēn Tang), the Cherokee remedy spicebush, plant biflavonoids isolated from Rhus succedanea (野漆 Yě Qī) and Garcinia multiflora, calcium spirulan from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, and several Rwandan and Ugandan medicinal plant extracts, among others previously reviewed. In addition, several traditional dietary herb additives of the Maasai, including Olinia rochetiana (Olkirenyi) and Warburgia ugandensis (Osokonoi), have been reported to inhibit MV infection in vitro. Another example is the plant extracts of Cajanus cajan which have been recently suggested to possess anti-MV activity, although the bioactive constituents remain elusive. The two tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin also show robust effects against MV infection, particularly by inactivating the virus particles, interrupting the binding and fusion phases during viral entry, and preventing post-infection virus spread. Chebulagic acid and punicalagin could, therefore, serve as potential entry inhibitors to MV.

      RSV is an enveloped negative-strand ssRNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. It is a ubiquitous pathogen and the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children. Virtually all children become infected with RSV before the age of 2 years. RSV infection typically results in mild symptoms in healthy adults, but can lead to bronchiolitis or pneumonia in infants and immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, infant RSV infection poses a potential risk for childhood asthma. Although RSV causes the most severe disease in young infants, it continues to plague humans throughout the course of a lifetime. Immunity to RSV is generally not sufficient to provide protection and, consequently, humans are prone to repeated reinfections which can be life-threatening in the elderly or immunocompromised.

      Currently, immunization against RSV is unavailable, and the few therapies that exist for the treatment of RSV infections such as palivizumab (monoclonal antibody against RSV fusion protein) and ribavirin (nucleoside analogue) are only moderately effective or limited in efficacy. Thus, there is a need to develop novel antivirals for the management of RSV infections. Several plant-derived natural products have been demonstrated to exhibit anti-RSV activity. Uncinoside A and B, the two chromone glycosides isolated from Selaginella uncinata, potently inhibit RSV infection. Three biflavonoids, namely genkwanol B, genkwanol C, and stelleranol, extracted from Radix Wikstroemiae, have been observed to display antiviral activity against RSV. Several flavone 6-C-monoglycosides from the leaves of Lophatherum gracile (淡竹葉 Dàn Zhú Yè) have been shown to reduce RSV infection in cytopathic effect-reduction assay. We have previously also identified several anti-RSV natural medicines, including the herbal prescription Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (升麻葛根湯 Shēng Má Gé Gēn Tang) which is used for treating respiratory diseases, its major component herb Cimicifuga foetida L. (升麻 Shēng Má), as well as the plant-associated bioactive compound cimicifugin. In addition, the broad-spectrum antiviral activity that we have demonstrated for the hydrolyzable tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin also includes antiviral effects against RSV infection. Specifically, the two tannins can inactivate RSV particles and also block viral entry-related events, including binding and fusion. Interestingly, both chebulagic acid and punicalagin are, however, ineffective against RSV post-infection spread, but could abrogate the same event in MV, which is another paramyxovirus. Besides targeting the viral infection, some natural products may help improve RSV-induced respiratory tract symptoms, including airway inflammation. Resveratrol is one such example, which has been observed to down-regulate IFN-γ levels and prevent airway inflammation/hyperresponsiveness during RSV infection in mice, suggesting its applicability in reducing RSV-induced airway symptoms.

