Buy Antiviral Hand Sanitizer Ingredients, EPA-Registered Disinfectants (List N) That Inactivate Viruses, Antiviral Products And Antiviral Chemical Compounds

Buy EPA-Registered Disinfectants (List N), Antiviral Disinfection Products, Antiviral Agents, Chemical Sanitizers And Pharmaceutical Grade Ingredients | Best Rated Medical Disinfectant Solutions And Sprays | Antiviral Chemical Compounds For Topical Solutions And Hand Sanitizers For Sale Online At LabAlley.com

How To Make Antiviral Hand Sanitizers, Cleaning Products And Disinfectants

Buy Antiviral Disinfectants, Antiviral Chemical Compounds, Antiviral Ingredients For Food And Medicine, Antiviral Drug Components, Antiviral Substances And Antiviral Cleaning Products Online Here Or By Phone: 512-668-9918

If you have questions about ordering antiviral products online here at LabAlley.com or would like to place an order, call 512-668-9918 or email customerservice@laballey.com to talk with an Antiviral Product Specialist. Use this 10% discount code to buy antiviral products online or by phone in the U.S: LAB10OFF.  

Get information from Google to help your small business manage through the uncertainty caused by COVID-19 here. Buy bulk natural ingredients and antiviral raw materials for safe recipes for DIY homemade hand sanitizers here. Buy antiviral compounds for research and manufacturing.

Find out how to kill viruses here. Viruses can be eliminated with soap, bleach, alcohol, food or UV light. Almost all cleaning products are in high demand in April 2020 because of allergies, the flu season and the coronavirus crisis. Buy the best EPA-approved disinfectants to kill the coronavirus here.

A+ Virus Killers | Soap, Bleach, Alcohol, Lysol, Peroxide

Almost all cleaning products are in high demand in April 2020 because of allergies, the flu season and the coronavirus crisis. Buy the best EPA-approved disinfectants to kill the coronavirus here. Learn how to kill viruses in your body and home. Get information on the best methods for killing viruses here. There is scientific research that indicates that the following items can mitigate and inactivate viruses: soap, Clorox Disinfecting Bleach, EPA-registered disinfectants, Lysol Clean & Fresh Multi-Surface Cleaner, hydrogen peroxide, Clorox Toilet Bowl Cleaner with Bleach, Microban, 70% alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, Clorox Pet Solutions Stain & Odor Remover, household cleaners, herbs, antiviral drugs, food, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, UV light, copper, essential oils, detergents, chlorine and vaccines.

Shop Online For The Best Rated Coronavirus Disinfectants And Virus Killers To Prevent The Spread Of Infectious Diseases At LabAlley.com
04/06/20

List N: Products With Emerging Viral Pathogens And Human Coronavirus Claims For Use Against SARS-CoV-2

Protection For U.S. Consumers From Fraudulent Coronavirus Disinfectant Claims
Posted on April 4, 2020 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Andrew Wheeler hosted an interactive telephone call with U.S. retailers and third-party marketplace platforms to discuss imposter disinfectant products and those that falsely claim to be effective against the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19. The E.P.A. has threatened legal proceedings against vendors of bogus coronavirus (COVID-19) cleaners, disinfectants and sanitizers. While such products might not be harmful, they offer the public a dangerously false sense of protection that could deter social distancing and promote the spread of COVID-19. The federal government is asking online retailers to take unregistered products that falsely claim protection from coronavirus off the market. The EPA has continued to add new surface disinfectant products to List N in an effort to combat COVID-19. Any brand that claims to kill or repel bacteria or viruses should be tested and registered by the E.P.A. and with the federal government. 

U.S. Distilleries Buy Ethanol, Glycerin And Hydrogen Peroxide At LabAlley.com To Make Hand Sanitizers And Handrub Formulations
March 23, 2020

Sales of hand sanitizers in the U.S. are way up. These products are becoming scarce in the face of the growing COVID-19 outbreak. Download the World Health Organization's recipe for recommended handrub formulations here

Distilleries in the U.S. purchase alcohol and ethanol at LabAlley.com to produce a 160-proof clear spirit to use as a hand sanitizer. Get a complete list of distilleries (Including Anheuser-Busch) making hand sanitizers instead of spirits here.  Anheuser-Busch and distilleries are racing to make hand sanitizers amid the Coronavirus pandemic.

American distilleries are assisting their communities by producing their own hand sanitizer using a recipe from the World Health Organization. The recipe "starts with ethanol, which is what we have plenty of in the distillery, then you add glycerin, hydrogen peroxide water and you mix it up," Scott Jendrek, owner of Patapsco Distilling Co. in Sykesville, Maryland, told a local NBC News affiliate.

Antiviral Products For Sale Online

Sales of hand sanitizers, disinfectants, chemical sanitizers and medical cleaners have skyrocketed in 2020. Ingredients for hand sanitizer recipes are selling at a brisk pace online at LabAlley.com.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Several new antiviral compounds and potent and selective antiviral agents against herpes virus infections have been developed. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. 

Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses can be pathogenic to higher plants. To transmit from one plant to another and from one plant cell to another, plant viruses must use strategies that are usually different from animal viruses. Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Researchers from the University of the Mediterranean in Marseille, France have found tenuous evidence that suggest a virus common to peppers, the Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) may have moved on to infect humans. Read more here.

Learn about antiviral chemicals for plant disease control here. Learn about the existing gaps in plant virus disease control where there is a commercial need for chemotherapeutants here. Learn about the effects of animal antiviral chemicals on plant viruses, here.

Viruses are very tiny germs made of genetic material inside of a protein coating. Viral infections play a key role in human diseases. Quercetin, morin, rutin, taxifolin, dihydrofisetin, leucocyanidin, pelargonidin chloride, apigenin, catechin, hesperidin, and naringin have been reported to possess antiviral activity against some of 11 types of viruses.

Because lots of viruses lack efficient antiviral therapies and preventive vaccines, antiviral compounds sold at LabAlley.com, such as Quinine Sulfate and Benzalkonium Chloride are used medicinally because of their antiviral effect

Because viruses use vital metabolic pathways within host cells to replicate, they are difficult to eliminate without using drugs that cause toxic effects to host cells in general. The most effective medical approaches to viral diseases are vaccinations to provide immunity to infection, and antiviral drugs that selectively interfere with viral replication.

Phenolic compounds are derived from the secondary plant metabolism, although they can also be obtained by synthetic processes. Many studies have shown a great range of pharmacological effects for these substances, including vasodilatation, antiallergenic, antiinflammatory and antiviral properties, among others.

Antiviral drugs are used in the U.S. to treat viral infections rather than bacterial infections. Buy antiviral phenolic compounds at LabAlley.com for disinfection, food and medicinal uses here.

Hospitals in the United States by hospital grade disinfectants and antiviral cleaning chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, isopropyl alcohol, 100% alcohol, 95% alcohol and 70% alcohol at LabAlley.com. American consumers, businesses and healthcare facilities buy supplies and chemical ingredients to manufacture Coronavirus infection protection products here.

U.S. firms buy chemical substances and antiviral substances online at LabAlley.com to manufacture antiviral agents which inhibit production of viruses that cause disease. Food manufacturing facilities order hydrochloric acid and ascorbic acid to kill viruses. Acidic ozone water made with hydrochloric acid can deactivate H1N1 viruses very effectively. Agricultural and botanical businesses in the U.S. buy chemical supplies from LabAlley.com to make medicinal oils and tinctures that kill viruses. Home-based cosmetic manufacturers order antiviral substances such as trichloroacetic acid to make skin care products and personal care products.

A number of different organic acids sold online at LabAlley.com produce residual antirhinoviral activity. Salicylic acid, fumaric acid, and benzoic acid produced at least a 2-log reduction in viral titersHydrogen peroxide sold online at LabAlley.com is antiviral, antibacterial and anti-fungal. Hospitals frequently order this product for virus inactivation processes. H2O2 is a convenient means for virus inactivation.

Does Lysol Kill The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)?

The EPA has established a list of disinfectants (List N) that meet their criteria for use against SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19. The following Lysol products are those that meet either the EPA Viral Emerging Pathogen Policy or have human coronavirus claims. Listed below are Lysol products with their EPA registration numbers.

 

 

Buy EPA Certified Lysol Disinfectant Sprays To Kill Viruses 

Buy EPA Certified Lysol Disinfecting Wipes To Kill Viruses 

Buy EPA Certified Lysol Multi-Purpose Cleaners To Kill Viruses

Buy Lysol Bathroom Cleaners To Kill Viruses

Lysol Laundry Sanitizer To Kill Bacteria

Please Refer To The CDC Website For Additional Information

DIY Hand Sanitizers, Face Masks And Disinfecting Sprays | DIY Alternatives for When Stores Are Out of Coronavirus-Fighting Products
April 4, 2020

DIY hand sanitizers were the index species in the current wave of shelf extinctions, with usually plentiful supplies of Purell gel and similar products vanishing fast. Even without sanitizers, epidemiologists stress there is an exceedingly reliable alternative that works just as well: wash your hands with soap and water. Read more here.

Learn About The U.S. National Pandemic Strategy 

These documents guide the United States’ preparedness and response in an influenza pandemic, with the intent of stopping, slowing or otherwise limiting the spread of a pandemic to the United States; limiting the domestic spread of a pandemic, mitigating disease, suffering and death; and sustaining infrastructure and mitigating impact to the economy and the functioning of society. 

CleanSmart Disinfectant Spray Mist Kills 99.9% Of Viruses, Bacteria, Germs, Mold And Fungus

CleanSmart Disinfectant Spray Mist leaves no chemical residue and is great to clean and sanitize CPAP masks and parts. Simply spray, no rinsing, no wiping, air dry. Safe for food contact on counters and all appliances. Free of alcohol, ammonia, bleach, fragrances and dyes. 100% safe to spray and store around children and it breaks down to saline after use. Read more here.

Chemical Disinfection Of Virus‐Contaminated Surfaces

Chemical disinfection is widely practiced as a means of controlling and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although disinfection of bacteria has been widely studied, much less attention has been paid to the virucidal potential of commonly used disinfectants in spite of the low infective dose of many human pathogenic viruses. This review considers what is known about the disinfection of viruses and the virucidal properties of different classes of disinfectant chemicals. It focuses on virus disinfection from a practical viewpoint and also critically evaluates the testing techniques currently used for examining the efficacy of disinfectant products. Read more here.

Factors In The Selection Of Surface Disinfectants For Use In A Laboratory Animal Setting

Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the ‘gold standard’ for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. Read more here.

Antiviral Compounds And Bioactive Compounds

COVID-19 is novel type of coronavirus that is affecting the entire planet. Viral infections such as COVID-19, continuously imperil worldwide public health because of a shortage of good antiviral therapeutics. Antiviral compounds are deployed against fatal viruses like HIV, Hepatitis C, Human herpesvirus 6 and Hepatitis B

Antiviral compounds (AVCs) are a category of antimicrobial drugs used specially for treating viral infections by inhibiting the development of the viral pathogen inside the host cell. Review a list of antiviral drugs here. Several potent and selective antiviral agents against herpes virus infections have been developed. Research other methods for killing viruses here

Some natural small molecules that could reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, possibly by inhibiting viral lipid-dependent attachment to host cells, are currently being studied. Companies such as R&D Systems (a brand of Bio-Techne) and Lab Alley sell antiviral compounds online. Firms such as BioGems (PeproTech brand), CPC Scientific, Sigma-Aldrich and R&D Systems sell antiviral compounds and products such as bioactive small molecules, small drug molecules and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Enveloped viruses can be killed by antimicrobial peptides.

The four FDA-approved antiviral flu drugs recommended by CDC to treat the flu are oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza), baloxavir marboxil (trade name Xofluza®) and peramivir (Rapivab). The FDA assists sponsors in the development of antiviral drugs and biological products. 

A bioactive compound is a type of chemical found in small amounts in plants and certain foods. Studies are being conducted to evaluate the medicinal potential of bioactive compounds against COVID-19. Bioactive compounds have actions in the body that may promote good health. They are being studied in the prevention of diseases. Bioactive compounds are substances that have biological activity, related to their ability to modulate one or more metabolic processes. Bioactive compounds such as fatty acids have an effect on the body as a whole or specific tissues or cells. Bioactive compounds have a positive role in human health.

Medium-chain saturated and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids are highly active against enveloped viruses. Bioactive compounds sold online at LabAlley.com include saturated fatty acids such as stearic acid and palmitic acid

Antiviral Activity Of Lugol's Solution (Lugol's Iodine)

Lugol's Iodine, also known as aqueous iodine and strong iodine solution, is a solution of potassium iodide with iodine in water. Iodine products and Lugol's Iodine are sold online at LabAlley.com. Cleaning with iodine may stop the spread of virusesJean Guillaume Auguste Lugol (18 August 1786 – 16 September 1851) was a French physician. It has been know for a long time that iodine kills viruses. Povidone iodine has been used in hospitals under the brand name Betadine. BETADINE® is used for upper respiratory tract infection care.

