How Chemicals Are Made, Labeled, Sold, Priced, Bought, Shipped And Used In The US
How Chemicals And Chemical Ingredients Are Produced, Labeled, Packaged, Marketed, Priced, Purchased, Shipped And Used In The USA In 2020
- Definition Of A Chemical: A compound or substance that has been purified or prepared, especially artificially. A substance (as an element or chemical compound) obtained by a chemical process or used for producing a chemical effect.
- What Is A Chemical Substance: A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds.
- PubChem: Explore and search chemical information at in a freely accessible chemical database.
- What Is A Chemical And What Isn't A Chemical
Information On Chemical Substances From Wikipedia
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Chemical substances can be simple substances, chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids, liquids, gases, or plasma, and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure. Chemical substances may be combined or converted to others by means of chemical reactions. Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not matter, and are thus not "substances" in this regard.
Dynamic Interactive Periodic Table
- Use a Dynamic Interactive Periodic Table of Elements with dynamic layouts to sort by physical states and metals.
- This table shows names, electrons, oxidation, trend visualization, orbitals and isotopes. Search compounds and get learn about properties of all the 118 chemical elements.
- For an Interactive Periodic Table of the Elements, in pictures and words, click here.
Who Uses Chemicals In The U.S.
- How Many Chemicals Are In Use Today
- Consumers Of The Chemicals Sector: Chemical products are used in a variety of different industries, including automotive, manufacturing, and industrial operations. Many chemical companies process raw materials such as crude oil into more refined products that are used throughout the economy. In fact, the industry accounts for roughly 15% of the manufacturing sector in the United States.
- Learn about chemicals used by science labs, industry and individuals in the United States.
- EPA Releases First Major Update to Chemicals List in 40 Years: On February 19, 2019, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an update of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory listing the chemicals that are actively being manufactured, processed and imported in the United States. A key result of the update is that less than half of the total number of chemicals on the current TSCA Inventory (47 percent or 40,655 of the 86,228 chemicals) are currently in commerce. As the result of a tremendous effort on behalf of thousands of stakeholders and manufacturers from across the country, this information will help EPA focus risk evaluation efforts on chemicals that are still on the market. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Substance Inventory contains all existing chemical substances manufactured, processed, or imported in the United States that do not qualify for an exemption or exclusion under TSCA. This may be your starting place for interaction with EPA on TSCA regulatory matters.
- Get information on how science labs, industries and homeowners use chemicals.
2020 U.S. Wholesale Chemical Prices
Finding prices for bulk chemicals at LabAlley.com is not challenging. Prices for bulk chemicals are listed below. Lab Alley maintains a current database of wholesale chemical prices. Lab Alley chemical specialists can answer questions about chemical properties, production applications and industrial chemical safety data. Lab Alley chemicals buyers study the chemical industry market to source high quality, but low priced chemicals. Lab Alley sells chemical substances at wholesale prices in order to supply U.S. businesses with the affordable raw materials they need to perform services and manufacture products.
Guidelines listed below provide chemical engineering information and suggest safer alternatives for ordering wholesale chemicals. If you can not find the right chemical prices below, call Lab Alley at 512-668-9918 to get a wholesale chemical price quote or email customerservice@LabAlley.com.
Buy Isopropyl Alcohol For Virus Protection
Viral pandemic has prompted healthcare firms to buy 1 gallon bottles, 5 gallon pails and 55 gallon drums of 70%, 91% and 99% isopropyl alcohol solutions at LabAlley.com. Lab Alley has been helping healthcare firms as they face historic challenges during the pandemic by shipping isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to their facilities.
- Buy 99% isopropyl alcohol for hand sanitizer here.
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Uses For High Purity Chemical Compounds, USDA Organic Ingredients And Food Grade Solvents And Acids Purchased In Bulk
- Cosmetic Manufacturing
- Chemical Peels And Skin Peels
- Chemicals For Skin Whitening And Skin Brightening
- Chemical Solvents For Medicinal Plant Processing And Herbal Extraction
- Polar Solvents Ordered Wholesale From LabAlley.com In Bulk, Such As Ethanol, Methanol And Ethyl-Acetate, Are Used To Extract Hydrophilic Compounds.
- Laboratory Grade Dichloromethane Used To Extract Lipophilic Compounds Is Ordered In 5 Gallon Containers Here
- Botanical Extraction And Medicinal Plant Processing Facilities Order 270 Gallon Totes Of Ethanol Denatured With Heptane Here
- Herbal Tinctures And Medicinal Oils
- Wholesome Soaps, Lotions And Essential Oils And Soaps
- Farms And Agricultural Operations
- University And High Schools Laboratories
- Home Science Laboratories Used By Hobbyists And Home Based Businesses Use Chemicals Ordered At LabAlley.com
- Food Processing And Manufacturing
- Pool Cleaning
- Plastic Products
- Fertilizers And Lawn Care
- Petroleum Based Products
- Insecticides And Pest Control
- Paper Products
- Metal Cleaning, Plating And Coating
- Textiles And Fabrics
- Medicinal Plant Extraction Operations
- Washing Parts And Equipment
- Clothing And Apparel
About Wholesale Chemical Suppliers In The United States
Lab Alley is a wholesale chemical company located in Austin, Texas. In 2019, many of our wholesale customers ordered high purity solvents such as food grade ethanol in 55 gallon drums and ethanol (95%) denatured with heptane (5%) in 55 gallon drums. Cosmetic makers order 4 liter bottles of Trichloroacetic Acid 25% to make skin peels here. Nitric acid is purchased at wholesale prices in bulk for gold refining and by jewelers here. Cosmetic Grade Hydroquinone Powder is purchased in bulk by beauticians for skin whitening and skin brightening here. Homeowners and gardeners ordered 4 x 1 gallon cases of 35% food grade hydrogen peroxide here.
How To Order Wholesale Chemicals And Wholesale Supplies In The United States
Wholesale chemicals for sale at LabAlley.com can be purchased online here, by calling 512-887-7204 or by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org. Private individuals, small business owners and purchasing managers located in the U.S. can legally buy chemicals at wholesale prices at LabAlley.com. Shop for wholesale lab chemicals online or contact us to see if Lab Alley can provide a specialty chemical solution for your specific application. Buy chemical supplies, scientific instruments and equipment for home chemistry labs here.
Lab Alley is one of the most trusted chemical wholesalers and raw materials suppliers in the U.S. due to a wide selection of high quality products and long-standing working relationships with outstanding clients, chemical manufacturers, warehouses, logistics firms and chemical distribution services located throughout North America. Lab Alley is a wholesale chemical supplier that sells to individual and small business in all 50 states.
Common Payment Methods Used To Buy Safe Chemicals For USA Labs And Homes And To Buy Safe Organic Chemical Ingredients Online In The U.S.
- Credit Card
- Debit Card
- Cash (US Dollar)
- Charge Card
- Personal Checks
- Business Checks
- Mobile Payments
- Google Pay
- American Express
- Bank Transfers
- Direct Deposit
- Pre-Paid Card
- Digital Payments
- Electronic Payments
- ACH Transfer
- Electronic Funds Transfers (EFT)
- Mobile Payment Apps
- Apple Pay
- Bank Of America Credit Card
- Barclays Credit Card
- Capital One Credit Card
- Citi Credit Card
Bulk Wholesale Chemical Prices And Bulk Solvent Prices In The U.S.