      As many viruses remain without preventive vaccines and effective antiviral treatments, eradicating these viral diseases appears difficult. Nonetheless, natural products serve as an excellent source of biodiversity for discovering novel antivirals, revealing new structure–activity relationships, and developing effective protective/therapeutic strategies against viral infections. Many natural products and herbal ingredients are observed to possess robust antiviral activity and their discoveries can further help develop derivatives and therapeutic leads (e.g., glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives as novel anti-HBV agents, acetoxime derivative from the Mediterranean mollusk Hexaplex trunculus as inhibitor against HSV-1, and caffeic acid derivatives as a new type of influenza NA antagonist). Our discovery of chebulagic acid and punicalagin being capable of inhibiting entry of several viruses due to their GAG-competing properties could help develop broad-spectrum antivirals for prevention and control of these viral pathogens. As many studies in this domain are only preliminary, further exploration in characterizing the bioactive ingredients, defining the underlying mechanisms, as well as assessing the efficacy and potential application in vivo is encouraged in order to help develop effective antiviral treatments. Furthermore, additional studies should also examine the possibility of combination therapies with other natural agents or with standard therapeutics, as a multi-target therapy may help reduce the risk of generating drug-resistant viruses. We believe that natural products will continue to play an important role and contribute to antiviral drug development.

      Food Preservatives from Plants
      By Hubert Antolak and Dorota Kregiel | Submitted: September 21st 2016Reviewed: June 9th 2017Published: September 6th 2017 | DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70090

      It has long been shown that phytochemicals protect plants against viruses, bacteria, fungi and herbivores, but only relatively recently we have learnt that they are also critical in protecting humans against diseases. A significant amount of medicinal plants is consumed by humans. As food‐related products, they additionally improve human health and general well‐being. This chapter deals with plant‐derived food preservatives. Particular attention has been paid to the following berry fruits: cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and açaí (Euterpe oleracea), as well as the following herbs and spices: peppermint (Mentha piperita), basil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioica), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark, cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as alternative sources of natural antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents with potential use in food industry.

      Both the aqueous extracts and peppermint oils exhibit potent antiviral properties towards herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza, vaccinia virus, suppressing replicative ability of HSV‐1 . It has been found that virulence of both herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 is inhibited by peppermint oil.

      The extract of elderberry flowers has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of influenza A and B, colds, as well as an agent against the H1N1 virus. What is more, phenolic compounds from V. macrocarpon exhibit antiviral (against influenza A virus and type‐1 herpes simplex virus), antimutagenic, antiangiogenic, anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

      Food Additive Status List 

      This Food Additives Status List, formerly called Appendix A of the Investigations Operations Manual (IOM), organizes additives found in many parts of 21 CFR into one alphabetized list. Additives included are those specified in the regulations promulgated under the FD&C Act, under Sections 401 (Food Standards), and 409 (Food Additives). The Food Additives Status List includes short notations on use limitations for each additive. For complete information on its use limitations, refer to the specific regulation for each substance. New regulations and revisions are published in current issues of the Federal Register as promulgated. Also refer to the Food Ingredient and Packaging inventories in the Foods section of the FDA web site to review several FDA databases of additive categories. For example, the EAFUS list (Everything Added to Food in the United States), is a helpful reference within the limitations described at the beginning of the database. Read more here.

      Information On Viruses From Wikipedia

      A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.

      Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, of the millions of types of viruses in the environment. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.

      While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, i.e. long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope, about one hundredth the size of most bacteria.

      The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction. Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, although they lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", and as replicators.

      Viruses spread in many ways. One transmission pathway is through disease-bearing organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; and viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, passed by contact and entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that a virus can infect is called its "host range". This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many.

      Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV infection, and viral hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed.

      Influenza Antiviral Medications: Summary for Clinicians

      The information on this page should be considered current for the 2019-2020 influenza season for clinical practice regarding the use of influenza antiviral medications. Clinicians may also wish to consult the IDSA antiviral treatment and antiviral chemoprophylaxis recommendations, the AAP Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, and the ATS-IDSA Adult CAP Guidelines.

      Antiviral treatment is recommended as early as possible for any patient with confirmed or suspected influenza who: 

      • is hospitalized;
      • has severe, complicated, or progressive illness; or
      • is at higher risk for influenza complications.