ViruScrub Coronavirus Disinfectant, Mildewcide, Fungicide & Virucide Cleaner

For use as a general, hospital, medical disinfectant, fungicide and virucide cleaner. Kills HIV, HBV and HCV on pre-cleaned hard, non-porous surfaces/objects previously soiled with blood/body fluids. This product can also be used as a non-acid toilet bowl and urinal disinfectant/cleaner. Cleans and disinfects shower rooms, locker room and other large, open areas with floor drains.

Applicable Locations:
Ideal for hospitals, medical and dental offices and clinics, healthcare facilities, nursing homes, day care centers and nurseries, kindergartens, and preschools, restaurants and bars, kitchens, cafeterias, fast food operations, supermarkets, convenience stores, retail and wholesale establishments. Institutional facilities, laboratories, factories, business and office buildings, restrooms, hotels and motels, schools, colleges, churches, athletic facilities and locker rooms, exercise facilities, gymnasiums. Read more here.

Coronavirus Pandemic Sparks Price Surge for Alcohol Used in Hand Sanitizer
April 4, 2020 

A leap in demand for isopropyl alcohol pushes prices to record highs in U.S. and Europe. A key ingredient in hand sanitizers and medical disinfectants has become hard to obtain, triggering its price to surge to an all-time high. Isopropyl-alcohol prices have more than tripled in the U.S. since March 10. Read more here.

Antiviral Compound Database 

In spite of significant success in medicine in last decades, development of effective new antiviral agents and vaccines continue to be a challenging task for the modern drug discovery. Viruses share most of the metabolic processes of host cells, thereby making difficult search of selective antiviral agents. However, some enzymes are only present in viruses and these are potential and most attractive targets for antiviral drugs.

For instance, there are several key enzymes, which are involved in the processes with nucleic acids like DNA- and RNA-polymerases. Also, reverse transcriptases possess high potential as antiviral targets. The success of previously approved anti-HCV drug Sofosbuvir has demonstrated the potency of small molecules and the important role of viral RNA-polymerases as drug targets. The series of new drug candidates with nucleoside-like scaffolds introduced by Gilead have shown promising results in treating of serious viral infections such as recently emerged Coronavirus, Ebola and RSV. Read more here.

Types Of Antiviral Products Sold Online At LabAlley.com

About EPA Approved Disinfectants

3M™ Disinfectant Concentrates and U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy

Due to the 2019-nCoV being a newly emerging pathogen there is no U.S. EPA registered disinfectant currently available on the market with the 2019-nCoV efficacy claim specifically listed on their container label. The U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy allows for professional judgments on effectiveness of disinfectants with current registrations with similar, representative microorganism families based on their cell structures. A person with the appropriate knowledge and technical skills to analyze such information can make a determination based on published information on disinfectant cleaners that meet the U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy for use on non-critical, hard, non-porous surfaces as defined by U.S. EPA. The following products are U.S. EPA-registered 3M disinfectants that meet U.S. EPA’s Emerging Pathogen Policy.

EPA Registered, Quaternary Disinfectant Cleaners | Kills HIV-1, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), MRSA, VRE, KPC, Rotavirus, Acinetobacter, VRE, Herpes Simplex I And Other Pathogens

EcoLab Virasept Surface Disinfectant Cleaner

According to the company, Virasept is a patented ready-to-use, one-step detergent-disinfectant, virucide, bactericide, tuberculocide, fungicide, and sporicide that effectively cleans, disinfects, and deodorizes. It won't harm fixtures and is formulated for daily use. Buy it online at Walmart.com.

Buy Safe Ingredients And Chemicals For DIY Homemade Hand Sanitizers, Cosmetics, Makeup, Lotions, Soaps, Household Cleaning Products, Laboratory Sterilization, Food And Beverage Processing, Skin Care Formulations, Hospital Disinfectants, Personal Care Products, Botanical And Essential Oils, Botanical Extracts, Pharmaceutical Drugs, Herbal Tinctures, Kid Safe Pools, Pest Control Products, Lawn Care Products, Chemistry Labs, Natural Health Supplements And Vitamins, Coronavirus Disinfection Products, Perfumes, Hospital Grade Detergents, Disinfecting Wipes And Disinfectant Sprays At LabAlley.com

Buy bulk natural ingredients and antiviral chemicals, bulk food grade chemicals and organic raw materials for safe recipes for DIY homemade hand sanitizers here. Buy antiviral hand sanitizer ingredients, antiviral disinfectants, antiviral products and antiviral chemical compounds here. Buy antiviral hospital grade disinfectants, pharmaceutical grade substances, hand sanitizers, sterilization sprays, wipes, cleaners and detergents here

Buy lab supplies, laboratory glassware, chemical crystals and powders, oils, gels, spray bottles and stock chemical solutions to make Coronavirus disinfectants here. You can also buy other compounds and additives for safe hand sanitizer recipes, cosmetics and personal care products at LabAlley.com. Find out how chemicals are made, sold, priced, bought, shipped and used in the United States here.

Popular additives for skin care products purchased online in bulk at wholesale prices at LabAlley.com include food grade ethanol, 100% alcohol, 95% alcohol, 70% alcohol, 99% isopropyl alcohol, 91% isopropyl alcohol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 6% hydrogen peroxidefood grade hydrogen peroxide, food grade (FCC) vegetable glycerin, Food Grade (FCC) glycerol, solvents, aqueous acids and acids in crystalline powder form.

Shop for popular ingredients used to formulate DIY homemade personal care products such as high purity water, citric acid, menthol crystalsnatural peppermint oil, Polysorbate 80, phenol, trichloroacetic acid  (TCC), denatured alcoholn-Propanol, MCT (Coconut Oil), sodium hypochloritesalicylic acid, fumaric acidsodium hydroxide, triethanolaminebenzalkonium chloridetriethylene glycolpropylene glycol, ammonium hydroxide, olive oil at LabAlley.com. Buy antiviral hand sanitizer ingredients, antiviral disinfectants, antiviral products and antiviral chemical compounds here. Buy antiviral hospital grade disinfectants, pharmaceutical grade substances, hand sanitizers, sterilization sprays, wipes, cleaners and detergents here. Buy lab supplies, chemical powders, oils, gels, spray bottles and chemical solutions to make Coronavirus disinfectants here at LabAlley.com.

US IPA Prices Soar On Rising Global Demand And Supply Shortage
Author: Deniz Koray | Published By ICIS On March 19, 2020
Posted Here On March 27, 2020

HOUSTON (ICIS)--US isopropanol (IPA) prices surged this week on heavy demand for hand sanitizer during the coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis, and there are no quick fixes for either the strong demand or the shortages of product. While European prices had risen to even higher numbers in the past month, US increases had been modest. However, prices surged this week, as domestic IPA spot prices are now assessed at 62-85 cents/lb ($1,367-1,874/tonne) FOB (free on board) US Gulf. IPA prices DEL (delivered) to the US Gulf are assessed at 64-90 cents/lb. 

DOMESTIC IPA MARKETS
Until this week, prices in the US were increasing at much smaller rates than in Europe, generally in the range of 5 cents/lb or less. However, this week was a tipping point for the domestic market, as the US response to the coronavirus was heightened. Isopropyl alcohol is used in many hand sanitizers, which are in high demand among consumers because of their ability to kill germs. Hand sanitizers were among the first products to sell out at grocery stores and pharmacies, but demand has increased since then. It was believed that the US was not seeing the level of IPA price increases as in Europe since it had more ethanol. However, due to the increase in US exports to Europe as well as the rapid rise domestic demand, supply of IPA was nevertheless overwhelmed. One market participant said many producers were on sales allocations, but this could not be confirmed.

EXPORT MARKETS
Last week, an export deal for Europe was heard at $1,350/tonne (61.24 cents/lb) CFR (cost and freight) Europe. Another was heard at $1,700/tonne CFR Europe. This week, prices for individual deals were heard for up to triple these numbers in Europe on imported IPA. However, these are not yet considered representative for the market. According to a market source, prices of exports to Asia in the past several days doubled, while another market participant said that Latin American demand began to heavily increase this week, but that there was almost no supply to provide to buyers there. Export prices now range from 57.52-95.00 cents/lb, although much higher individual spot prices were heard. IPA is a solvent principally used in industrial and consumer products including cosmetics and personal-care products, paints and resins, pharmaceuticals, food, inks and adhesives. It is also used in de-icers in the winter. US IPA suppliers include ExxonMobil, Dow Chemical, LyondellBasell, Monument Chemical and Shell Chemical.

Glycerol Inactivates Viruses

Effect of glycerol on intracellular virus survival: implications for the clinical use of glycerol-preserved cadaver skin. 

Glycerol has long been used for the preservation of skin allografts. The antimicrobial activity of glycerol has not been fully documented. This paper reports the results of an investigation of a model studying the effect of glycerol on the inactivation of intracellular viruses. Two viruses--herpes simplex type I (HSV-1) and poliovirus--were cultured within human dermal fibroblasts. These intracellular viruses were incubated with 50 per cent, 85 per cent and 98 per cent glycerol at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C for 4 weeks. Each week, the cultures in glycerol and controls in fibroblast maintenance medium were assayed for virus infectivity by examining the ability of harvested viruses to infect further fibroblasts. At 4 degrees C, 85 per cent glycerol could not fully inactivate intracellular HSV-I or poliovirus even after 4 weeks; 98 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (after 3 weeks) but could not fully inactivate intracellular poliovirus after 4 weeks. At 20 degrees C, 85 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (within 1 week) but could not fully inactivate intracellular poliovirus after 4 weeks; 98 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (within 1 week) and inactivated intracellular poliovirus (after 2 weeks). It is suggested that, on the basis of this study, glycerol can reduce intracellular virus infectivity but that its effects are very dependent on concentration, time and temperature such that we would recommend that allograft skin be exposed to 98 per cent glycerol for a minimum of at least 4 weeks at a minimum temperature of 20 degrees C before clinical use.

Monolaurin, also known as glycerol monolaurate (GML), glyceryl laurate or 1-lauroyl-glycerol, is a monoglyceride. It is the mono-ester formed from glycerol and lauric acid. Monolaurin is known to inactivate lipid-coated viruses by binding to the lipid-protein envelope of the virus, thereby preventing it from attaching and entering host cells, making infection and replication impossible. Other studies show that Monolaurin disintegrates the protective viral envelope, killing the virus.Monolaurin has been studied to inactivate many pathogens including Herpes simplex virus and Chlamydia trachomatis. Read more here.

Ethanol Plants Seek Rule Changes To Resupply Hand Sanitizer
By David Pitt Associated Press March 26, 2020

Hospitals and nursing homes are desperately searching for hand sanitizer amid the coronavirus outbreak and the ethanol industry is ready to step in to provide the alcohol, a key ingredient.