- Ethanol Denatured With Hexane 270 Gallon Tote
- Zinc Chloride 50lb
- Sodium Acetate 55 Pounds
- Food Grade (100% Pure Alcohol) Ethanol 55 Gallon Drum
- ACS Grade Methanol 250 Gallon Tote
- Methylene Chloride 55 Gallon Drum
- Citric Acid Powder 55 Pounds
- Buy 190 Proof Alcohol Formula SDA 40B Denatured With tert-Butyl Alcohol For Compounding FDA Hand Sanitizers In Bulk 55 Gallon Drums
- Ethanol Denatured With Heptane 55 Gallon Drum
- Cyclohexane 55 Gallon Drum
- USDA Certified Organic MCT Oil (Coconut Based) 55 Gallon Drum
- n-Pentane (99%) 55 Gallon Drum
- Isopropyl Alcohol 55 Gallon Drum
- Arsenic Trioxide 5.5 Pounds
- Mercuric Chloride (Mercury(II) Chloride) 2.5 Kilograms
- Phosphoric Acid 20 Liter
- Vitamin C Powder/Ascorbic Acid 25 Kilograms
- Food Grade Propylene Glycol 55 Gallon Drum
- ACS Grade Ammonium Hydroxide (28-30% Solution) 55 Gallon Drum
- ACS Grade Barium Chloride Dihydrate 25 Kilograms
- Calcium Oxide Powder 25 Kilograms
- Trichloroethylene 5 Gallon
- Activated Charcoal (Activated Carbon) Powder 50 Pounds
- Hydrochloric Acid 37% 55 Gallon Drum
- Heptane 55 Gallon Drum
- Ethanol Heptane Blend 250 Gallon Tote
- Nickel Chloride 10 Kilogram
- Pure 100% Acetone 55 Gallon Drum
- Propylene Glycol (ACS/USP/NF Grade, Kosher) 55 Gallon Drum
- Methanol 55 Gallon Drum
- ACS Grade Methanol 55 Gallon Drum
- Food Grade Sodium Hydroxide 55lb
- ACS Grade Mercury Triple Distilled 1 Pound
- 91% Isopropyl Alcohol 55 Gallon Drum
- 70% Isopropyl Alcohol 55 Gallon Drum
- Denatured Alcohol 55 Gallon Drum
- Denatured Ethanol (100%) 55 Gallon Drum
- Hexane 55 Gallon Drum
- Acetic Acid Glacial 55 Gallon Drum
- 140 Proof Ethanol (Non-Denatured)
- 10% Hydrogen Peroxide 55 Gallon Drum
- 32% Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide 55 Gallon Drum
- Ethyl Acetate 55 Gallon Drum
- Ethylene Glycol 55 Gallon Drum
- ACS Grade Tetrahydrofuran (THF) 55 Gallon Drum
- ACS Grade Acetonitrile 55 Gallon Drum
- Pentane 5 Gallon
- Pentane 55 Gallon Drum
- Food Grade MCT Oil 55 Gallon Drum
- Food Grade Tartaric Acid 25 Kilograms (55lb)
- Botanical Extraction Alcohol (Tincture Grade/200 Proof Ethanol) Gallon Drum
- Food Grade Ethanol (Non-Denatured/200 Proof/100% Alcohol 55 Gallon Drum
- Food Grade Acetic Acid 55 Gallon Drum
- Methyl Ethyl Ketone (Butanone/MEK) 55 Gallon Drum
- 35% Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide 55 Gallon Drum
- 25% Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide 55 Gallon Drum
- 5% Hydrogen Peroxide 55 Gallon Drum
- Denatured Alcohol (200 Proof) 55 Gallon Drum
- Calcium Hydroxide Powder 50 Pounds
- ACS Grade Methanol 270 Gallon Tote
- Chloroform 55 Gallon
Best Selling Chemicals In Stock | Current U.S. Chemical Prices (U.S. Dollars, 07/03/20)
- Pure Food Grade Ethanol
- Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide
- Pure Antiviral Citric Acid
- Buy Antiviral Zinc Chloride For
- Antiviral Formaldehyde (Formalin) 37% Solution
- Menthol Crystals
- ACS Grade Acetone (Anhydrous Reagent)
- USDA Certified Organic MCT Oil
- Isopropyl Alcohol
- Antiviral Salicylic Acid Powder
- Herbal And Botanical Extraction Solvents
- Cosmetic Hydroquinone Powder
- Invigorating Acids For Skin Care Products
- Activated Charcoal
- Food Grade Sodium Hydroxide
- Methyl Salicylate
- Diatomaceous Earth
- Glycolic Acid
- Denatured Alcohol (190 Proof)
- Potassium Permanganate
- Hydroquinone Powder
- Acetic Acid
- Lab Grade Acetone
- Buy Vegetable Glycerin
- Food Grade Propylene Glycol
- Hydrogen Peroxide 10%
- Diethyl Ether
- Hospital Grade Disinfectants, Cleaning Products, Kitchen And Bathroom Supplies
- Ferric Chloride
- Potassium Hydroxide
- Copper Chloride
- Nitric Acid
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Boric Acid
- Sulfuric Acid
- Nutrient Agar
- Oxalic Acid
- Sodium Bicarbonate In Bulk 55 Pounds
Bulk Science Chemicals, Pharmaceutical Research Chemicals, Bulk Food Grade Solvents And Bulk Laboratory Acids For Sale Online In The U.S.
- Food Grade Ethanol (200 Proof) 55 Gallon
- 35% Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide 1 Gallon
- Isopropyl Alcohol (99%) 5 Gallon
- Organic MCT Oil 5 Gallon
- Methyl Salicylate 1 Gallon
- Food Grade Vegetable Glycerin (Kosher)
- Food Grade Propylene Glycol 5 Gallon
- n-Pentane (99%) 5 Gallon
- Pure Acetone 5 Gallon
- Nitric Acid 67% 2.5 Liter
- Hydrochloric Acid 37% 4 Liter
- Ethanol Denatured With Heptane 55 Gallon
- Citric Acid 5.5 Pounds
- Chloroform 4 Liter
- Nitric Acid 67% 10 Liter
- 25% TCA (Trichloroacetic Acid) For Skin Peels 4 Liter
Buy Approved Chemicals And Ingredients At LabAlley.com
- Approved Chemicals For Organic Farming
- Approved Chemicals For Cosmetics And Skin Care Products
- Approved Chemicals For Fumigation
- Approved Chemicals For Medicinal Plant, Herbal And Botanical Extraction
- Chemicals Approved For Drain Disposal
- FDA Approved Chemicals For Food Contact
- Approved Chemicals For Pest Control
- FDA Approved Chemicals For Aquaculture
Laboratory Glassware, Laboratory Supplies And Laboratory Equipment For Sale
Shop online for the most respected brands of laboratory glassware, botanical extraction equipment, laboratory glassware for school chemistry labs, lab supplies and lab equipment for scientific work, production work or household use at LabAlley.com.
Lab Alley is a laboratory glassware, plasticware, labware, scientific glass and chemical supplier located in Austin, Texas. Contact our laboratory glassware company to request a laboratory glassware list in PDF form, a laboratory glassware price list or a lab glass catalog. Call 512-668-9918 to speak with a laboratory glassware specialist or email email@example.com.