      Decisions about starting antiviral treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza. For outpatients with acute uncomplicated influenza, oral oseltamivir, inhaled zanamivir, intravenous peramivir, or oral baloxavir may be used for treatment. For patients with severe or complicated illness with suspected or confirmed influenza (e.g., pneumonia, or exacerbation of underlying chronic medical condition) who are not hospitalized, antiviral treatment with oral or enterically-administered oseltamivir is recommended as soon as possible. Read more here.

      Virus Inactivation Mechanisms: Impact of Disinfectants on Virus Function and Structural Integrity

      Oxidative processes are often harnessed as tools for pathogen disinfection. Although the pathways responsible for bacterial inactivation with various biocides are fairly well understood, virus inactivation mechanisms are often contradictory or equivocal. In this study, we provide a quantitative analysis of the total damage incurred by a model virus (bacteriophage MS2) upon inactivation induced by five common virucidal agents (heat, UV, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, and chlorine dioxide). Each treatment targets one or more virus functions to achieve inactivation: UV, singlet oxygen, and hypochlorous acid treatments generally render the genome nonreplicable, whereas chlorine dioxide and heat inhibit host-cell recognition/binding. Using a combination of quantitative analytical tools, we identified unique patterns of molecular level modifications in the virus proteins or genome that lead to the inhibition of these functions and eventually inactivation. UV and chlorine treatments, for example, cause site-specific capsid protein backbone cleavage that inhibits viral genome injection into the host cell. Combined, these results will aid in developing better methods for combating waterborne and foodborne viral pathogens and further our understanding of the adaptive changes viruses undergo in response to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Read more here.

      Inactivation Of Influenza Virus By Mild Antiseptics 

      A number of antiseptics were tested for their inactivating effect upon the virus of influenza during a brief period of exposure. This was accomplished by preparing mixtures of the antiseptics and virus, allowing them to remain in contact for 3 minutes, diluting the mixtures to the point where they would not be toxic for chick embryos and then injecting the material into embryonated eggs. Survival of the embryos indicated inactivation of the virus. The following preparations were found to inactivate the virus in 3 minutes or less: phenol, 3 per cent; tincture of iodine, U.S.P. XII, 0.1 per cent; Lugol's solution, U.S.P. XII, 1 per cent; mercuric chloride, 1:1000; potassium permanganate, 1:1000; copper sulfate, 1 per cent; propylene glycol, 90 per cent; liquor antisepticus, N.F. VII, 80 per cent. Read more here.

      Mundipharma Presents Research on Efficacy of BETADINE(R) Formulations Against MERS at Inaugural International Meeting on Respiratory Pathogens (IMRP)

      SINGAPORE, Sept. 3, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (MERSCoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. MERS-CoV, like other coronaviruses, is thought to spread from an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as through coughing. However, the precise ways the virus spreads are not currently well understood. It has a high fatality rate of approximately 36%. Since September 2012, 1461 cases and at least 514 deaths in 25 countries have been confirmed, with a fresh outbreak appearing in Saudi Arabia on 18 August. More than two million pilgrims are projected to visit the Muslim holy city of Mecca in for the annual hajj pilgrimage in September and the Ministry of Health of Saudia Arabia has stepped up efforts to contain the current outbreak of the virus.

      BETADINE® (povidone iodine, PVP-I), has proven strong efficacy against a wide variety of clinically relevant viruses. A recent in-vitro research study, conducted at Marburg University, Germany, on BETADINE® surgical scrub (7.5% PVP-I), skin cleanser (4% PVP-I), gargle and mouthwash (1% PVP-I) products demonstrated virucidal in-vitro efficacy against infectious pathogens such as MERs, SARs and Influenza that have reported to cause hospital acquired infections and serious consequences on public health.

      The study was conducted based on the latest EU test standard EN14476:2014 for antiviral enveloped virus testing (similar to that for Ebola). The results of excellent virucidal activity of variousBETADINE® products against Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were demonstrated with a rapid kill rate of ≥99.99% with 15 seconds.