DES MOINES, Iowa -- As hospitals and nursing homes desperately search for hand sanitizer amid the coronavirus outbreak, federal regulators are preventing ethanol producers from providing millions of gallons of alcohol that could be transformed into the germ-killing mixture. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's roadblock has been frustrating the health care and ethanol industries, which have been calling for a relaxed regulation to deal with the public health care emergency. “Hand sanitizer is a big part of our lives,” said Eric Barber, CEO of Mary Lanning Healthcare, a hospital in Hastings, Nebraska. “We can’t get any. We order it and it’s just not available.” The problem for the ethanol industry is that most plants make food-grade ethanol, one step below the highest pharmaceutical grade. But since the plants aren't certified to comply with stringent production standards designed to protect quality of medicines, food ingredients and dietary supplements, the FDA doesn't want the alcohol used for a product to be applied to the skin. In addition, the alcohol is not denatured or mixed with a bitter additive to make it undrinkable. The FDA insists this step is “critical” because of cases of poisoning, sometimes fatal, among young children who have accidentally ingested hand sanitizers. An FDA spokesman said Thursday that regulators have already seen a rise in poisonings linked to hand sanitizers in recent weeks, “heightening this public concern.” The FDA is also skeptical of industry claims that undenatured sanitizers could be distributed in a way that would keep them away from children. “It is unclear what, if any, measure could be instituted to ensure that the product does not make its way into consumer hands, where children could have access,” FDA’s Jeremy Kahn said in an emailed statement. Facing a nationwide shortage, Barber said the FDA should temporarily relax regulations to allow alternative production. “You’re talking about alcohol. Does it matter if it's fuel grade or whatever the stuff is they’re trying to price gouge now? I think its common sense,” he said. “We may need to consider a range of possible solutions that were not on the table before the pandemic,” said Nancy Foster, a vice president with the group, in an emailed statement to the AP. The Consumer Brands Association, formerly the Grocery Manufacturers Association, has had conversations with the FDA to push the agency to reconsider its guidelines. The group, which represents branded food, consumer products and beverage companies, said that hand sanitizer supplies are running so low that its members have had to ration it out to workers in stores, distribution centers and manufacturing plants. "We need a temporary solution," said Mike Gruber, vice president of regulatory and technical affairs at the trade association. “This goes toward ensuring basic food safety practices.” Distillers that produce vodka, whisky and other alcoholic drinks have been given some regulatory waivers by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau allowing them to produce hand sanitizer. Many have done that, but they produce much smaller volumes of alcohol than an ethanol plant could produce. They also receive a benefit in the Senate-passed stimulus bill. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, which represents dozens of large and small distillers, applauded Congress for easing taxes on distillers who make hand sanitizer. Under the stimulus package passed late Wednesday, distillers don’t have to pay federal excise taxes on alcohol used for hand sanitizer through Jan. 1, 2021. “Hundreds of U.S. distillers are stepping up to produce hand sanitizer and they should not be hit with a huge tax bill for producing this much-needed item, especially at a time when so many of them are struggling,” said Chris Swonger, the group’s president and CEO. But the council said it’s urging the FDA to update its guidance and let distillers use undenatured alcohol for hand sanitizer. The stimulus bill requires distillers to follow the FDA’s guidance if they want to receive the tax breaks. The FDA has waived dozens of regulations in recent weeks to boost production of key medical supplies, including coronavirus tests, ventilators, gloves and hand sanitizers. Under the latest FDA guidelines, regulators maintain standards for alcohol, requiring new producers to use alcohol that meets federal or international standards for use in either drugs or food products. The regulatory hurdles are especially frustrating for Midwest ethanol producers who are facing plunging fuel demand and a petroleum fight between Saudi Arabia and Russia that caused prices to plummet. The factors are forcing more plants to curtail production and close. For ethanol producers relaxed rules, including a requirement of the hard-to-acquire denaturant, would allow them to step in an help in a national emergency. “If we could get the FDA to say yes you can use the beverage grade and for the duration of this emergency at least for some point in time here for the next two weeks you can waive the denaturant we would literally have millions of gallons of hand sanitizer available within a matter of days,” said Monte Shaw, CEO of Iowa Renewable Fuels Association, an ethanol trade group. “Every one of our plants has gotten contacted by people who want this stuff and we can’t send it to them.” Andrew Vrbas owner of Pacha Soap, a boutique soap shop in Hastings, Nebraska, had just finished renovating a 100,000-square-foot former bread factory as a project to boost the community. Now, he’s preparing to set up hand sanitizer production there to supply to hospitals. He’s received calls from hospitals in Nebraska, Florida and New York City seeking hand sanitizer. “We are literally three miles from a plant that has as much ethanol as you could imagine,” he said. “We’re sitting on millions of gallons of alcohol. If we could rally the federal government to say look if you just let us work with local ethanol producers we have the expertise, we have the ability to provide hand sanitizer to hospitals not only in Nebraska but all across the country that are just reaching out through my network saying if you could send us hand sanitizer, we’re out.”

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Provides Guidance On Production Of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer To Help Boost Supply, Protect Public Health
March 20, 2020

As part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s ongoing commitment to address the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the agency has issued two guidance documents to communicate its policy for the temporary manufacture of certain alcohol-based hand sanitizer products. These guidance documents will be in effect for the duration of the public health emergency declared by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) on January 31, 2020.

“We are aware of significant supply disruptions for alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Many manufacturers make hand sanitizers, and several have indicated that they are working to increase supply,” said FDA Commissioner Stephen M. Hahn, M.D. “In the meantime, these guidances provide flexibility to help meet demand during this outbreak. We will continue to work with manufacturers, compounders, state boards of pharmacy and the public to increase the supply of alcohol-based hand sanitizer available to Americans.”

Because of an increased demand for alcohol-based hand sanitizers during the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been reports of some consumers attempting to make hand sanitizers for personal use. The agency lacks information on the methods being used to prepare such products and whether they are safe for use on human skin.

The guidance Temporary Policy for Preparation of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Products During the Public Health Emergency (COVID-19), is immediately in effect and outlines that the agency does not intend to take action against manufacturing firms that prepare alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumer use and for use as health care personnel hand rubs during this ongoing public health emergency as described in the guidance .

The second guidance, Policy for Temporary Compounding of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Products During the Public Health Emergency, is in effect for the temporary compounding of certain alcohol-based hand sanitizers by pharmacists in state-licensed pharmacies or federal facilities and registered outsourcing facilities. Compounding is generally a practice in which a licensed pharmacist, a licensed physician, or, in the case of an outsourcing facility, a person under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist, combines, mixes, or alters ingredients of a drug to create a tailor-made medication. The temporary policy outlined by the agency does not require compounders to obtain a patient-specific prescription.

The FDA’s guidance documents apply only to handrub products prepared using the United States Pharmacopoeia or Food Chemical Codex grade ingredients specifically described in the guidance, consistent with World Health Organization recommendations. The guidance documents also discuss product labeling and certain manufacturing methods and reporting requirements, such as that manufacturers must have a way to accept and submit adverse event reports to FDA for any products they manufacture.

The agency realizes that manufacturers and compounders will need time to ramp up production as they obtain the ingredients needed to make these hand sanitizers. During this time the FDA will work to assist them as they develop hand sanitizers to make available for the American public.

The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation's food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.

Coronavirus Resource Hub For Manufacturing Companies
March 23, 2020

Thomas has been the backbone of North American manufacturing for more than 120 years. Visit the Thomas Coronavirus Resource Hub for industrial professionals here. Get information on mission-critical pharmaceutical and medical sourcing options here.

New Antiviral Vaccines And Treatments

Several pharmaceutical and biotech companies are racing to develop vaccines and treatments for COVID-19. Gilead Sciences is currently looking to develop a treatment for COVID-19, namely a drug called remdesivir. Gilead Sciences has been moving rapidly to get remdesivir on the market. In late February, the company announced that it had initiated two phase 3 studies to investigate the efficacy of remdesivir as a treatment for COVID-19.

Johnson & Johnson partnered up with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop a vaccine for the disease. In a press release, Johnson & Johnson said it was looking to "screen its library of existing antiviral compounds with the goal of identifying those with antiviral activity against COVID-19."

Another company trying to develop a vaccine for COVID-19 is Moderna. This biotech company created a potential vaccine for the disease in record time and recently shipped a batch of this vaccine to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to begin a phase 1 study. Read more here.

Buy Chemical Compounds, Excipients, Powders And Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Substances From LabAlley.com To Develop And Produce Antiviral Drugs (Antiviral Agents)

Most of the antiviral drugs and antiviral agents now available are designed to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and influenza A and B viruses. Researchers are working to extend the range of antivirals to other families of pathogens. Antibiotic drugs are often classified by their spectrum of activity. These classifications include antibacterial medications, antifungal drugs, antimycobacterial drugs, antiparasitic/antiprotozoal/anthelminthic drugs and antiviral formulations. LabAlley sells chemicals and supplies used to manufacture antiviral medications. 

Viruses consist of a genome and sometimes a few enzymes stored in a capsule made of protein (called a capsid), and sometimes covered with a lipid layer (sometimes called an 'envelope'). Viruses cannot reproduce on their own, and instead propagate by subjugating a host cell to produce copies of themselves, thus producing the next generation. Researchers working on such "rational drug design" strategies for developing antivirals have tried to attack viruses at every stage of their life cycles

Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones. Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development.

Viruses represent a large group of infective agents that are composed of a core of nucleic acids, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a layer of protein. They are not really living organisms according to general understanding, since they lack the cell membrane that is associated with living cells. Viruses can reproduce only inside a living cell, and they cause many diseases. Viruses are not normally affected by antibiotics but a small number of viruses can either be destroyed or have their growth stopped by antiviral drugs.

Lab Alley sells lab equipment, chemical compounds, reagents, scientific instruments and laboratory supplies to drug manufacturing companies and pharmaceutical firms. Lab Alley customers synthesize antiviral drugs and produce pharmaceutical formulations through various processes which include milling, powder blending, granulation, coating, hot metal extrusion, tablet pressing and others. Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product. The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form.

Common chemicals purchased online at LabAlley.com by antiviral drug manufacturers include solvents used for extraction. Lab Alley also sells excipients and chemicals in powder form that are used in the pharmaceutical industry. Common excipients purchased online at LabAlley.com by pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises include starch, cellulose, alginates, silicon, silica compounds, stearic acid and magnesium stearate. Antiviral drug manufacturing operations and pharmaceutical companies in the U.S. purchase chemicals in a powdered, crystal, flake or crystalline form online at LabAlley.com.

Antiviral Wipes, Sprays And Soaps

Clorox wipes kill bacteria and viruses, and I don't have to wash after using them. Quote: Clorox Disinfecting Wipes kill 99.9% of viruses and bacteria, including cold and flu, E. Coli, Salmonella, Staph, and Strep. Read more here. Buy Conzerol Antiviral Molluscum Treatment Soap, here. Anti-viral disinfectant sprays help to stop the spread of bacterial and viral diseases such as PMV and Newcastle Disease.

Is Ethanol A Disinfectant?

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH) and 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol, (CH3)2CHOH) have similar disinfectant properties. They are active against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and lipid-containing viruses but not against spores. Their action on non-lipid-containing viruses is variable. Read more here. Learn about the viral activity of 70% ethanol vs enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, here.

Isopropyl Alcohol vs Ethanol

These two alcohols are the same actually when it comes to disinfectant properties. However, they have slight differences when it rubbed on the skin. Ethanol is the type of alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. Isopropyl alcohol is also known as isopropanol, 2-propanol or rubbing alcohol. Read more here.

Antiviral Activity Of Alcohol For Surface Disinfection

Bacteria and viruses from the patient's mouth travel with dental splatter and spills. A surface disinfectant should possess antiviral activity as well as antibacterial action. Because of frequent and 'open' application in the dental office, such a disinfectant should be non-toxic, non-allergenic and safe for the hygienist. It now appears that high-concentration alcohol mixtures (i.e. 80% ethanol + 5% isopropanol) are not only excellent antibacterials, but quickly inactivate HIV as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. Compared to alternative surface disinfectants, use of high-concentration alcohol for the spray-wipe-spray method of surface disinfection in dentistry appears safe and efficient. However, dried matter should be wiped and hydrated first. Read more here.

Use Antiviral Herbs to Boost Immune System and Fight Infection

Did you know that there are more than 400 different viruses that can cause infections, including the common cold, the flu, hepatitis, mononucleosis and HIV? Today, many people choose to have an annual influenza vaccination, or flu shot, but this is only 80 percent effective because of the mutating strains of the influenza virus; plus, these vaccines educate the immune system in an improper and unnatural manner, and often contain dangerous chemicals and preservatives. Luckily, there are a number of powerful antiviral herbs that boost the immune system, reduce inflammation and fight infections. The dried petals of the plant are used in tinctures, ointments and washes to treat infections, burns, wounds and cuts. Read more here.

How Much Do Antiviral Agents And Antiviral Drugs Cost?

Review prices and dosages for antiviral agents used for the treatment of Episodic Genital Herpes here. See the prices for antiviral drugs used to treat HIV, here.

Use Benzalkonium Chloride To Inactivate Viruses

Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 minutes of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Read more here

Type A influenza viIrus was inactivated by concentrations of benzalkoniunm chloride as low as 0.025 mng/iml. Measles and canine distemper viruses were also sensitive to the quaternary. Feline pneuiinonitis and miieningopneumionitis agents were inactivated by benzalkonium chloride after 10 minutes of exposure at room temperature. Rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, Seliliki Forest, and herpes simplex viruses were rapidly inactivated by low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride. Review more information on the virucidal activity of benzalkonium chloride for 13 viruses here.

Use Benzalkonium Chloride To Deactivate Viruses

Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 minutes of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Read more here

Type A influenza viIrus was inactivated by concentrations of benzalkoniunm chloride as low as 0.025 mng/iml. Measles and canine distemper viruses were also sensitive to the quaternary. Feline pneuiinonitis and miieningopneumionitis agents were inactivated by benzalkonium chloride after 10 minutes of exposure at room temperature. Rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, Seliliki Forest, and herpes simplex viruses were rapidly inactivated by low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride. Review more information on the virucidal activity of benzalkonium chloride for 13 viruses here.

Is Benzalkonium Chloride An Antiviral?

Benzalkonium Chloride Demonstrates Concentration-Dependent Antiviral Activity Against Adenovirus In Vitro. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a common preservative in ophthalmic medications and is the active ingredient in some skin disinfectants and hand sanitizers. Read more here.