Buy safe laboratory glassware at LabAlley.com to manufacture your own 'DIY' essential oils, fertilizer, cosmetics, pool chemicals, skin care products, distillates, botanical extracts, soaps, perfume, essential oils, cologne, personal care products and herbal extracts.
Laboratory glassware is used extensively laboratories, homes, workshops, industry, science and commercial and residential kitchens in the U.S. Lab glassware supplies are sold in a variety of sizes and shapes. Contact us if you have any questions about identifying the right laboratory glassware for your intended application. Review a laboratory equipment buyer's guide here. Browse laboratory supplies and equipment here.
Buy the best brands of laboratory glassware and lab supplies online at LabAlley.com. Laboratory glassware for sale here is shipped FedEx in USA. Laboratory glassware ordered online here is used for scientific work, botanical extraction and distillation, homes and kitchens. Choose from the best brands of laboratory glassware including Kimble, Corning, PYREX and Kontes. Buy borosilicate glass chemistry beakers and flasks online at LabAlley.com.
Types Of Laboratories That Order Lab Chemicals And Research Chemicals At LabAlley.com
LabAlley.com sells high purity lab chemicals, research chemicals, food grade solvents, pure acids, pH buffer solutions and high quality stock chemical solutions to the following types of laboratories in the United States.
- Medical Labs That Perform Clinical Pathology Tests
- School Chemistry Labs That Provide Student Learning Environments
- Science Labs That Provide Controlled Conditions For Scientific Or Technological Research, Experimentation And Measurement
- Research And Development (R&D) Labs That Conduct Product Tests
- Pharmaceutical Quality Control Labs That Serve Important Functions In Pharmaceutical Production And Control
- Clinical Labs That Assist In The Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention Of Disease
- Manufacturing And Productivity Laboratories That Develop And Apply Principles Of Manufacturing Systems, Machines And Processes
- Diagnostic Labs That Test A Person's Health
- Medicinal Plant, Herbal And Botanical Extraction Labs
- Academic, Classroom And Educational Labs That Conduct Research And Teaching
- Test Labs That Provide Objective Analytical Data On The Quality Of A Process Or Product
- Hospital Labs That Have Departments For Virology, Microbiology, Chemistry, Hematology, Histology, Blood Banks And Immunology/Molecular Diagnostics
- Analytical Services Labs Where Technicians, Chemists And Material Scientists Work
- Quality Assurance (QA) Labs That Ensure Quality Test Results
- Clean Room Labs For Manufacturing Or Scientific Research
- Life Sciences Labs That Use Incubators To Grow And Maintain Microbiological Or Cell Cultures
- Biotechnology Labs That Use Living Systems, Biological Systems And Living Organisms To Develop And Manufacture Products For Specific Uses
- Food And Beverage Industry Labs That Develop New Manufacturing Processes Or Test For Contaminants In Foods Or Beverages
- Personal Labs, Hobbyist Labs, Home Chemistry Labs And Home Science Labs
Chemicals For Sale And Prices In The United States
- Recent Price Trends In The Chemicals Industry
- Get prices for lab chemicals, fine chemicals, specialty chemicals, commodity chemicals and hard to find chemicals.
- Browse a list of all the chemicals sold online in the USA at LabAlley.com.
- Organic, Natural, Food Grade, Green And Environmentally Friendly Chemicals For Sale In the USA
- Buy Safer Chemicals Online
- Buy Lab And Research Chemicals Online In The United States
- Chemical Prices, Companies, and Industry Information: Chemical Pricing & Suppliers | These are some other sources, including databases for chemical suppliers, where you may be able to get current and/or historical pricing information on your chemicals. Most suppliers list prices for smaller units (grams/milligrams, liters/milliliters, etc.) on their websites, while bulk pricing is only available by contacting the supplier for a quote.
- Buy Household Chemicals For Cleaning And Personal Use In the U.S.
- Learn about chemicals manufactured and sold in the United States.
- Review Ordering Guidelines for Research Chemicals and Controlled Substances
- Buy Household Chemicals For Cleaning And Personal Use In the U.S.
The Science Of Chemicals
- List Of Chemical Processes: Chemical engineering unit processing consists of the following important processes: Oxidation, Reduction, Hydrogenation, Dehydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Hydration, Dehydration, Halogenation, Nitrification, Sulfonation, Ammoniation, Alkaline fusion, Alkylation, Dealkylation, Esterification, Polymerization, Polycondensation and Catalysis. In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds. Such a chemical process can occur by itself or be caused by an outside force, and involves a chemical reaction of some sort. In an "engineering" sense, a chemical process is a method intended to be used in manufacturing or on an industrial scale (see Industrial process) to change the composition of chemical(s) or material(s), usually using technology similar or related to that used in chemical plants or the chemical industry.
U.S. Chemical Industry Information, Statistics, Trends And Outlooks
- What Is The Leading Chemical Manufacturer In The USA?: BASF is once again the largest foreign-headquartered chemical company in the U.S., with $18.0 billion in 2017 regional sales after solid 8.5% growth.
- As of 2019, chemical industry companies comprised about 15% of the U.S. manufacturing economic sector. LabAlley.com sells many of the agricultural chemicals, laboratory chemicals, specialty chemicals, industrial chemicals, consumer products and life sciences chemicals manufactured by these firms. The chemical industry is a complex of processes, operations, and organizations engaged in the manufacture of chemicals and their derivatives.The U.S. chemical industry accounts for 18 percent of global chemical shipments. The United States is the largest national producer of chemical products globally.
- More than 13,000 firms sell more than 70,000 chemical products in the USA. The chemical industry is one of the largest and most influential industries on the planet. Sales of household chemicals, laboratory chemicals and industrial chemicals in America should exceed $765 billion in 2019. Trade wars between China and the United States may have an adverse impact on U.S. petrochemical producers.
- In 2017, BASF and DowDupont each had chemicals sales of over $60 billion. In 2019, DowDupont was dissolved into 3 separate companies. DowDuPont was the biggest chemical conglomerate in the world. It generated $86 billion in sales in 2018, more than BASF, more than Sabic and more Formosa Plastics Group.
- Keeping Up With Changes In The Chemical Industry: To keep up with changes, the chemical industry has adjusted strategies to manage feedstock volatility, handled slumps driven by key buyers in the automotive and construction industries, and managed the emergence of massive state-owned enterprises in China.
- LabAlley.com sells the most commonly-produced industrial chemical in the world, sulfuric acid. This chemical is used manufacture phosphoric acid, a key ingredient in many chemical fertilizers. The chemical industry is a significant contributor to the wealth of the United States. Review a list of the largest chemical producers globally, here. Improvement in major end-use markets set the stage for gains in U.S chemical production in 2019.
- U.S. chemical industry output continued to grow in 2019 despite a challenging global economy. The U.S. chemical industry faces challenges including increasing globalization of markets, societal demands for higher environmental performance, financial market demands for increased profitability and capital productivity, higher customer expectations and changing work force requirements. Despite significant pressures from a many sources, the U.S. chemical industry has continued to perform and grow. However, during August of 2019, the US chemical output was lower in all regions, with the largest declines in the north-east and west coast regions.
- In a year, chemicals companies in the U.S. manufacture over 36 million tons of sulfuric acid, 12 million tons of proplyene, 14 million tons of sodium hydroxide, 11 million tons of sodium carbonate, 8 million tons of ammonia, 5 million tons of benzene, 5 million tons of acetic acid, 4 million tons of ethylene oxide, 3 million tons of formaldehyde and 2 million tons of methanol.