      To date, there is no specific medication or vaccination available to effectively combat MERS or its spread, highlighting the importance of good personal hygiene as the first line of defence in disease prevention and infection control.

      Multiple nonpharmaceutical interventions are required for successful infection control. During high risks of respiratory infections, healthcare workers are encouraged to use gloves and masks as physical barrier against infectious pathogens. Simple hygiene practices such as gargling and hand washing are among the principal means of the prevention of respiratory transmitted infections.

      Current guidelines have also suggested healthcare workers to observe proper hand hygiene for decontamination against viruses before and after the change of gloves and masks. Aseptic hand washing with an antiseptic hand wash is deemed as a higher level of hand hygiene over social hand washing. Aseptic hand washing provides the removal and destruction of viruses via disruption of viral replication and metabolic processes.

      Encouragement of gargling is important for the control of opportunistic and community acquired infections in Japan8.The primary goal is to encourage everyone to take precautions not only to prevent infection to themselves but also prevent as much human exposure to the respiratory virus as possible.

      The recently completed study indicates the potential role of PVPI in protecting against the spread of infection among healthcare workers and the public during infectious disease outbreaks. Adhering to WHO-issued guidelines on hand, respiratory and PPE (personal protective equipment), coupled with PVPI broad virucidal efficacy will help in disrupting the transmission of viruses and limiting the spread of infectious diseases.

      "This study not only highlights exciting new findings about the broad spectrum virucidal efficacy of PVPI against a wide range of viruses including MERs, it also reminds us that prevention through proper hygiene is still required to protect the health of both healthcare professionals and the public in the global fight against viral diseases," said Prof Maren Eggers, Head of Experimental Virology and Department of Disinfectant Testing at the Laboratory Prof. G Enders, MVZ Stuttgart. "We must continue to be vigilant and employ all of the weapons including proven PVPI products in our arsenal to fight this unseen enemy."

      "Healthcare professionals are the first and often, only line of defence against the phalanx of health threats including MERS facing the world today," says Raman Singh, President, Mundipharma, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East & North Africa. "Mundipharma will continue to work with healthcare professionals around the globe to ensure that they are fully equipped with protective measures including BETADINE® to enable them to continue the fight in this time pressing war against emerging and re-emerging infections." Read more here.

      What Inhibits And Inactivates Viruses?

      What Does Not Kill The Coronavirus

      What Is A Virus?

      A virus is an infectious agent that can only replicate within a host organism. Viruses can infect a variety of living organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. Viruses are so small that a microscope is necessary to visualize them, and they have a very simple structure. When a virus particle is independent from its host, it consists of a viral genome, or genetic material, contained within a protein shell called a capsid. In some viruses, the protein shell is enclosed in a membrane called an envelope. Viral genomes are very diverse, since they can be DNA or RNA, single- or double-stranded, linear or circular, and vary in length and in the number of DNA or RNA molecules.

      The viral replication process begins when a virus infects its host by attaching to the host cell and penetrating the cell wall or membrane. The virus's genome is uncoated from the protein and injected into the host cell. Then the viral genome hijacks the host cell's machinery, forcing it to replicate the viral genome and produce viral proteins to make new capsids. Next, the viral particles are assembled into new viruses. The new viruses burst out of the host cell during a process called lysis, which kills the host cell. Some viruses take a portion of the host's membrane during the lysis process to form an envelope around the capsid.

      Following viral replication, the new viruses may go on to infect new hosts. Many viruses cause diseases in humans, such as influenza, chicken pox, AIDS, the common cold, and rabies. The primary way to prevent viral infections is vaccination, which administers a vaccine made of inactive viral particles to an unaffected individual, in order to increase the individual's immunity to the disease.