Benzalkonium Chloride Disinfectant

Benzalkonium chloride is widely used as a preservative in eyedrops; in higher concentrations it is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Read more here.

Antiviral Phenolic Compounds And Phenolic Household Disinfectant Ingredients For Sale Online At LabAlley.com

Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. Phenolic compounds, have been studied extensively (biologically and chemically) due to their extensive antiviral activities. Learn about the cytotoxic, antiviral properties and anti-HSV-1 activities of phenolic compounds here. They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and handwashes. Phenol is probably the oldest known disinfectant as it was first used by Joseph Lister (pioneer of antiseptic surgery), when it was called carbolic acid.

Phenol is also called carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, oxybenzene, phenylic acid. a white, crystalline, water-soluble, poisonous mass, C6H5OH, obtained from coal tar, or a hydroxyl derivative of benzene: used chiefly as a disinfectant, as an antiseptic, and in organic synthesis.

Phenols are widely used in household products and as intermediates for industrial synthesis. For example, phenol itself is used (in low concentrations) as a disinfectant in household cleaners and in mouthwash. Phenol may have been the first surgical antiseptic. Read more here.

Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group (−C6H5) bonded to a hydroxy group (−OH). Mildly acidic, it requires careful handling because it can cause chemical burns. Read more here.

What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs

Can flu be treated?
Yes. There are prescription medications called “antiviral drugs” that can be used to treat flu illness. CDC recommends prompt treatment for people who have flu infection or suspected flu infection and who are at high risk of serious flu complications, such as people with asthma, diabetes (including gestational diabetes), or heart disease.

What are antiviral drugs?
Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an inhaled powder, or an intravenous solution) that fight against flu viruses in your body. Antiviral drugs are not sold over-the-counter. You can only get them if you have a prescription from a health care provider. Antiviral drugs are different from antibiotics, which fight against bacterial infections. Read more here.

Buy Antiviral Phenolic Compounds Online At LabAlley.com

Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and hand washes. Phenol (carbolic acid) is one of the oldest antiseptic agents. Phenol has good penetrating power into organic matter and is mainly used for disinfection of equipment or organic materials that are to be destroyed (eg, infected food and excreta).

Compounding Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer During COVID-19 Pandemic
March 24, 2020

This document is for informational purposes only and is intended to address shortages of alcohol-based hand sanitizers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This does not reflect the Compounding Expert Committee’s opinions on future development or revisions to official text of the USP-NF. USP is actively monitoring the evolving situation and will update this document accordingly.

Background and Introduction 

In light of the rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic, there is an expected shortage of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends washing hands with soap and water whenever possible because handwashing reduces the amounts of all types of germs and chemicals on hands. If soap and water are not available, using a hand sanitizer with a final
concentration of at least 60% alcohol can help you avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Noting that consumers are experiencing difficulties in accessing alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing at least 60% alcohol, on March 14, 2020, FDA released an Immediately in Effect Guidance titled, “Policy for Temporary Compounding of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer
Products During the Public Health Emergency.” During this pandemic, USP supports State Boards and other regulators using risk-based enforcement discretion related to the compounding of alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumer use.

The USP Compounding Expert Committee (CMP EC) provides the following recommendations for compounding alcohol-based hand sanitizers for use during shortages associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of the public health emergency posed by COVID-19, this document was developed without a public comment period. This document is not a USP compendial standard; rather, it reflects considerations developed by the USP CMP EC, based on their scientific and professional expertise, and with input from regulatory agencies at the federal and state level. If implementing the provisions in this document, the expectation is that compounders follow USP General Chapter <795>
Pharmaceutical Compounding – Nonsterile Preparations, including the following:

  • Personnel trained in the compounding procedures
  • USP, NF or Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) grade ingredients as the recommended source of ingredients | When components meeting compendial quality standards are not obtainable, components of equivalent quality – such as those that are chemically pure, analytical reagent grade or American Chemical Society-certified – may be used.
  • All equipment to be clean, properly maintained, and used appropriately
  • A Master Formulation Record and Compounding Record to be prepared
  • A Beyond-Use Date to be assigned
  • The preparation to be appropriately labeled | Label to note the final concentration of ethanol or isopropyl alcohol 

The following are three formulations for compounding alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Formulation 1 and 2 were developed based on WHO recommendations.

Formulation 1: Ethanol Antiseptic 80% Topical Solution

Prepare Ethanol Antiseptic Topical Solution containing ethanol 80% (v/v) as follows (see Pharmaceutical Compounding—
Nonsterile Preparations <795>).

  • Ethanol 96% 8333 mL
  • Hydrogen Peroxide 3% 417 mL
  • Glycerol 98% 145 mL
  • Water, a sufficient quantity to make 10000 mL | Water may be distilled water, cold boiled potable water, reverse osmosis water, or filtered water

Measure the quantities of Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Glycerol in suitable containers. Transfer the Ethanol and Hydrogen Peroxide into a suitable calibrated container and mix gently. Transfer the Glycerol stepwise and quantitatively into the calibrated container and mix gently after each addition. Rinse the container containing glycerol several times with water and add the contents to the calibrated container. Add sufficient Water to bring to final volume. Mix well. Transfer the solution into suitable containers.

  • Packaging and Storage: Package in suitable containers and store at controlled room temperature.
  • Labeling: Label to state for external use only, the percentage of ethanol, and the Beyond-Use Date.
  • Beyond-Use Date: NMT 30 days after the date on which it was compounded, when stored at controlled room temperature. 

Formulation 2: Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic 75% Topical Solution

Prepare Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic Topical Solution containing isopropyl alcohol 75% (v/v) as follows (see Pharmaceutical Compounding—Nonsterile Preparations <795>)

Measure the quantities of Isopropyl Alcohol, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Glycerol in suitable containers. Transfer the Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide into a suitable calibrated container and mix gently. Transfer the Glycerol stepwise and quantitatively into the calibrated container. Mix gently after each addition. Rinse the container containing glycerol several times with Water and add the contents to the calibrated container. Add sufficient Water to bring to final volume. Mix well. Transfer the solution into suitable containers.

  • Packaging and Storage: Package in suitable containers and store at controlled room temperature.
  • Labeling: Label to state for external use only, the percentage of isopropyl alcohol, and the Beyond-Use Date.
  • Beyond-Use Date: NMT 30 days after the date on which it was compounded, when stored at controlled room temperature.

Formulation 3: Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic 60% Topical Solution

Prepare Isopropyl Alcohol Antiseptic Topical Solution containing isopropyl alcohol 60% (v/v) as follows (see Pharmaceutical Compounding—Nonsterile Preparations <795>).

Measure the quantities of Isopropyl Alcohol, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Glycerol in suitable containers. Transfer the Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide into a suitable calibrated container and mix gently. Transfer the Glycerol stepwise and quantitatively into the calibrated container. Mix gently after each addition. Rinse the container containing glycerol several times with Water and add the contents to the calibrated container. Add sufficient Water to bring to final volume. Mix well. Transfer the solution into suitable containers.

  • Packaging and Storage: Package in suitable containers and store at controlled room temperature.
  • Labeling: Label to state for external use only, the percentage of isopropyl alcohol, and the Beyond-Use Date.
  • Beyond-Use Date: NMT 30 days after the date on which it was compounded, when stored at controlled room temperature.

Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity Of Phenolic Compounds And Derivatives Against Rabies Virus

Phenolic compounds are derived from the secondary plant metabolism, although they can also be obtained by synthetic processes. Many studies have shown a great range of pharmacological effects for these substances, including vasodilatation, antiallergenic, antiinflammatory and antiviral properties, among others. Read more here.

Book | Phenolic Compounds in Food: Characterization and Analysis

Phenolic compounds, one of the most widely distributed groups of secondary metabolites in plants, have received a lot of attention in the last few years since the consumption of vegetables and beverages with a high level of such compounds may reduce risks of the development of several diseases. Read more here.

Phenolic Household Disinfectants | Further Precautions Required

Phenolic disinfectants (e.g. Meytol, Dettol, etc.) are widely used for domestic purposes. Instructions on the bottles are clearly given with regards to the dilutions that should be used. In domestic cleaning, these instructions are often ignored and higher concentrations are used with the thinking that 'the more I pour, the cleaner it gets!'. Furthermore, cleaning equipment is sometimes stored without prior rinsing with fresh water. As water evaporates much faster than phenol, the solution on stored mops/ brushes, etc. becomes progressively more and more concentrated and can cause chemical burns when these utensils are handled at a later time. We therefore suggest that two further instructions should be added to the usual instructions on bottles of household phenolic disinfectants, namely: 'wear gloves when performing domestic cleaning' and 'wash all cleaning equipment with plenty of fresh water after use'. We support this by a case report of a 65-year-old man who sustained full-thickness, painless chemical burns to his right hand after handling a moist mop which had been used for cleaning a carpet with a phenolic household disinfectant solution 2 days earlier. Read more here.

Lab Alley Supplies Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Firms With Raw Materials And Equipment Used To Manufacture Antiviral Medications

Common antiviral drugs manufactured by Lab Alley customers in the United States include: Abacavir, Abacavir sulfate, Adefovir, Adefovir Dipivoxil, Amantadine HCL, Amprenavir, Arbidol hydrochloride, Asunaprevir, Atazanavir, Balapiravir, Baloxavir marboxil, BCX 4430 hydrochloride, BCX4430 freebase, Bictegravir, BMS 806, Boceprevir, Brivudine, Cabotegravir, Carbovir triphosphate triethylamine, Cidofovir anhydrous, Cidofovir dihydrate, Cobicistat, Combivir (Lamivudine), Copegus (Ribavirin), Cytarabine, Daclatasvir, Darunavir ethanolate, Delavirdine mesylate, Dolutegravir, Doravirine, Efavirenz, Elbasvir, Elvitegravir, Emtricitabine, Emtricitabine, Enfuvirtide acetate, Enocitabine, (1R,3S,4R)-Entecavir, Entecavir hydrate, Equisetin, Etravirine, Faldaprevir, Famciclovir, Famvir, Favipiravir, Foscarnet (Foscavir), Foscarnet sodium, Ganciclovir, GS 331007, GS 441524 NEW, GS 441524 triphosphate, GS 5734, GSK 2838232, GSK 8175, N-Boc-protected -Guanidino Oseltamivir, Hepcinat (Sovaldi), HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, IFN-alpha products, Indinavir sulfate, Lamivudine, Ledipasvir, Lersivirine, Letermovir, Lopinavir, Maraviroc, Nelfinavir mesylate, Nevirapine,  oseltamivir (Tamiflu), Oseltamivir acid, Penciclovir, Peramivir (Rapivab), Peramivir trihydrate, Pibrentasvir, Pimodivir, Pleconaril, Raltegravir, Raltegravir, Raltegravir potassium, Ribavirin, Rilpivirine, Rimantadine hydrochloride, Ritonavir, RYL 634, Saquinavir, Saquinavir mesylate, Simeprevir, Simeprevir sodium, Sofosbuvir, Sofosbuvir, Telaprevir, Tenofovir, Tenofovir diphosphate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tipranavir, Tizoxanide - 98%, Umifenovir, L-Valacyclovir hydrochloride, Vicriviroc, Vicriviroc malate, Vidarabine (Vira-A), Vidarabine monohydrate, Zalcitabine, zanamivir (Relenza), Zanamivir hydrate, Zidovudine, Ziresovir and Zovirax.

Antiviral Product Development — Conducting and Submitting Virology Studies to the FDA Agency

The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the development of antiviral drugs and biological products (i.e., therapeutic proteins and monoclonal antibodies) from the initial preIND through the new drug application (NDA) and postmarketing stages. This guidance should serve as a starting point for understanding what nonclinical and clinical virology data are important to support the submission of an investigational new drug application (IND), NDA, or biologics license application (BLA) for approval of an antiviral product. This guidance focuses on nonclinical and clinical virology study reports and makes recommendations for collecting and submitting resistance data to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Nonclinical and clinical virology study reports, based on collected data, are essential for the FDA’s review of antiviral drug investigational and marketing applications. Specific topics discussed in this guidance include:

  • Defining the mechanism of action
  • Establishing specific antiviral activity of the investigational product
  • Assessing the potential for antagonism of other antiviral products that might be used in combination with the investigational product
  • Providing data on the development of viral resistance to the investigational product
  • Providing data that identify cross-resistance to approved antiviral products having the same target

The recommendations in this guidance are based on the antiviral product review experience of the Division of Antiviral Products and input from pharmaceutical sponsors and the scientific community. Because of the experience, history, and lessons learned with HIV-1 studies, this guidance employs studies commonly used to evaluate HIV-1 products as a paradigm for studies of products to treat other viruses. Although assays and model systems vary with different viruses, many of the principles in this guidance can be applied to antiviral products in development for the treatment of other viral infections (e.g., hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, influenza virus, rhinovirus, cytomegalovirus, and human papillomavirus). Since the field of virology is dynamic and continually evolving, this guidance will be revised as new information accumulates and as circumstances warrant. Read more here.