- Current U.S. chemical policies have produced a market in which the safety of chemicals for human health and the environment is undervalued. Market barriers to green chemistry are attributed to the weaknesses in the Toxic Substances Control Act. The updated Toxic Substances Control Act may help to protect the health of Americans and their environment. Effective regulation of consumer chemical products is a key factor to safeguarding public health.
- Although the EPA has more than 85,000 chemicals listed on its inventory of substances that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the agency is having a hard time determining which of the 85,000 chemicals are being sold in the USA and how these substances are being used.
- In the United States, the TSCA is supposed to ensure that chemicals used in the U.S. are safe for the environment and human health. After updates in 2016 to the nation’s main chemical safety legislation. The TSCA regulates chemicals used commercially in the United States but does not regulate pesticides, chemicals used in cosmetics and personal care products, food, food packaging, or pharmaceuticals. Unlike the old law, the new TSCA requires EPA to review the safety of all chemicals used commercially in the U.S. The new law requires the EPA to prioritize chemicals for evaluation. The EPA prioritizes quick evaluations of chemicals that pose concerns for children’s health, are carcinogenic, environmentally persistent, toxic and build up in fat or other living tissue, or are widely found in biomonitoring programs. An upgraded review process may avert hazardous chemicals’ use in a wide range of consumer products. Because the new TSCA requires all chemicals to be evaluated, it’s expected to influence which chemicals are chosen as product ingredients, how chemicals are used in manufacturing and how chemicals are manufactured as companies try to avoid using chemicals likely to be restricted or banned. This may also create an incentive for new, safer chemicals and finished products.
- For technical and professional information related to chemistry and chemical engineering, visit Chemical & Engineering News, published by the American Chemical Society.
- USA Chemical Industry Spotlight: The chemical industry is one of the United States' largest manufacturing industries, serving both a sizable domestic market and an expanding global market. It is also one of the top exporting sectors of U.S. manufacturing. Accounting for 18 percent of global chemical shipments, the United States is a world leader in chemical production and exports.
- Read U.S. Chemical Industry Facts And Statistics
- U.S. Chemical Industry Outlook: With a decisive competitive advantage in energy and new capacity continuing to come online, the outlook for the U.S. chemical industry remains strong. Chemical output should grow by 3.6% in 2019 and 3.1% in 2020.
- U.S. Chemical Manufacturing Industry: The Chemical Manufacturing subsector is based on the transformation of organic and inorganic raw materials by a chemical process and the formulation of products. This subsector distinguishes the production of basic chemicals that comprise the first industry group from the production of intermediate and end products produced by further processing of basic chemicals that make up the remaining industry groups. The North American Industry Classification System Code (NAICS) Code Number Is 325.
- The U.S. Chemical Industry Soars
- Chemical Companies In The USA
U.S. Farm Sector Stockpiles Chinese Chemicals Before Scheduled Tariffs: U.S. agriculture suppliers are stockpiling the Chinese chemicals that farmers need to kill crop pests and boost yields - before tariffs on them more than double on Jan. 1, 2019. The additional tariffs, threatened by U.S. President Donald Trump, are part of an eight-month trade war between the United States and China affecting $250 billion worth of Chinese products and $113 billion in U.S. goods.
The duties could disrupt supply lines for U.S. companies that sell chemicals and fertilizers, part of a $28-billion U.S. farm chemical industry. The sector relies on Chinese imports for 40 percent of the ingredients and materials needed to make crop chemicals, according to consultancy Informa.
Common Chemicals Sold And Manufactured In The U.S.
- The Top 10 Industrial Chemicals
- Chemicals Made In America
- Lists Of Chemicals Sold In the USA
- Chemical Products List: Products include salt, chlorine, caustic soda, soda ash, acids (such as nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid), titanium dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide. Fertilizers are the smallest category (about 6 percent) and include phosphates, ammonia, and potash chemicals. Many chemicals are commonly available in pure form. Others are available as reagents - inexpensive, convenient sources of chemicals with a bit of processing. This is convenient for both amateur and professional chemistry work. Some people consider synthetic chemicals to be more toxic than natural chemicals. Synthetic chemicals are made by humans using methods different than those nature uses, and these chemical structures may or may not be found in nature. Get more information on synthetic, natural, organic chemicals here.
- Debunking The Myths: Are There Really 84,000 Chemicals?
Types Of Chemicals In the United States
- Major Brands Of Chemicals Sold Online In The U.S.
- Paints, Pigments, and Coatings: "Paints and coatings" spans everything from the colored shells on chocolate candy to barnacle-resistant layers on ship hulls, and some sources include adhesives in this category as well. New products address customer requirements from fast-growing markets in developing nations and health and environmental regulations in the United States. Fluctuations in the cost of raw materials create a need for more plentiful and economical substitute ingredients.
- Laboratory Chemicals: The laboratory chemicals market is mainly driven by the growing R&D activities in the field of biological and chemical sciences. The laboratory chemicals market is growing primarily due to a significant increase in their use in basic research applications, coupled with large-scale commercial applications. An ongoing refinement and advancement of technologies, such as cell culture, recombinant DNA, and bio-therapeutics, have enhanced the scientific community’s ability to identify and produce important human therapeutic agents over the years. Moreover, growing interest of the world scientific community in such chemicals is anticipated to escalate the growth of the laboratory chemicals market. Laboratory chemicals are used for testing air, water, and soil under certain conditions. These chemicals help in determining pollutants, trace metal acids, toxic organics, and other impurities present in the environment. The major chemicals used for these applications include high performance liquid chromatography reagents (HPLC), ultra high-performance liquid chromatography reagents (UHPLC), mass spectrometry reagents (MS), and gas spectrometry reagents (GS). Thus, the growing usage of these chemicals are driving the demand for laboratory chemicals over the forecast period.
- Agricultural Chemicals: The NASS Agricultural Chemical Use Program is USDA’s official source of statistics about on-farm chemical use and pest management practices. Since 1990, NASS has surveyed U.S. farmers to collect information on the chemical ingredients they apply to agricultural commodities through fertilizers and pesticides. On a rotating basis, the program currently includes fruits; vegetables; major field crops such as cotton, corn, potatoes, soybeans, and wheat; and nursery and floriculture crops. Read more about the Agricultural Chemical Use Program here.
- Cosmetic Ingredients: The FDA maintains information on selected cosmetics products, ingredients, and potential contaminants. These include hair products, dyes, relaxers, removal, hair-smoothing products that release formaldehyde, makeup, eye products, lipstick, novelty makeup and permanent makeup, nail products, "organic" cosmetics, soaps and lotions, tanning products and tattoos. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act does not require cosmetic products and ingredients to be approved by FDA before they go on the market, except for color additives that are not intended for use as coal tar hair dyes. However, they must be safe for consumers under labeled or customary conditions of use. Companies and individuals who market cosmetics have a legal responsibility for the safety of their products and ingredients. Get more information about the following cosmetic ingredients here: allergens in cosmetics, alpha hydroxy acids, beta hydroxy acids, diethanolamine, fragrances in cosmetics, nanotechnology, parabens, phthalates, prohibited ingredients and talc.
- Food Chemicals: The food industry, from farmer to grocer and everyone in between is concerned about the safety of their products and as a result, your safety as well. The business of chemistry is part of that food supply chain and its commitment to safety is summed up in two words: Responsible Care®.