      How Known Drugs Could Be Applied To The Current Coronavirus Outbreak
      Victoria Corless | February 6, 2020 | Advanced Science News

      Researchers around the world are tirelessly working to provide treatment options for the newly emerged 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), an infectious virus that is thought to have originated in a Wuhan seafood market in December of last year. As the number of infected people continues to rise — as of February 4, 2020, the number surpassed 20 000 people, with current numbers estimated at 20 530 — and with the current trajectory of the outbreak unknown, understanding the virus’ biology, as well as public health and medicinal measures, will be needed to contain the spread and optimize patient care.

      The first genome sequence of 2019-nCoV was made public in early January, which has led to diagnostic tests for the virus, as well as enhanced knowledge regarding its biology and evolution. And while efforts are being spent toward developing a vaccine, researchers from Texas A&M University suggest that we could learn from the past to produce urgently needed treatment options for those already affected.

      The team was led by Wenshe Liu, and in their study — published in ChemBioChem — the researchers suggest four potential drug candidates that could be used to treat patients currently suffering from the virus. “Although it is essential to develop vaccines, small molecules, and biological therapeutics to specifically target the 2019-nCoV, it is unlikely that any effort made at the moment will benefit patients in the current outbreak,” said the authors.

      An efficient approach to drug discovery is to test whether existing therapeutics for similar viruses are effective in treating current viral infections. 

      “2019-nCoV shares 82% sequence identity with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV),” they stated, “and more than 90% sequence identity in several essential enzymes. What we have learned from several medicinal chemistry studies about SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) may be directly used in helping us treat the 2019-nCoV.”

      Drugs such as ribavirin, interferon, lopinavir-ritonavir, and corticosteroids, have been used previously to treat SARS or MERS, and may have potential in improving patient outcomes during this current outbreak.

      Similar to the SARS, the current coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, contains a large “spike protein”, which it uses to bind to host cells and then gain entry through the cell’s membrane. The receptor these viruses target is called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Vaccines were developed for SARS which specifically target the spike protein and ACE2 receptor, and while amino acid sequences of spike proteins in 2019-nCoV and SARS do show some overlap, mutations in the current virus might lower the efficacy of previously developed therapeutics. However, similar ideas may be applied in developing 2019-nCoV vaccines.

      “Alternative approaches are to directly use the 2019-nCoV [receptor binding domain] in combination with immunity-promoting agents to trigger the body to develop antibodies for neutralizing the virus … Before any potent therapeutics to neutralize the 2019-nCoV-[ACE2 receptor] interaction are available, a possible quick solution to block this interaction is to use [peptides derived from the] 2019-nCoV receptor binding domain and their combination cocktails.”

      Once inside the cell, 2019-nCoV attaches to the host cell’s ribosome — a cell’s protein factory — where it overrides the cell’s machinery to produce two polyproteins. RNA viruses in many families (including the coronavirus family) express their genomes using the synthesis and subsequent cleavage of precursor polyproteins within a host cell. After the coronavirus’ polyproteins are produced, two enzymes — specifically, coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) — are known to participate in processing the polyproteins into smaller components used for producing new viruses. In addition, in order to replicate the RNA genome, the CoV encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is a replicase or an enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of a complementary RNA molecule using template.

      Therapeutics currently targeting the previously mentioned spike protein, RdRp, 3CLpro, and PLpro enzymes are possible treatment options for 2019-nCoV, according to the authors of the study. The team therefore proposes four known potential drug candidates, which were previously used to treat SARS. These include an ACE2-based peptide; the antiviral drug remdesivir; the 3CLpro inhibitor, 3CLpro-1; and a novel vinylsulfone protease inhibitor.

      “Since remdesivir is a drug undergoing a clinical trial, the authority in China may negotiate with Gilead in possible use of this drug for patients suffering with the2019-nCoV,” say the authors.

      Given what we have learned from similar outbreaks, it is hoped that application of current therapeutics will not only aid in alleviating the suffering of those currently affected, but will also help in the development of broad spectrum anti-coronaviral agents for future epidemics.