Plant Phenolic Compounds as Potential Lead Compounds in Functional Foods for Antiviral Drug Discovery

Phenolic compounds are a class of the most widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants. They may function as pollination, pigment constituents and protection against UV radiation and predation for plants. Plant phenols have been studied for hundreds of years, and have acted as the major class of compounds that show great activity against various viruses such as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr virus, equid herpesvirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, respiratory syncytial and canine distemper viruses. Because of the extensive antiviral activities, phenolic compounds have been widely investigated both chemically and biologically. The distribution of hydroxyl groups and ester group accounts for different antiviral activities of phenolic compounds, and research of these compounds has revealed that phenols have great potential for the development as therapeutic agents against various viruses. As a result, dozens of phenols in functional foods have been discovered to display antiviral activity.

Objective: This review emphasizes structure classification and antiviral activities of plant phenolic compounds, which are expected to provide guides for rational design of antiviral drugs. Read more here.

Influenza (Flu) Antiviral Drugs And Related Information | Get Information On Medicines And Vaccine For The Flu

The term influenza refers to illness caused by influenza virus. This is commonly called the flu, but many different illnesses cause flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, aches and pains, cough, and sore throat. Influenza virus infection can cause different illness patterns, ranging from mild common cold symptoms to typical flu. Some people may be at increased risk for bacterial complications of influenza such as pneumonia, ear or sinus infections, or bloodstream infections. There are a number of drugs approved by the FDA for the treatment and prevention of influenza but they are not a substitute for yearly vaccination. Yearly vaccination is the primary means of preventing and controlling influenza. Antibiotics are used to treat illnesses caused by bacteria like strep throat, tuberculosis and many types of pneumonia. Antibiotics do not treat viral illnesses like flu, colds, and most sore throats. Read more here.

Antiviral, Antibacterial, and Anti-fungal Foods: The What, Why, and How

Just like the human body, plant-based foods have their own built-in defense mechanisms. When humans eat certain foods with these defenses, the body can actually ingest and invest in those same defenses. This is why current health trends boast hot topic words such as antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-fungal. Yet, besides the implication of cold-fighting properties, do we really know what these terms mean? Beyond simply understanding the terms, do we know how these substances work in the human body, where to obtain the best sources of them, and what the best way is to ingest them? If you already know the answers to this question, then you’re far ahead of the rest of us! If you don’t, read on further to find out. Antiviral refers to a property that fights viruses. So, let’s start our education of antiviral by unpacking what a virus is and how natural antiviral foods can help fight it. Viruses cause diseases, some serious and some not so serious. They are “tiny package[s]” of DNA or RNA “jacketed in a protein covering.” The only goal of a virus is to create more viruses, which is exactly what happens when a virus infects a cell. Once the infected cell dies, it releases all of the newly created viruses that go on to infect more cells, and so on and so forth. Read more here.

15 Impressive Herbs with Antiviral Activity

Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural treatments for various illnesses, including viral infections. Due to their concentration of potent plant compounds, many herbs help fight viruses and are favored by practitioners of natural medicine. At the same time, the benefits of some herbs are only supported by limited human research, so you should take them with a grain of salt. Here are 15 herbs with powerful antiviral activity: Oregano, Sage, Basil, Fennel, Garlic, Lemon Balm, Peppermint, Rosemary, Echinacea, Sambucus, Licorice, Astragalus, Ginger, Ginseng And Dandelion. Read more here.

What Are Antiviral Drugs?

Antiviral drugs are medicines that decrease the ability of flu viruses to reproduce. When used as directed, antiviral drugs may help reduce the duration of flu symptoms in otherwise healthy children and adults and may reduce the severity of common flu symptoms. Read more here.

Antiviral Drug Supply

CDC is in regular contact with influenza antiviral manufacturers regarding supply and other issues. There are currently no major market shortages of antiviral drugs for treatment of influenza being reported. Read more here.

Antiviral Compounds And Their Mode Of Action

Many antiviral compounds are nucleoside or nucleotide analogues whose mechanism of action is inhibition of viral nucleic acid synthesis. Foscarnet is not a nucleoside or nucleotide analogue but rather a pyrophosphate that blocks the pyrophosphate-binding site on the viral DNA polymerase. Read more here.

Top Ten Natural Anti-Viral Agents

Winter is the time of year when we seem to be particularly vulnerable to all kinds of illnesses that are caused by viruses including colds, flu and cold sores. A virus is not to be confused with bacteria, which causes infection. Viruses are tiny bits of nucleic acids that contain information and use your body’s cells tor create more copies of themselves. There are very few treatments, allopathic or natural that can kill a virus outright, as usually a virus must run its course. However the list of natural remedies here come as close to stopping a virus in its tracks as Mother Nature can get. | COLLOIDAL SILVER, ELDERBERRY, ECHINACEA, GARLIC, GREEN TEA, Liquorice, OLIVE LEAF, PAU D’ARCO, ST JOHN’S WORT | Read more here.

With Minimal Evidence, Trump Asks F.D.A. to Study Malaria Drugs for Coronavirus

Antibacterial, Antiviral and Immunity Items to Stock Up on ASAP | March 13, 2020

As the threat of COVID-10 continues to rise in the United States, everyone is clamoring to get their hands on any disinfecting and sanitizing products they can. While it’s unclear the impact particular products will have in improving the situation, it’s always good to be prepared for whatever comes our way. There’s nothing worse than showing up to a store only to be greeted by empty shelves in this trying time. And clicking a link on Amazon and seeing that said product is not in stock is just as frustrating. Read more here.

Antiviral Compounds From Plants

A range of active compounds have been identified which could be the potential antiviral agents for future drug development. Some plants like Allium sativum, Daucus maritimus, Helichrysum aureonitens, Pterocaulon sphacelatum and Quillaja saponaria emerged to have broad spectrum antiviral activity. Read more here.

Antiviral Agents From Plants And Herbs: A Systematic Review

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many antiviral compounds presently in clinical use have a narrow spectrum of activity, limited therapeutic usefulness and variable toxicity. There is also an emerging problem of resistant viral strains. This study was undertaken to examine the published literature on herbs and plants with antiviral activity, their laboratory evaluation in vitro and in vivo, and evidence of human clinical efficacy.

METHODS: Independent literature searches were performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CISCOM, AMED and Cochrane Library for information on plants and herbs with antiviral activity. There was no restriction on the language of publication. Data from clinical trials of single herb preparations used to treat uncomplicated viral infections were extracted in a standardized, predefined manner.

RESULTS: Many hundreds of herbal preparations with antiviral activity were identified and the results of one search presented as an example. Yet extracts from only 11 species met the inclusion criteria of this review and have been tested in clinical trials. They have been used in a total of 33 randomized, and a further eight nonrandomized, clinical trials. Fourteen of these trials described the use of Phyllanthus spp. for treatment of hepatitis B, seven reporting positive and seven reporting negative results. The other 10 herbal medicines had each been tested in between one and nine clinical trials. Only four of these 26 trials reported no benefit from the herbal product.

CONCLUSIONS: Though most of the clinical trials located reported some benefits from use of antiviral herbal medicines, negative trials may not be published at all. There remains a need for larger, stringently designed, randomized clinical trials to provide conclusive evidence of their efficacy. 

Antiviral Drugs Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Drug Class, By Application (HIV, Hepatitis, Influenza), By Type (Branded, Generic), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2020 - 2027

The global antiviral drugs market size was valued at USD 56.4 billion in 2019 and is expected to register a CAGR of -2.3% over the forecast period. Antiviral drugs are used for the treatment of viral infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis, and influenza. Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs can be used to treat a range of viruses. Moreover, several investigational drugs for the treatment of HIV infection are currently in the pipeline. Increasing instances of HIV infections are estimated to drive the demand for antiviral drugs. Increasing prevalence of viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza is expected to drive the demand for antiviral drugs. For instance, according to data published by the WHO, hepatitis B caused around 887,000 deaths in 2015. Moreover, it was estimated that around 257 million patients were living with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 2015. This is expected to drive the demand for efficient treatment solutions such as antiviral drugs. Read more here.

What Are The Modes Of Action Of Antiviral Drugs?

For over 60 years, the use of microbially-produced or semi-synthetic antibiotics has helped to cure life-threatening bacterial diseases in many millions of people. The development of drugs to effectively combat viral diseases, however, has proven to be much more difficult. But advances in understanding the detailed molecular biology of virus replication cycles, coupled with determination of detailed three dimensional structures of viral molecules, are now making possible the development of highly specific and effective anti-viral drugs.

In principle, a molecule can act as an anti-viral drug if it inhibits some stage of the virus replication cycle, without being too toxic to the body's cells. The possible modes of action of anti-viral agents would include being able to ...

1. Inactivate extracellular virus particles.
2. Prevent viral attachment and/or entry.
3. Prevent replication of the viral genome.
4. Prevent synthesis of specific viral protein(s).
5. Prevent assembly or release of new infectious virions.

The first types of somewhat effective anti-viral drugs were nucleoside analogues, developed several decades ago, which are able to interfere with viral genome replication. Nucleoside analogs are the most frequently used drugs, and for activation they have to be converted to their triphosphate form. A type of nucleoside analogs may inhibit SARS-CoV RdRP. Nucleoside analog inhibitors are dNTPs or rNTPs that lack 3'-OH group. The 1990's saw the development of the first specific inhibitors of viral protease activity. The 2000's have seen the development of a few new enzyme-inhibitor type drugs and research on the possibility of short-length RNA molecules being able to inhibit viral gene expression. As we investigate how some of these drugs work at the molecular level, we must keep in mind that the potential problem of the emergence of mutant virus strains resistant to a drug is always a concern. Read more here.

Cytopathogenesis and Inhibition of Host Gene Expression by RNA Viruses

Many viruses interfere with host cell function in ways that are harmful or pathological. This often results in changes in cell morphology referred to as cytopathic effects. However, pathogenesis of virus infections also involves inhibition of host cell gene expression. Thus the term “cytopathogenesis,” or pathogenesis at the cellular level, is meant to be broader than the term “cytopathic effects” and includes other cellular changes that contribute to viral pathogenesis in addition to those changes that are visible at the microscopic level. The goal of this review is to place recent work on the inhibition of host gene expression by vigorous antiviral defense. Such observations support the idea that the role of the virus-induced inhibition of host gene expression is to inhibit the host antiviral response. This idea is not new. Some of the earliest papers that describe the virus-induced inhibition of host RNA and protein synthesis relate these effects to the inhibition of the host cell interferon response (see, e.g., references 132 and 139). The argument will be made in this review that the ability to inhibit the host antiviral response through the inhibition of host gene expression is a critical aspect of viral pathogenesis. The principle that viruses may inhibit host gene expression in order to inhibit the antiviral defense of the host is pretty straightforward. However, sorting out the relationship between viral cytopathogenesis and the host antiviral response can be difficult in practice. Read more here.

Antiviral Potential Of Medicinal Plants Against HIV, HSV, Influenza, Hepatitis, And Coxsackievirus: A Systematic Review

Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are alarming threats and a serious health concern. For viral hepatitis, the interferon and vaccine therapies solely are not ultimate solutions due to recurrence of hepatitis C virus. Owing to the growing incidences of viral infections and especially of resistant viral strains, the available therapeutic modalities need to be improved, complemented with the discovery of novel antiviral agents to combat refractory viral infections. It is widely accepted that medicinal plant heritage is nature gifted, precious, and fueled with the valuable resources for treatment of metabolic and infectious disorders. The aims of this review are to assemble the facts and to conclude the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants in the eradication and management of various viral diseases such as influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis, and coxsackievirus infections, which have been proven in diverse clinical studies. The articles, published in the English language since 1982 to 2017, were included from Web of Science, Cochrane Library, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed by using relevant keywords including plants possessing antiviral activity, the antiviral effects of plants, and plants used in viral disorders. The scientific literature mainly focusing on plant extracts and herbal products with therapeutic efficacies against experimental models of influenza, HIV, HSV, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus were included in the study. Pure compounds possessing antiviral activity were excluded, and plants possessing activity against viruses other than viruses in inclusion criteria were excluded. Hundreds of plant extracts with antiviral effect were recognized. However, the data from only 36 families investigated through in vitro and in vivo studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. The inferences from scientific literature review, focusing on potential therapeutic consequences of medicinal plants on experimental models of HIV, HSV, influenza, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus have ascertained the curative antiviral potential of plants. Fifty-four medicinal plants belonging to 36 different families having antiviral potential were documented. Out of 54 plants, 27 individually belong to particular plant families. On the basis of the work of several independent research groups, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants against listed common viral diseases in the region has been proclaimed. In this context, the herbal formulations as alternative medicine may contribute to the eradication of complicated viral infection significantly. The current review consolidates the data of the various medicinal plants, those are Sambucus nigra, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Hypericum connatum, holding promising specific antiviral activities scientifically proven through studies on experimental animal models. Consequently, the original research addressing the development of novel nutraceuticals based on listed medicinal plants is highly recommended for the management of viral disorders.