- Food Ingredients, Additives And Colors: There are thousands of ingredients used to make foods. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintains a list of over 3000 ingredients in its data base "Everything Added to Food in the United States", many of which we use at home every day (e.g., sugar, baking soda, salt, vanilla, yeast, spices and colors).
- Examples Of Natural Chemicals: Naturally occurring chemicals are unprocessed chemicals that are found in a natural environment. Examples are chemicals obtained from plants, microorganisms, the earth, sea or animals without any processing at all, for example blood and milk from animals, minerals, ores, crude oil, coal and natural gas obtained without any processing. Natural chemicals are produced by nature without any human intervention. Synthetic chemicals are made by humans using methods different than those nature uses, and these chemical structures may or may not be found in nature.
- Find out how different types and grades of chemicals are defined, named and classified in the USA.
- Chemical Substances: Definitions, history of chemicals, chemical elements, chemical compounds, substances versus mixtures, chemicals versus chemical substances, naming and indexing, isolation, purification, characterization and identification.
Major Certified Grades Of Chemicals Sold Online In The United States By LabAlley.com
- ACS Grade Chemicals (ACS Reagent Grade)
- USP Grade Chemicals
- Reagent Grade Chemicals (ACS Reagent Grade)
- Food Grade Chemicals
- NF Grade Chemicals
- Technical Grade Chemicals
- HPLC Grade Chemical (For High-Performance Liquid Chromatography)
- Laboratory Grade (Lab Grade) Chemicals
- LC-MS Grade Chemicals Or LC/MS Grade Chemicals
- Biotech/ Biochemistry Grade Chemicals | Highly Pure Reagents Suitable For Biochemical Research And Analysis
- UV/HPLC Grade Chemicals | HPLC Grade For UV Spec And LC | Suitable for Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry and Liquid Chromatography
- Soap Grade Chemicals | Soap Grade Sodium Hydroxide | Soap Grade Potassium Hydroxide
- Anhydrous Grade Chemicals | Extremely Low Moisture Content
- Kosher Certified Chemicals
Unofficial Grades Of Chemicals Sold Online In America By LabAlley.com
- Industrial Grade Chemicals
- Purified Grade (Does Not Meet Any Official Standard)
- Gradient Grade (Chemical Suitability In HPLC With Gradient Analysis)
- Extraction Grade (For Medicinal Plant, Herbal And Botanical Extraction Processes)
Buy Safer Food Grade Chemicals And Natural Sanitation Ingredients For Cleaning Swimming Pools And Hot Tubs In The U.S.
Make your own pool chemicals with natural ingredients ordered online at LabAlley.com. There are many natural ways to keep pool water clean. Use safe household chemical ingredients to clean your pool. Buy environmentally friendly, non-toxic, and biodegradable cleaners. Kid Safe and Pet Safe pool chemicals are for sale online at LabAlley.com and are shipped to you by FedEx in the U.S.
Use Natural Ingredients And Safer Chemicals To Maintain A Kid Safe Pool
- Learn How To Keep A Pool Clean With Baking Soda
- Learn How To Keep A Pool Clean Without Chemicals
- Make Homemade Algaecides For Swimming Pools
- Learn How To Add Baking Soda To A Pool
- Discover Natural Ways To Keep Pool Water Clean
- Make Your Own 'DIY' Pool Cleaners
- Learn How To Lower Pool pH Levels With Muriatic Acid
How To Buy Safer Pool Chemicals And Pet Safe Natural Cleaning Products To Clean Pools And Hot Tubs
If you have questions about your options and choices for ordering safer and healthier pool chemicals online here at LabAlley.com or if you would like to place an order, call 512-668-9918 or email firstname.lastname@example.org to talk with a Pool Chemical Safety Specialist. If you can not find the chemical or ingredient you are looking for, contact us and we may be able to special order it for you.
If Safety Matters, Buy Natural Compounds To Clean Your Pool Or Hot Tub
- Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric Acid)
- Citric Acid (Found In Lemons)
- Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
- Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide
- Sodium Bisulfate
- Diatomaceous Earth
- Calcium Chloride
- Sodium Chloride (Pool Salt)
- Sodium Carbonate/Soda Ash
- Sodium Bromide
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- Acetic Acid (Waterless Vinegar)
- Sodium Hypochlorite With 5% Chlorine
- Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
- Sodium Hypochlorite (Household Bleach)
- Olive Oil (For Cleaning Pool Decks, Pool Toys And Pool Covers)
- Boric Acid (Borax)
Buy Natural And Safe Chemicals For Pools And Hot Tubs At LabAlley.com
- Pool Chemicals For Winter
- Pool Chemicals for Algae
- Pool Chemicals For Sensitive Skin
- Pool Chemicals For Salt Water Pools
- Chemicals For Closing Pools
- Pool Chemicals For Sand Filters
- Pet Safe Pool Chemicals
- Dog Safe Pool Chemicals
- Baby Safe Pool Chemicals
- Kid Safe Pool Chemicals
- Safe Swimming Pool Chemicals
- Pool Chemicals Are Shipped FedEx In The USA
Units Of Mass For Chemicals Sold In The U.S.
The gram is a metric system unit of mass. Grams are used to quantify units of mass for chemicals that are produced and packaged in powdered (powder) form, granular form or crystal (crystalline) form. 100 grams (g) is equal to 3.527396195 ounces. Typical units measured in grams include the following.
- 25 Grams (25g)
- 50 Grams (50g)
- 100 Grams (100g)
- 500 Grams (500g)
- 2500 Grams (2500g)
- 1 Kilogram (1kg)
- 2.5 Kilogram (2.5kg)
- 5 Kilograms (5kg)
- 12 Kilograms (12kg)
- 25 Kilograms (25kg)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass (weight) used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. LabAlley.com sells chemicals packaged in the following pound measurements.
- 1 Pound (1lb)
- 5 Pounds (5lb)
- 10 Pounds (10lb)
- 20 Pounds (20lb)
- 50 Pounds (50lb)
U.S customary units is the system of units of measurement used to measure things in the United States. Common volume units are the teaspoon, tablespoon (3 teaspoons), fluid ounce (two tablespoons), cup (8 ounces), pint (2 cups, or 16 fluid ounces), quart (2 pints, or 32 fluid ounces), US gallon (16 cups, 128 fluid ounces, or 3.8 liters). Lab Alley sells aqueous solutions of chemicals in the following volume units.
The litre (international spelling) or liter (American spelling) (SI symbols L and l) is a metric system unit of volume. A milliliter is one thousandth of a liter (0.002 pint). Lab Alley sells aqueous solutions of chemicals in the following volume units.
- 30 Milliliters (30ml)
- 50 Milliliters (50ml)
- 100 Milliliters (100ml)
- 1 Liter (1L)
- 2.5 Liter (2.5L)
- 4 Liter (4L)
- 20 Liter (20L)
- 200 Liter (200L)
How Americans Perceive Chemicals
- "Chemical" Is Not a Bad Word: This excellent article published by Scientific American explains why the word "chemicals" is misrepresented in the United States. Granted, chemicals cause cancer and illnesses but chemistry breakthroughs have also shaped our modern world. Penicillin has saved millions of people around the world.
Buying And Selling Chemicals In The USA
- IQVIA Chemical Intelligence (Formerly Chemical Info): ChemicalInfo connects buyers and sellers of chemical and pharmaceuticals using excellent producer and bulk pharmaceutical sourcing data.