Antiviral Face Mask

A regular face mask won't stop the coronavirus. Biomask™ inactivates 99.99% of tested influenza viruses on 5min contact with the surface of the face mask.
Tested on specific seasonal flu viruses, pandemic H1N1, avian and swine & equine, the biomask has a hydrophilic plastic coating that rapidly absorbs aerosol droplets away from the outer surface of the mask. The first and second layers of the mask are treated with different compounds that inactivate influenza viruses. Rapid absorption ensures the influenza A & B viruses are wicked away from the outer surface. In the outer active layer, viruses are inactivated by exposure to a low pH environment. Read more here.

What Are Antiviral Agents?

Antiviral agents are used to inhibit production of viruses that cause disease. Most antiviral agents are only effective while the virus is replicating. It is difficult to find medicines that are selective for the virus as viruses share most of the metabolic processes of the host cell. However, some enzymes are only present in viruses and these are potential targets for antiviral drugs. Agents that inhibit the transcription of the viral genome are DNA polymerase inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Protease inhibitors inhibit the post-translational events. Other antiviral agents inhibit the virus from attaching to or penetrating the host cell. Immunomodulators induce production of host cell enzymes, which stop viral reproduction. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors prevent integration of the viral DNA into the host DNA by inhibiting the viral enzyme integrase. Neuraminidase inhibitors block viral enzymes and inhibit reproduction of the viruses. Read more here

Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agents 

Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. Current development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents targeting viral infectivity and modulating host defense system has substantially advanced the fields of virology and pharmaceutics and significantly contributed to the health care of human and animals. However, there are concerns of viral resistance associated with agents targeting viral components and non-specific side effects associated with agents targeting cellular machineries. Accordingly, how to reduce viral resistance and increase drug specificity are current challenges to be addressed. Whether combined uses of agents to target both viral components and cellular machineries may improve antiviral efficacy, reduce viral resistance, and minimize toxicity in the control of viral infection and epidemic viral diseases needs to be clarified. Read more here.

Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines
by LT Lin - ‎2014 | Liang-Tzung Lin, Wen-Chan Hsu, and Chun-Ching Lin

Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines.

Viruses are responsible for a number of human pathogeneses including cancer. Several hard-to-cure diseases and complex syndromes including Alzheimer's disease, type 1 diabetes, and hepatocellular carcinoma have been associated with viral infections.Moreover, due to increased global travel and rapid urbanization, epidemic outbreaks caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses represent a critical threat to public health, particularly when preventive vaccines and antiviral therapies are unavailable. Examples include the recent emergence of dengue virus, influenza virus, measles virus, severe acute espiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, and West Nile virus outbreaks. To date, however, many viruses remain without effective immunization and only few antiviral drugs are licensed for clinical practice. The situation is further exacerbated by the potential development of drug-resistant mutants, especially when using viral enzyme-specific inhibitors, which significantly hampers drug efficacy. Hence, there is an urgent need to discover novel antivirals that are highly efficacious and cost-effective for the management and control of viral infections when vaccines and standard therapies are lacking.

Herbal medicines and purified natural products provide a rich resource for novel antiviral drug development. Identification of the antiviral mechanisms from these natural agents has shed light on where they interact with the viral life cycle, such as viral entry, replication, assembly, and release, as well as on the targeting of virus–host-specific interactions. In this brief report, we summarize the antiviral activities from several natural products and herbal medicines against some notable viral pathogens including coronavirus (CoV), coxsackievirus (CV), dengue virus (DENV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza virus, measles virus (MV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

CORONAVIRUS
CoV is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family. The CoV family consists of several species and causes upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections in mammals and birds. In humans, it mainly causes common cold, but complications including pneumonia and SARS can occur. The known human CoV (HCoV) includes HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63, -HKU1, and the more widely known severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) which caused a global threat with high mortality in 2003. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated a sixth type of HCoV infection identified as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) which is associated with high fatality.

There are no specific treatments for CoV infection and preventive vaccines are still being explored. Thus, the situation reflects the need to develop effective antivirals for prophylaxis and treatment of CoV infection. We have previously reported that saikosaponins (A, B2, C, and D), which are naturally occurring triterpene glycosides isolated from medicinal plants such as Bupleurum spp. (柴胡 Chái Hú), Heteromorpha spp., and Scrophularia scorodonia (玄參 Xuán Shēn), exert antiviral activity against HCoV-22E9. Upon co-challenge with the virus, these natural compounds effectively prevent the early stage of HCoV-22E9 infection, including viral attachment and penetration. Extracts from Lycoris radiata (石蒜 Shí Suàn), Artemisia annua (黃花蒿 Huáng Huā Hāo), Pyrrosia lingua (石葦 Shí Wěi), and Lindera aggregata (烏藥 Wū Yào) have also been documented to display anti–SARS-CoV effect from a screening analysis using hundreds of Chinese medicinal herbs. Natural inhibitors against the SARS-CoV enzymes, such as the nsP13 helicase and 3CL protease, have been identified as well and include myricetin, scutellarein, and phenolic compounds from Isatis indigotica (板藍根 Bǎn Lán Gēn) and Torreya nucifera (榧 Fěi). Other anti-CoV natural medicines include the water extract from Houttuynia cordata (魚腥草 Yú Xīng Cǎo), which has been observed to exhibit several antiviral mechanisms against SARS-CoV, such as inhibiting the viral 3CL protease and blocking the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity.

COXSACKIEVIRUS
CV, including subgroups A (CVA) and B (CVB), is a member of the Picornaviridae family, and the non-enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus is typically transmitted by fecal–oral route and contact with respiratory secretions. While the symptoms of infection can include mild illnesses such as fever, malaise, rashes, and common cold-like presentation, more severe cases may result in diseases of the central nervous system, including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and paralysis. CVA is best known as one of the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children.

Unfortunately, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy available to prevent CV infection or the diseases it causes. Nevertheless, drugs discovered from natural products, herbs, and traditional decoctions have shown some promise for the development of therapeutics against CV infection. The aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, and bioactive compounds including linalool, apigenin, and ursolic acid from the popular culinary/medicinal herb Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) (羅勒 Luó Lè) have been observed to possess antiviral activity against CVB1. In particular, ursolic acid interferes with CVB1 replication post-infection. Raoulic acid from Raoulia australis has also been reported as a potential antiviral agent against several CVB subtypes, but the mechanism of its effect is unclear. In addition, we have previously reported that both the medicinal prescription Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (小柴胡湯 Xiǎo Chái Hú Tang) and its major component herb Bupleurum kaoi (柴胡 Chái Hú) inhibit CVB1 infection via the induction of type I interferon response. This finding suggests that type I interferon inducers may be helpful in controlling CVB infection and could be further explored as a treatment strategy.

DENGUE VIRUS
DENV is an enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. As a prominent arbovirus in Southeast Asia, DENV is transmitted by mosquito bites, typically by Aedes aegypti. Four serotypes of the virus exist (DENV1 − 4) and all can cause dengue fever. Clinical manifestations of DENV infection can include inapparent/mild febrile presentation, classical dengue fever (fever, headache, myalgias, joint pains, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash), and life-threatening hemorrhagic diseases, specifically dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) in severe cases.

Despite being an old disease, current immunization and therapeutic options available for prevention and control of DENV infection are severely limited. Management of dengue-associated diseases consists of preventing the viral infection by mosquito control and relieving symptoms in the infected individuals. Development of prophylactic/therapeutic treatment against DENV infection using natural products may help address some of these current limitations. The flavone baicalein, for example, exerts potent activity against DENV adsorption to the host and post-entry viral replication. In addition, several natural products such as quercetin and narasin, as well as marine seaweed extracts have been observed to possess significant anti-DENV properties. Recently, we have reported chebulagic acid and punicalagin, two hydrolysable tannins isolated from Terminalia chebula (訶子 Hē Zǐ), as broad-spectrum antiviral agents against several viruses including DENV. Specifically, chebulagic acid and punicalagin can directly inactivate free DENV particles and interfere with the attachment and fusion events during early viral entry. Identification of these natural viral inhibitors could help the development of therapeutics against DENV infection and reduce the risks of DHF/DSS.

ENTEROVIRUS 71
EV71 is a member of the Picornaviridae family, possessing a positive-sense ssRNA genome and is non-enveloped. EV71 is ordinarily transmitted by fecal–oral route, but transmission by respiratory droplet is also possible. It is one of the major causes of HFMD in children, is sometimes associated with severe neurological diseases, and can be fatal. The transmission rate in children under 5 years of age is typically high in endemic areas and several outbreaks have occurred over the past few decades.

Medication and preventive vaccines against EV71 are presently in development and palliative care is used to ameliorate the symptoms. Nevertheless, several natural products and herbal medicines have been shown to possess inhibitory activity against EV71 infection. Extracts and pure constituents of O. basilicum effectively block EV71 infection and replication. In addition, raoulic acid, which has previously been mentioned as an inhibitor to CVB, also suppresses EV71. Gallic acid from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers (蝦子花 Xiā Zǐ Huā) has also been observed to exert anti-EV71 activity. Finally, epigallocatechin gallate from green tea has been identified to interfere with EV71 replication via modulation of the cellular redox environment. Without efficient medical treatment for the prevention and control of infection by EV71, further studies in identifying novel antivirals against the enterovirus are encouraged.

HEPATITIS B VIRUS
HBV is the prototype virus of the Hepadnaviridae family. It is an enveloped virus possessing a relaxed circular, partially double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. HBV causes hepatitis B and the infection is transmitted by exposure to blood or body fluids containing the virus. Although spontaneous recovery is common following acute hepatitis B, medication is recommended for chronic infection because of the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The development of HBV vaccine and nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in endemic countries such as Taiwan have helped control HBV infection as well as reduce the incidence of childhood HCC.

Despite the existence of preventive vaccines, the present HBV-infected population, including those in areas where vaccination program is unavailable, remains at risk for end-stage liver diseases. Therapeutic treatment against HBV includes nucleotide/nucleoside analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, tenofovir, telbivudine, and entecavir, as well as the immune modulator pegylated interferon-α (Peg-IFN-α). However, eradication of HBV from the host proves difficult once persistent infection is established, and the situation is further aggravated by risks of selecting drug-resistant viral mutants, treatment failure in non-responders, and potential future viral reactivation. Therefore, anti-HBV drug discovery is still a matter of importance for supporting current therapy and hepatitis B management program to treat some current 300-400 million carriers globally.

Extensive studies have been conducted over the past few decades to identify anti-HBV agents from natural products and herbal medicines, and some have been thoroughly covered elsewhere. As examples, isochlorogenic acid A from Laggera alata, amide alkaloid from Piper longum (假蒟 Jiǎ Jù), and dehydrocheilanthifoline from Corydalis saxicola have been reported for their anti-HBV activities. We have also previously demonstrated the antiviral effects of the herbal prescription Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (小柴胡湯 Xiǎo Chái Hú Tang), the saikosaponins from Bupleurum species (柴胡 Chái Hú), and the ethanol extract from Polygonum cuspidatum sieb. et zucc (虎杖 Hǔ Zhàng) against HBV in vitro. Another example is curcumin, which has been shown to inhibit HBV gene replication and expression by down-regulating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), the coactivator of HBV transcription. As novel anti-HBV inhibitory agents are being discovered, future studies should also evaluate potential combination treatments with standard nucleotide/nucleoside analogs or IFN-α-based therapies for the management of hepatitis B.

HEPATITIS C VIRUS
HCV is an enveloped flavivirus possessing a positive-sense ssRNA. Transmission of HCV mainly occurs by blood-to-blood contact, such as through intravenous injections, blood transfusion, and various exposures to blood contaminants (tattooing, piercing, razor and toothbrush sharing, etc.). Due to the highly mutable nature of HCV, a preventive vaccine is not yet available. About 70% of infections become persistent, resulting in an estimated 300 million carriers worldwide of which 1-3% may progress to end-stage liver diseases including cirrhosis and HCC. The present standard of care consists of parenteral Peg-IFN-α plus oral ribavirin, and will soon incorporate the new protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir for combination therapy. However, several obstacles remain in the current method of therapeutic treatment against HCV, including limited efficacy for certain viral genotypes, inevitable selection of drug-resistant mutants, serious side-effects, high cost of medication, patient adherence issues, and challenges in the difficult-to-treat populations such as non-responders and liver transplant patients. Thus, continuous development of anti-HCV agents is necessary to meet these shortcomings.