Chemical Logistics, Shipping, Transportation And Importation In The U.S.
- Chemical Logistics: Leading chemical companies rely on Odyssey and Rhenus Logistics to move their products.
- TSCA Requirements For Importing Chemicals: Imports of chemical substances, mixtures or articles that contain a chemical substance or mixture must comply with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in order to enter the U.S. Importers must certify that imported chemicals either comply with TSCA (positive certification) or, if not otherwise clearly identified as a chemical excluded from TSCA, are not subject to TSCA (negative certification).
- Chemicals purchased online at LabAlley.com are typically shipped and transported in the U.S. by UPS, FedEx, LTL and FTL (TL). Shipping methods are based on standard classifications and four main transportation characteristics: density, handling, stowability and liability.
- Chemical manufacturers in the United States, and the third-party logistics partners that serve them keep the $770-billion chemical industry moving. The chemical supply chain requires special care in handling, transporting, and storing to prevent safety hazards such as combustion, contamination, and spoilage.
- Leading chemical companies rely on Odyssey Logistics & Technology Corporation to move their products around the world safely, cost-efficiently and on time. Experts at Odyssey support all the inbound and outbound transportation needs of chemical companies, including non-chemical shipments such as packaging materials and MRO. From inbound raw materials transportation to outbound transportation of finished goods, Odyssey can provide complete logistics solutions.
- Rhenus Logistics services the chemical sector which is an essential area of business for all branches of industry – whether it involves processing plastics, food production, the pharmaceutical business, automobile manufacturing or engineering. They have extensive expertise and the right equipment to serve firms in the field of chemical production.
Employment In The U.S. Chemical Industry
Data And Details For Specific Chemicals Sold In The United States
- U.S. National Library Of Medicine: Learn about chemicals and get information, synonyms and structures for over 400,000 chemicals.
- ChemSpider: This free online chemical information resource provides Americans with access to data on 25 million unique chemical compounds. This useful chemistry Internet portal provides information on chemical health and safety information, spectral data, chemical properties, molecular structure, synthetic methods and naming conventions for chemical teaching and research.
- Hydrochloric Acid Is Naturally Produced And Also Man Made: Hydrochloric acid is naturally produced by cells in our bodies to help digest food in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is also synthetically produced for a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For these applications, hydrochloric acid is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride gas in water.
- Sulfuric Acid Is The Number One Chemical Produced In The U.S.: 36 million tons of sulfuric acid are produced in the United States each year. Sulfuric acid is a colorless and odorless corrosive liquid. It is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen. It is highly corrosive to metal and tissue, and will char organic materials such as wood on contact. When dissolved in water, it releases heat. It is produced by extracting sulfur to sulfur dioxide and then to sulfur trioxide before finally fumed into sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid is a very important commodity chemical, and indeed, a nation's sulfuric acid production is a good indicator of its industrial strength.
Study Chemistry And Chemicals In The U.S.
- Chemical Information Skills: This PDF from the American Chemical Society (ACS) is for students that will become chemists or who will use chemistry in allied fields of science and medicine. The ACS helps to improve the world through the transforming power of chemistry.
- Study Chemistry In The United States: Find schools with chemistry programs at InternationalStudent.com. Common courses include analytical chemistry, biochemistry, environmental chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer and materials chemistry, spectroscopy and crystallography and thermodynamics.
About Chemistry Kits And Chemistry Sets
- The Rise and Fall and Rise of the Chemistry Set: Banning toys with dangerous acids was a good idea, but was the price a couple generations of scientists?
- Kids First Chemistry Set From Thames & Kosmos: Junior chemists can safely explore simple chemistry using the tools in this kit and common household substances from the kitchen and bathroom.
U.S. Chemical News, Publications, Literature And Educational Resources
- Chemical Week: Latest Chemical Industry News
- Chemical Information Sources
- Chemistry News From ScienceDaily: Get scientific and research data on newly invented chemical substances. Read chemistry articles from research institutes around the world.
- Nature Chemical Biology: Papers from Nature Chemical Biology shows how online resources can be used to enhance the accessibility and utility of chemical content in scientific papers.
- 2020 Solvent, Chemical, Ethanol And Botanical Industry News
- Chemical Processing Industry News
- Popular American Science Magazine: Scientific American (abbreviated SciAm or SA) is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the USA. Noteworthy American scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles to it. It is an essential guide to advances in technology and science.
- Specialty Chemicals Magazine: Specialty Chemicals Magazine is the leading publication dedicated to the fine and specialty chemicals industry.
Chemicals That Influence Happiness
- Good Chemicals: It's a survival mechanism: in the presence of something good, the brain releases four main 'feelgood' chemicals – endorphin, oxytocin, serotonin, and dopamine. These are the four major chemicals in the brain that influence our happiness.
Chemical Industry Health And Safety Initiative
- Learn about Responsible Care® and U.S. chemical industry's desire to improve health, safety and environmental performance here. Review lists of common industrial chemicals and household chemicals available in the U.S., here.
- Responsible Care®: Started in Canada in 1985, Responsible Care® is a global, voluntary initiative developed autonomously by the chemical industry for the chemical industry. It runs in 67 countries whose combined chemical industries account for nearly 90% of global chemical production. 96 of the 100 largest chemical producers in the world have adopted Responsible Care.
- First published in 2006, the Responsible Care Global Charter was revised in 2014 to address ongoing stakeholder expectations and evolving challenges, and to enable industry to speak with a common voice about its global commitments.
U.S. Chemical Health, Toxicity And Safety Information
- Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families: A national effort to protect families from toxic chemicals.
- Learn about Responsible Care® and U.S. chemical industry's desire to improve health, safety, and environmental performance here.
- Buy Safer Chemicals Online
- Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards
- Learn about chemicals that are a major public health concern.
- 11 American Foods That Are Banned Abroad And How They Can Impact Your Health
- Chemicals and Toxics Topics: The EPA uses sound science to develop ways to help produce safer chemicals and regulate harmful substances. EPA also provides information about specific chemicals and how you can protect yourself, your family and your community.
- Promoting the Safe Use of Chemistry Products Is a Shared Responsibility: Promoting the safe use of chemistry products is a shared responsibility of manufacturers, the government and those who use or sell chemical products. Manufacturers and government must work together to: Develop, implement and comply with sound regulations so chemicals are safe for intended use. Enhance scientific understanding of chemical safety. Produce publicly accessible safety information.
- Toxic Chemicals In Food, Cosmetics, Toys, Furniture And Household Cleaners
- The Most Dangerous And Toxic Man Made Chemicals: Botulinum toxin A (Botox), Chlorine Trifluoride, VX, Batrachotoxin, Carbon Monoxide, Ricin, Asbestos, Alpha-Amanitin, Agent Orange, Arsenic, Strychnine, Tabun, nicotine, Polonium-210, sodium cyanide, Sarin, Tetrodotoxin and Digoxin.
- Why U.S. Cosmetics Are Full Of Chemicals That Are Banned In Europe
- Identifying and Reducing Environmental Health Risks of Chemicals in Our Society
- Toxic Exposure: Chemicals Are in Our Water, Food, Air and Furniture: Are the Chemicals We Encounter Every Day Making Us Sick? The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began measuring human exposure to chemicals in 1976. These so-called “biomonitoring” studies found a range of toxics in subjects’ blood and urine – substances like DDT, BPA, air pollutants, pesticides, dioxins and phthalates.
- Common Items That May Be Hazardous
- Top Hazardous Materials In American Industry
- Chemicals of substantial public health concern around the world include benzene, asbestos, arsenic, Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS), hazardous and toxic air pollutants, cadmium, formaldehyde, dioxin, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), excess fluoride, lead, mercury and hazardous pesticides. Food packaging often contains PFAS, which have been linked to significant health problems. U.S. firms such as Subway have decided to remove controversial chemicals such as Azodicarbonamide from the food they manufacture. Kraft decided to removing Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) and No. 6 from some of their Macaroni & Cheese products.
Natural And Man-Made Chemical Toxicity And Safety
- Artificial compounds and man-made chemicals have transformed many industries in the U.S., including the pharmaceutical industry and the food and beverage industry. LabAlley.com sells natural chemicals like citric acid which is found in lemons and limes. LabAlley.com also sells man-made chemicals such as ethylene glycol.
- Consumers in the USA often conclude that natural chemicals are safer than man-made (synthetic) chemicals but their is more to the topic than meets the eye. Learn about the advantages and disadvantages of natural chemicals and synthetic chemicals, here. In the USA, the terms 'poison' and 'chemical' have often interchangeable to consumers.
- Chemicals can be man-made or natural but these terms are not a classification of safety or toxicity. Dealing with chemical risk is challenging to all Americans as well as the EPA. Most of the chemicals currently sold in the USA have not been tested properly for their effects on the health of humans or animals. Get more information about the safety and toxicity of chemicals sold in the United States here.
- Toxic chemicals are used to manufacture furniture, food, beverages, rugs, toys, cosmetics, personal care products and household cleaners. Advocacy groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council are pressuring U.S. legislators to close loopholes and reform outdated chemical-safety laws that are constantly exploited by the companies and attorneys in the chemical industry. Attorneys at the NRDC use the legal process to press the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and state governments to take a leadership role in restricting the sale and use of dangerous and toxic chemicals. Keeping hazardous chemicals out away from those who misuse these chemicals is a responsibility the Department Of Homeland Security.
- The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development helps countries in developing and implementing policies and instruments that make their systems for managing chemical safety, efficient and robust as possible, while protecting human health and the environment.
- On of the toughest challenges facing U.S. authorities in 2019 is how to enforce existing chemical laws within e-commerce (Internet) platforms and how chemicals are sold on websites such as Amazon, eBay and Alibaba. USA regulators are finding it difficult to ensure the safety of American consumers that buy hazardous and toxic chemicals online.
- Online chemical retailers need to be responsible for enforcing hazardous chemical policies. More comprehensive chemical policies to restrict the sale of toxic chemicals are being developed by U.S. e-commerce retailers with the assistance of Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families (SCHF). These steps are diminishing the amount of harmful chemicals sold on the Internet. These policy decisions are enhancing the use of green chemistry options and are helping consumers buy safer chemical based products.
- Due to increase in supplies of solar, wind, and other forms of renewable electricity, U.S. scientists and companies are starting to make chemicals with using oil as the feedstock. GreenScreen is is a method of comparative Chemical Hazard Assessment (CHA) that is used for identifying chemicals of high concern and safer alternatives.
- LabAlley.com does not sell certain man-made chemicals such as N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) because it is considered to be a reproductive toxicant and dangerous solvent. Naturally occurring chemicals can indeed be more toxic than man-made chemicals. In some cases, the dosage of a chemical. Any chemical, natural or man-made, given in large quantities, can cause health problems and even death.
Buy Medical Research Chemicals, Scientific Research Chemicals, Pharmacological Research Chemicals And Agricultural Research Chemicals Online In The USA
If you have questions about your options and choices for ordering research chemicals online here at LabAlley.com or if you would like to place an order, call 512-668-9918 or email email@example.com to talk with a Research Chemical Safety Specialist.
If you can not find the research chemical or ingredient you are looking for, contact us and we may be able to special order it for you. LabAlley.com, based in Austin, Texas is an online laboratory chemical store and chemical supplier that sells research chemicals to individuals and scientific research organizations in the U.S. Download a laboratory chemicals list here.
Highly specialized research chemicals are sold online in the U.S. at LabAlley.com. Order high purity research chemicals for pharmaceutical development, innovative medical experiments and biochemical (biochemistry) research. Buy research chemicals for medical research at institutional laboratories or personal use in home science labs. Research chemicals are shipped FedEx in the U.S.
ACS reagent chemicals, 99% pure USP pharmaceutical-grade compounds (PGC) and research chemicals are for sale online here. Pharmaceutical Grade research chemicals ordered online at LabAlley.com do not contain unknown substances, dyes, binders, contaminants, fillers or binders.
Use A USA Sales Tax Exemption Certificate To Purchase Scientific Research Chemicals At LabAlley.com
Customers based in the United States that do not need to pay sales tax for research chemical orders can email firstname.lastname@example.org and attach their tax exemption certificate. Download the United States Sales Tax Exemption Form (Form SF1094) here. Download 'Your Practical Guide To Basic Laboratory Techniques' in PDF format here. Obtain research chemicals from the NIDA DSP here.
Raw Materials Used In The Chemical Industry
Its main raw materials are the fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and petroleum), air, water, salt, limestone, sulfur or an equivalent, and some specialized raw materials for special products, such as phosphates and the mineral fluorspar. The chemical industry converts these raw materials into primary, secondary, and tertiary products, a distinction based on the remoteness of the product from the consumer, the primary being remotest. The products are most often end products only as regards the chemical industry itself; a chief characteristic of the chemical industry is that its products nearly always require further processing before reaching the ultimate consumer.
How And Where Chemicals Are Made In The United States
- How Chemicals Are Made: The chemical industry makes chemicals by processing raw materials with heat, pressure and chemical reactions. Two or more elements combined into one substance through a chemical reaction form a chemical compound. All compounds are substances, but not all substances are compounds. A chemical compound can be either atoms bonded together in molecules or crystals in which atoms, molecules or ions form a crystalline lattice. Chemical processes such as chemical reactions operate in chemical plants to form new substances in various types of reaction vessels. In many cases the reactions take place in special corrosion-resistant equipment at elevated temperatures and pressures with the use of catalysts. The products of these reactions are separated using a variety of techniques including distillation especially fractional distillation, precipitation, crystallization, adsorption, filtration, sublimation, and drying.
- Chemical Plants In The United States: There are approximately 13,500 chemical manufacturing facilities in the United States owned by more than 9,000 companies. Facilities are located all over the country, with many companies in Texas, Ohio, New Jersey, Illinois, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and the Carolinas.
- Chemical Processing: Information on a range of chemical engineering topics, from operating chemical plants, process engineering, manufacturing and automation strategies to fluid handling and pumps.
- U.S. Chemical Production: The U.S. Chemical Production Regional Index (U.S. CPRI) was developed to track chemical production activity in seven regions of the United States. The U.S. CPRI is based on information from the Federal Reserve, and as such, includes monthly revisions as published by the Federal Reserve. To smooth month-to-month fluctuations, the U.S. CPRI is measured using a three-month moving average.
- Reinventing How Chemicals Are Made: Researchers are developing new chemicals to build the next generation of pharmaceuticals and high tech materials.