Various natural products have been explored for their antiviral effects against HCV infection. Silybum marianum (also known as “Milk Thistle” or “silymarin”) and its flavonolignans have been demonstrated to exert anti-HCV activity in vitro, and several clinical evaluations have shown promising effects in reducing the viral load. Curcumin has been identified as a potential inhibitor of HCV replication, potentially by suppressing sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)-Akt pathway, and more recently its negative effect on HCV entry has been demonstrated. Other natural compounds have been observed to prevent HCV entry as well, and these include epigallocatechin-3-gallate, griffithsin, ladanein, and tellimagrandin I. Similarly, we have recently identified the hydrolyzable tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin as potent inhibitors of HCV entry. The two tannins inactivate free virus particles, prevent viral attachment and penetration into the host cell, and disrupt post-infection cell-to-cell transmission of HCV. Since immunization against HCV is at present unavailable, the discovery of novel anti-HCV entry inhibitors could help develop preventive therapies/measures against hepatitis C.

HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are enveloped dsDNA viruses belonging to the Herpesviridae family. HSV infection usually causes mucocutaneous lesions that occur in oral/perioral (typically by HSV-1) and genital (commonly by HSV-2) areas, as well as on other body sites. HSV causes lifelong infection by establishing itself in sensory neurons and can be reactivated by various stimuli including sunlight, fever, immunosuppression, menstruation, or stress. Transmission of HSV results from contact with infected lesions and can occur via vertical transmission from infected mother to newborn. Although the disease is usually self-limited and can be treated with antivirals, severe complications can occur, particularly in neonates and immunosuppressed individuals, leading to risk of blindness with keratoconjunctivitis, and the potentially fatal meningitis and encephalitis.

No vaccine is available against HSV and there are currently no drugs that can eradicate latent HSV infection. Although primary and recurrent infections can be controlled by nucleoside analogs such as acyclovir, penciclovir, and their prodrugs, the development of drug-resistant virus is becoming a serious problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. Thus, identifying novel anti-HSV agents that act with different mechanisms is crucial for clinical management of HSV. We have previously reported several natural products and herbal medicines that inhibit HSV infection and replication. For instance, ent-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, extracted from Cassia javanica, inhibits HSV-2 replication; the herbal prescriptions Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tan (龍膽瀉肝湯 Lóng Dǎn Xiè Gān Tāng) and Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (茵陳蒿湯 Yīn Chén Hāo Tang) both possess broad efficiency in diminishing HSV-1 and HSV-2 infectivity; hippomanin A, geraniin, 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose, and excoecarianin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria (葉下珠 Yè Xià Zhū) can potently impede HSV infection. In addition, we have also identified the hydrolyzable tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin as cell surface glycosaminoglycan (GAG) competitors that can inhibit HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-1 and also a multitude of viruses employ GAGs as initial attachment receptors during infection of their host cell. Both chebulagic acid and punicalagin are observed to target HSV-1 glycoproteins that interact with GAGs and, in turn, prevent their association with cell surface GAGs as well as subsequent binding receptors. This inhibitory effect is shown (1) against cell-free virus, (2) during the viral attachment and fusion stages, and (3) in the intercellular junction spread of HSV-1, which is mediated by its glycoproteins. Thus, both tannins are demonstrated to be efficient entry inhibitors to HSV-1 and similar effects have been observed on another herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus, as well as on several other viruses known to engage GAGs for entry.

Besides the natural products and traditional decoctions mentioned above, a plethora of other natural anti-HSV agents have also been identified. Meliacine derived from Melia azedarach is observed to stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IFN-g production, and reduce HSV-2 shedding with improvement of virus-induced pathogenesis in a mouse vaginal model of herpetic infection. Houttuynoids A-E are flavonoids isolated from Houttuynia cordata (蕺菜 Jí Cài), which have been found to exhibit potent anti–HSV-1 activity. Similarly, the aqueous extract from Rhododendron ferrugineum L., blackberry extract, and proanthocyanidin-enriched extract from Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw. have been reported to inhibit HSV-1 infection. Another example is glucoevatromonoside, a cardenolide from Digitalis lanata, which has been suggested to alter cellular electrochemical gradient and block HSV-1 and HSV-2 propagation in cells. In addition, natural products from the marine environment represent a whole biodiversity in which many algae and sponges have been observed to contain active metabolites with anti-HSV activity. The abundance of natural anti-HSV agents discovered should provide novel pharmacological activities against the virus, which could be further explored for potential application in the management of HSV infections.

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS
HIV is a lentivirus of the Retroviridae family. The enveloped virus is characterized by targeting of the immune cells for infection, reverse transcription of its ssRNA genome, and integration into the host chromosomal DNA. Transmission of HIV occurs via exchange of virus-containing blood and body fluids, such as through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles/sharp instruments, childbirth, as well as breastfeeding. HIV is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is a progressive failure of the immune system due to CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion that leads to manifestation of life-threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies. To date, AIDS has resulted in more than 25 million deaths and there are currently about 34 million HIV-infected individuals with an estimated 2-3 million newly diagnosed cases annually.

Despite nearly 30 years of research since its discovery, at present there is no effective preventive vaccine or cure for HIV infection. The high antigenic diversity and multiple mechanisms that the virus employs to subvert recognition by the human immune system have made prophylactic/therapeutic management of HIV infection difficult. Nevertheless, the development of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which consists of a cocktail of nucleoside analog/non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, has dramatically decreased the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS. However, there is still a pressing need for alternative treatment strategies against HIV infection due to drug resistance problems, treatment-associated toxicity, patient adherence, and restricted accessibility in resource-poor areas.

An exhaustive list of natural products has been evaluated for anti-retroviral/anti-HIV activity and recently reviewed. Moreover, many marine natural products with anti-HIV activities have also been identified in search of novel therapeutics against the AIDS virus. To briefly mention some examples, the crude extracts of Artemisia annua (黃花蒿 Huáng Huā Hāo) and Artemisia afra have recently been reported as potential anti-HIV medicines. The Calophyllum species is known to contain several coumarins that are observed to exert inhibitory effect against HIV. More recently, a tricyclic coumarin derived from the stem bark of Calophyllum brasiliense has been shown to inhibit HIV replication in in vitro models by suppressing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Another novel anti-HIV agent is the small peptide melittin, which is the active component of bee venom. The nanoformulated melittin is demonstrated to possess robust efficiency in capturing and inactivating HIV particles by disrupting the viral lipid envelope. Based on the discoveries made so far, the recent progress in identifying natural antivirals against HIV should yield potential novel therapeutics that could play an important role in overcoming the current urgency in anti-HIV/AIDS therapies.

INFLUENZA VIRUS
The influenza A, B, and C viruses (IFA, IFB, and IFC) are enveloped, negative-sense ssRNA viruses classified in the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses cause respiratory infection yielding symptoms that include fever, headache, sore throat, sneezing, and muscle and joint pains, and can develop into more severe and potentially fatal conditions such as pneumonia. IFA (most epidemic) has a wide host range including birds and humans as well as other mammals, whereas IFB seems to naturally infect humans and IFC (less frequently encountered) can be isolated from humans and swine. Influenza virus infection has produced considerable morbidity in humans. An estimated 250,000-500,000 deaths occur annually due to seasonal epidemics, and in major pandemics, this number has been observed to rise to some 20-40 million deaths, as in the case of the 1918 H1N1 Spanish Flu.

Despite the availability of vaccines based on predicted circulating strains, influenza viruses are known to continuously evolve their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) envelope proteins. This variation renders any preexisting circulating antibody from earlier exposure or immunization ineffective at neutralizing the virus, hence making the host vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, potential risks of cross-species transmission and host adaptation of influenza viruses between animals and humans resulting in highly pathogenic strains have also raised concerns. Another issue is the widespread development of drug resistance, which has been observed with the first generation of anti-influenza medications, specifically the M2 ion channel blockers amantadine and rimantadine. Resistant strains against the currently approved neuraminidase inhibitors (which prevent the release of mature influenza viruses) including oseltamivir and zanamivir have also already appeared. Due to the drug resistance problems, the rapid evolution of influenza viruses, and the occurrence of several recent outbreaks (e.g., H5N1, H1N1, H7N9), more sophisticated antiviral strategies are urgently needed to prevent and control potential pandemics with emerging influenza strains.

Several natural products have been examined for their effects against influenza. Standardized elderberry (接骨木 Jiē Gǔ Mù; Sambucus nigra) liquid extract exerts in vitro antiviral effects against IFA, IFB, as well as respiratory bacterial pathogens. A licensed commercial extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots inhibits the entry of IFA, impairs viral hemagglutination as well as neuraminidase activity, and improves the symptoms of influenza-infected mice. The aqueous extract from dandelion (蒲公英 Pú Gōng Yīng; Taraxacum officinale) impedes IFA infection and decreases its polymerase activity as well as the nucleoprotein (NP) RNA level. Spirooliganone B from the roots of Illicium oligandrum exhibits potent anti-IFA activities. A multitude of secondary plant metabolites have also been identified as potential influenza NA inhibitors, and more recent ones include chalcones from Glycyrrhiza inflata, xanthones from Polygala karensium, and homoisoflavonoids from Caesalpinia sappan (蘇木Sū Mù). Further exploration of these natural anti-influenza agents for clinical application will help broaden the drug portfolio for prophylactic/therapeutic treatment of potential flu epidemics or pandemics.

MEASLES VIRUS
MV is an enveloped, negative-sense ssRNA virus of the Morbillivirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. MV causes measles, an acute infection of the respiratory system characterized by fever, conjunctivitis, coughing, runny nose, nausea, and a generalized macular red rash over the body. Complications can occur leading to pneumonia and encephalitis, which can be potentially fatal.[123] Although highly contagious through contact of respiratory droplets or airborne aerosols, immunization against measles given as a three-part MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella) has made MV infection relatively uncommon in developed countries. As recovery usually follows uncomplicated MV infection, there are currently no specific antiviral treatments for measles. Despite the existence of a successful vaccine against MV, the virus remains a major killer of children in developing countries. Another serious problem is the re-emergence of measles in vaccinated populations and in non-immunized adults, as highlighted by outbreaks in recent years. These issues emphasize MV's medical importance and the need to develop suitable drug therapies.

Efforts have been made at identifying natural products that inhibit MV and include a number of East and Southeast Asian traditional medicines, the herbal decoction Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (升麻葛根湯 Shēng Má Gé Gēn Tang), the Cherokee remedy spicebush, plant biflavonoids isolated from Rhus succedanea (野漆 Yě Qī) and Garcinia multiflora, calcium spirulan from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, and several Rwandan and Ugandan medicinal plant extracts, among others previously reviewed. In addition, several traditional dietary herb additives of the Maasai, including Olinia rochetiana (Olkirenyi) and Warburgia ugandensis (Osokonoi), have been reported to inhibit MV infection in vitro. Another example is the plant extracts of Cajanus cajan which have been recently suggested to possess anti-MV activity, although the bioactive constituents remain elusive. The two tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin also show robust effects against MV infection, particularly by inactivating the virus particles, interrupting the binding and fusion phases during viral entry, and preventing post-infection virus spread. Chebulagic acid and punicalagin could, therefore, serve as potential entry inhibitors to MV.

RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
RSV is an enveloped negative-strand ssRNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. It is a ubiquitous pathogen and the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children. Virtually all children become infected with RSV before the age of 2 years. RSV infection typically results in mild symptoms in healthy adults, but can lead to bronchiolitis or pneumonia in infants and immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, infant RSV infection poses a potential risk for childhood asthma. Although RSV causes the most severe disease in young infants, it continues to plague humans throughout the course of a lifetime. Immunity to RSV is generally not sufficient to provide protection and, consequently, humans are prone to repeated reinfections which can be life-threatening in the elderly or immunocompromised.

Currently, immunization against RSV is unavailable, and the few therapies that exist for the treatment of RSV infections such as palivizumab (monoclonal antibody against RSV fusion protein) and ribavirin (nucleoside analogue) are only moderately effective or limited in efficacy. Thus, there is a need to develop novel antivirals for the management of RSV infections. Several plant-derived natural products have been demonstrated to exhibit anti-RSV activity. Uncinoside A and B, the two chromone glycosides isolated from Selaginella uncinata, potently inhibit RSV infection. Three biflavonoids, namely genkwanol B, genkwanol C, and stelleranol, extracted from Radix Wikstroemiae, have been observed to display antiviral activity against RSV. Several flavone 6-C-monoglycosides from the leaves of Lophatherum gracile (淡竹葉 Dàn Zhú Yè) have been shown to reduce RSV infection in cytopathic effect-reduction assay. We have previously also identified several anti-RSV natural medicines, including the herbal prescription Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (升麻葛根湯 Shēng Má Gé Gēn Tang) which is used for treating respiratory diseases, its major component herb Cimicifuga foetida L. (升麻 Shēng Má), as well as the plant-associated bioactive compound cimicifugin. In addition, the broad-spectrum antiviral activity that we have demonstrated for the hydrolyzable tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin also includes antiviral effects against RSV infection. Specifically, the two tannins can inactivate RSV particles and also block viral entry-related events, including binding and fusion. Interestingly, both chebulagic acid and punicalagin are, however, ineffective against RSV post-infection spread, but could abrogate the same event in MV, which is another paramyxovirus. Besides targeting the viral infection, some natural products may help improve RSV-induced respiratory tract symptoms, including airway inflammation. Resveratrol is one such example, which has been observed to down-regulate IFN-γ levels and prevent airway inflammation/hyperresponsiveness during RSV infection in mice, suggesting its applicability in reducing RSV-induced airway symptoms.

PROSPECTS AND CONCLUSION
As many viruses remain without preventive vaccines and effective antiviral treatments, eradicating these viral diseases appears difficult. Nonetheless, natural products serve as an excellent source of biodiversity for discovering novel antivirals, revealing new structure–activity relationships, and developing effective protective/therapeutic strategies against viral infections. Many natural products and herbal ingredients are observed to possess robust antiviral activity and their discoveries can further help develop derivatives and therapeutic leads (e.g., glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives as novel anti-HBV agents, acetoxime derivative from the Mediterranean mollusk Hexaplex trunculus as inhibitor against HSV-1, and caffeic acid derivatives as a new type of influenza NA antagonist). Our discovery of chebulagic acid and punicalagin being capable of inhibiting entry of several viruses due to their GAG-competing properties could help develop broad-spectrum antivirals for prevention and control of these viral pathogens. As many studies in this domain are only preliminary, further exploration in characterizing the bioactive ingredients, defining the underlying mechanisms, as well as assessing the efficacy and potential application in vivo is encouraged in order to help develop effective antiviral treatments. Furthermore, additional studies should also examine the possibility of combination therapies with other natural agents or with standard therapeutics, as a multi-target therapy may help reduce the risk of generating drug-resistant viruses. We believe that natural products will continue to play an important role and contribute to antiviral drug development.

Food Preservatives from Plants
By Hubert Antolak and Dorota Kregiel | Submitted: September 21st 2016Reviewed: June 9th 2017Published: September 6th 2017 | DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70090

It has long been shown that phytochemicals protect plants against viruses, bacteria, fungi and herbivores, but only relatively recently we have learnt that they are also critical in protecting humans against diseases. A significant amount of medicinal plants is consumed by humans. As food‐related products, they additionally improve human health and general well‐being. This chapter deals with plant‐derived food preservatives. Particular attention has been paid to the following berry fruits: cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and açaí (Euterpe oleracea), as well as the following herbs and spices: peppermint (Mentha piperita), basil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioica), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark, cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as alternative sources of natural antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents with potential use in food industry.

Both the aqueous extracts and peppermint oils exhibit potent antiviral properties towards herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza, vaccinia virus, suppressing replicative ability of HSV‐1 . It has been found that virulence of both herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 is inhibited by peppermint oil.

The extract of elderberry flowers has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of influenza A and B, colds, as well as an agent against the H1N1 virus. What is more, phenolic compounds from V. macrocarpon exhibit antiviral (against influenza A virus and type‐1 herpes simplex virus), antimutagenic, antiangiogenic, anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

Food Additive Status List 

This Food Additives Status List, formerly called Appendix A of the Investigations Operations Manual (IOM), organizes additives found in many parts of 21 CFR into one alphabetized list. Additives included are those specified in the regulations promulgated under the FD&C Act, under Sections 401 (Food Standards), and 409 (Food Additives). The Food Additives Status List includes short notations on use limitations for each additive. For complete information on its use limitations, refer to the specific regulation for each substance. New regulations and revisions are published in current issues of the Federal Register as promulgated. Also refer to the Food Ingredient and Packaging inventories in the Foods section of the FDA web site to review several FDA databases of additive categories. For example, the EAFUS list (Everything Added to Food in the United States), is a helpful reference within the limitations described at the beginning of the database. Read more here.

Information On Viruses From Wikipedia

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.

Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, of the millions of types of viruses in the environment. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.

While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, i.e. long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope, about one hundredth the size of most bacteria.

The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction. Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, although they lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", and as replicators.

Viruses spread in many ways. One transmission pathway is through disease-bearing organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; and viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, passed by contact and entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that a virus can infect is called its "host range". This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many.

Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV infection, and viral hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed.

Influenza Antiviral Medications: Summary for Clinicians

The information on this page should be considered current for the 2019-2020 influenza season for clinical practice regarding the use of influenza antiviral medications. Clinicians may also wish to consult the IDSA antiviral treatment and antiviral chemoprophylaxis recommendations, the AAP Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, and the ATS-IDSA Adult CAP Guidelines.

Antiviral treatment is recommended as early as possible for any patient with confirmed or suspected influenza who: 

  • is hospitalized;
  • has severe, complicated, or progressive illness; or
  • is at higher risk for influenza complications.

Decisions about starting antiviral treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza. For outpatients with acute uncomplicated influenza, oral oseltamivir, inhaled zanamivir, intravenous peramivir, or oral baloxavir may be used for treatment. For patients with severe or complicated illness with suspected or confirmed influenza (e.g., pneumonia, or exacerbation of underlying chronic medical condition) who are not hospitalized, antiviral treatment with oral or enterically-administered oseltamivir is recommended as soon as possible. Read more here.

Virus Inactivation Mechanisms: Impact of Disinfectants on Virus Function and Structural Integrity

Oxidative processes are often harnessed as tools for pathogen disinfection. Although the pathways responsible for bacterial inactivation with various biocides are fairly well understood, virus inactivation mechanisms are often contradictory or equivocal. In this study, we provide a quantitative analysis of the total damage incurred by a model virus (bacteriophage MS2) upon inactivation induced by five common virucidal agents (heat, UV, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, and chlorine dioxide). Each treatment targets one or more virus functions to achieve inactivation: UV, singlet oxygen, and hypochlorous acid treatments generally render the genome nonreplicable, whereas chlorine dioxide and heat inhibit host-cell recognition/binding. Using a combination of quantitative analytical tools, we identified unique patterns of molecular level modifications in the virus proteins or genome that lead to the inhibition of these functions and eventually inactivation. UV and chlorine treatments, for example, cause site-specific capsid protein backbone cleavage that inhibits viral genome injection into the host cell. Combined, these results will aid in developing better methods for combating waterborne and foodborne viral pathogens and further our understanding of the adaptive changes viruses undergo in response to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Read more here.

Inactivation Of Influenza Virus By Mild Antiseptics 

A number of antiseptics were tested for their inactivating effect upon the virus of influenza during a brief period of exposure. This was accomplished by preparing mixtures of the antiseptics and virus, allowing them to remain in contact for 3 minutes, diluting the mixtures to the point where they would not be toxic for chick embryos and then injecting the material into embryonated eggs. Survival of the embryos indicated inactivation of the virus. The following preparations were found to inactivate the virus in 3 minutes or less: phenol, 3 per cent; tincture of iodine, U.S.P. XII, 0.1 per cent; Lugol's solution, U.S.P. XII, 1 per cent; mercuric chloride, 1:1000; potassium permanganate, 1:1000; copper sulfate, 1 per cent; propylene glycol, 90 per cent; liquor antisepticus, N.F. VII, 80 per cent. Read more here.

Mundipharma Presents Research on Efficacy of BETADINE(R) Formulations Against MERS at Inaugural International Meeting on Respiratory Pathogens (IMRP)

SINGAPORE, Sept. 3, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (MERSCoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. MERS-CoV, like other coronaviruses, is thought to spread from an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as through coughing. However, the precise ways the virus spreads are not currently well understood. It has a high fatality rate of approximately 36%. Since September 2012, 1461 cases and at least 514 deaths in 25 countries have been confirmed, with a fresh outbreak appearing in Saudi Arabia on 18 August. More than two million pilgrims are projected to visit the Muslim holy city of Mecca in for the annual hajj pilgrimage in September and the Ministry of Health of Saudia Arabia has stepped up efforts to contain the current outbreak of the virus.

BETADINE® (povidone iodine, PVP-I), has proven strong efficacy against a wide variety of clinically relevant viruses. A recent in-vitro research study, conducted at Marburg University, Germany, on BETADINE® surgical scrub (7.5% PVP-I), skin cleanser (4% PVP-I), gargle and mouthwash (1% PVP-I) products demonstrated virucidal in-vitro efficacy against infectious pathogens such as MERs, SARs and Influenza that have reported to cause hospital acquired infections and serious consequences on public health.

The study was conducted based on the latest EU test standard EN14476:2014 for antiviral enveloped virus testing (similar to that for Ebola). The results of excellent virucidal activity of variousBETADINE® products against Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were demonstrated with a rapid kill rate of ≥99.99% with 15 seconds.

To date, there is no specific medication or vaccination available to effectively combat MERS or its spread, highlighting the importance of good personal hygiene as the first line of defence in disease prevention and infection control.

Multiple nonpharmaceutical interventions are required for successful infection control. During high risks of respiratory infections, healthcare workers are encouraged to use gloves and masks as physical barrier against infectious pathogens. Simple hygiene practices such as gargling and hand washing are among the principal means of the prevention of respiratory transmitted infections.

Current guidelines have also suggested healthcare workers to observe proper hand hygiene for decontamination against viruses before and after the change of gloves and masks. Aseptic hand washing with an antiseptic hand wash is deemed as a higher level of hand hygiene over social hand washing. Aseptic hand washing provides the removal and destruction of viruses via disruption of viral replication and metabolic processes.

Encouragement of gargling is important for the control of opportunistic and community acquired infections in Japan8.The primary goal is to encourage everyone to take precautions not only to prevent infection to themselves but also prevent as much human exposure to the respiratory virus as possible.

The recently completed study indicates the potential role of PVPI in protecting against the spread of infection among healthcare workers and the public during infectious disease outbreaks. Adhering to WHO-issued guidelines on hand, respiratory and PPE (personal protective equipment), coupled with PVPI broad virucidal efficacy will help in disrupting the transmission of viruses and limiting the spread of infectious diseases.

"This study not only highlights exciting new findings about the broad spectrum virucidal efficacy of PVPI against a wide range of viruses including MERs, it also reminds us that prevention through proper hygiene is still required to protect the health of both healthcare professionals and the public in the global fight against viral diseases," said Prof Maren Eggers, Head of Experimental Virology and Department of Disinfectant Testing at the Laboratory Prof. G Enders, MVZ Stuttgart. "We must continue to be vigilant and employ all of the weapons including proven PVPI products in our arsenal to fight this unseen enemy."

"Healthcare professionals are the first and often, only line of defence against the phalanx of health threats including MERS facing the world today," says Raman Singh, President, Mundipharma, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East & North Africa. "Mundipharma will continue to work with healthcare professionals around the globe to ensure that they are fully equipped with protective measures including BETADINE® to enable them to continue the fight in this time pressing war against emerging and re-emerging infections." Read more here.

What Inhibits And Inactivates Viruses?

What Does Not Kill The Coronavirus

What Is A Virus?

A virus is an infectious agent that can only replicate within a host organism. Viruses can infect a variety of living organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. Viruses are so small that a microscope is necessary to visualize them, and they have a very simple structure. When a virus particle is independent from its host, it consists of a viral genome, or genetic material, contained within a protein shell called a capsid. In some viruses, the protein shell is enclosed in a membrane called an envelope. Viral genomes are very diverse, since they can be DNA or RNA, single- or double-stranded, linear or circular, and vary in length and in the number of DNA or RNA molecules.

The viral replication process begins when a virus infects its host by attaching to the host cell and penetrating the cell wall or membrane. The virus's genome is uncoated from the protein and injected into the host cell. Then the viral genome hijacks the host cell's machinery, forcing it to replicate the viral genome and produce viral proteins to make new capsids. Next, the viral particles are assembled into new viruses. The new viruses burst out of the host cell during a process called lysis, which kills the host cell. Some viruses take a portion of the host's membrane during the lysis process to form an envelope around the capsid.

Following viral replication, the new viruses may go on to infect new hosts. Many viruses cause diseases in humans, such as influenza, chicken pox, AIDS, the common cold, and rabies. The primary way to prevent viral infections is vaccination, which administers a vaccine made of inactive viral particles to an unaffected individual, in order to increase the individual's immunity to the disease.