- List Of Largest Chemical Producers: BASF, DowDupont, SINOPEC, SABIC, Ineos, Formasa Plastics, ExxonMobile, LyondellBasell, Mitsubishi Chemical, LG Chem, Air Liquide, Reliance Industries, Dupont, The Linde Group, Toray Industries, AkzoNobel, Evonik Industries, Covestro And More
- 4 Critical Challenges Faced by Chemical Manufacturers
- What Does The Chemical Industry Produce?
Use A USA Sales Tax Exemption Certificate To Purchase Scientific Research Chemicals
- Customers based in the United States that do not need to pay sales tax for research chemical orders can email email@example.com and attach their tax exemption certificate.
- Download the United States Sales Tax Exemption Form (Form SF1094) here.
Ingredients And Raw Materials For Making Cosmetics, Skin Care Products, Creams And Personal Care Products
LabAlley.com sells a wide variety of safe ingredients and raw materials for skin care products that relieve skin conditions, support skin integrity and enhance its appearance. Wholesome substances and invigorating compounds ordered at LabAlley.com are used to make skin care and cosmetic products that cleanse and beautify. Cosmetic makers and personal care product manufacturers order natural products and food grade chemical compounds at LabAlley.com to make substances and products that are applied to the body and face. These healthy products alter and enhance the fragrance, appearance and texture of the body and face. One of the most popular products ordered in bulk is USDA Certified Organic Coconut Oil sold in 5 gallon pails.
Ingredients in today's skin care products include citric acid, alpha-hydroxy acids, beta hydroxy acids, lactic acid, hydroquinone, retinol, clay, kojic acid, oils, salicylic acid, copper peptide and others. Some of the of common skin care ingredients, cosmetic ingredients, raw materials and personal care product ingredients sold online at LabAlley.com are listed below. Buy safer cosmetic and skin care ingredients here.
- Glycolic Acid
- Distilled And Highly Purified Water
- Trichloroacetic Acid
- Castile Soap
- Potassium Permanganate
- Boric Acid
- USDA Certified Organic Coconut Oil
- Pure Food Grade Alcohol
- Activated Charcoal
- Eucalyptus Oil
- Methyl Salicylate
- Lactic Acid
- Citric Acid
- Denatured Alcohol
- 190 Proof Non-Denatured Alcohol
- Pine Oil
- Lauric Acid
- Mineral Oil
- Tartaric Acid
- Benzyl Alcohol
- Sesame Oil
- Neatsfoot Oil
- Carbonic Acid
- Extra Virgin Olive Oil
- Salicylic Acid
- Castor Oil
- Food Grade Peppermint Oil
- Cedarwood Oil
- L-Ascorbic Acid
- Bentonite Clay
- China Clay (White Kaolin Powder)
- Zinc Oxide
Buy Bulk Chemicals, Raw Materials For Pharmaceutical Manufacturing And Ingredients For Cosmetic Manufacturing In The United States
- Buy Bulk Chemicals, Specialty Chemical Products And Industrial Supplies For U.S. Manufacturing Operations Here
- Buy Safer Chemical Ingredients To Make Commercial And Residential Cleaning Products Here
- Buy Safe Chemicals In Bulk For USA Labs, Homes, Cosmetics, Pools And Schools Here
- Buy High Quality Research Chemicals In Bulk Here
- Buy High Purity Lab Chemicals And Science Chemicals In Bulk Here
- Buy Safer Raw Materials And Ingredients For Cosmetic, Skin Care Products And Personal Care Products In Bulk Here
- Buy Bulk Pharmaceutical Chemicals Here
- Buy Raw Chemical Ingredients For Heavy Duty Industrial Use, Everyday Household Cleaning And Other Applications
- Buy Safer Raw Materials And Ingredients To Make Your Own DIY Pool And Hot Tub Chemicals And Pool Cleaners Here
- Buy eco-friendly chemicals for treating, cleaning and sealing metals, metal parts, machines and equipment. Buy chemicals in bulk to perform metal pretreatment operations.
- Buy Safe Raw Materials To Make Your Own DIY Fertilizers And Lawn Care Products Here
- Buy Solvents In Bulk Here
- Buy Laboratory Acids In Bulk Here
- Buy Prepared Chemicals Solutions, Aqueous Chemical Solutions And Stock Solutions In Bulk Here
- Buy Ethanol In Bulk Here
- Purchase Bulk Chemical Ingredients For Industrial Or Personal Use
- Order Chemicals In Large Quantities For Laboratory Or Household Use
- Buy 200% Proof (100% Alcohol) Food Grade Ethanol In A 5 Gallon Pail Here
- Buy Hydrogen Peroxide In Bulk Here
- Buy Methanol In Bulk Here
- Buy MCT Oil In Bulk Here
- Buy USDA Certified Organic Ingredients At LabAlley.com
- USA Food Grade Ingredients Are For Sale Online At LabAlley.com
- Buy A 5 Gallon Pail Of Pure MCT Oil Here
- Buy Safe Chemical Substances To Use As Pharmaceutical And Cosmetic Ingredients
- Buy A 5 Gallon Pail Of ACS Reagent Grade Acetone Here
- Buy Safe Solvents For Botanical Extracts, Herbal Tinctures And Medicinal Oils Here
- Buy Chemicals In Large Quantities For USA Labs, Schools, Botanical Oil Extracts, Cosmetic Makers, Pools, Homes, Lawn Care, Science, Industry And Family Households
- Buy Safe Acids For Cosmetics Such As Acetic Acid, Salicylic Acid, Citric Acid, Glycolic Acid And Boric Acid
- Buy Acids For Industrial Use Such As Formic Acid, Phosphoric Acid, Nitric Acid, Sulfuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid And Hydrofluoric Acid
- Bulk Chemicals, Raw Materials And Ingredients Are Shipped By FedEx And LTL In The United States
Hard To Find Chemicals For Sale At LabAlley.com
- Shop online from a great selection of lab chemicals, research chemicals, farming chemicals, common industrial supplies and safe household cleaning chemicals in stock at low prices at LabAlley.com. The LabAlley.com website was designed specifically for U.S. companies and individuals that need on-demand chemical supplies shipped directly to them the same day they order online.
- Call LabAlley.com at 512-668-9918 or click here to contact a research chemical specialist or an experienced sales representative. The staff can help answer any questions related to testing and research experiments. LabAlley.com ships high quality chemical products, solvents, reagents and chemical handling equipment to universities, government facilities, homeowners and commercial entities all across the United States.
- LabAlley.com sells fine chemicals, hard to find chemicals, commodity chemicals and specialty chemicals in a range of different sizes and volumes. Shop for premium Lab Grade, ACS Grade, Food Grade and HPLC Grade chemical products for your laboratory at LabAlley.com. Browse a list of all lab chemicals, household chemicals and lab supplies sold online at LabAlley.com here.
Fine Chemicals Sold In The USA At LabAlley.com
- Fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances that are produced by biotechnology, extraction, hydrolysis and chemical synthesis.
- Fine chemicals sold at LabAlley.com are used as building blocks, advanced intermediates and active ingredients in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage, agricultural and life sciences industries. Fine chemicals, such as salicylic acid, L-glutamic acid, Food Grade L-aspartic acid and ascorbic acid are used as starting materials for specialty chemicals such as prescription drugs, biopharmaceuticals (biologic(al) medical product/biologic) and agrichemicals (agrochemicals).
- Fine chemicals purchased at LabAlley.com are used to make medicines, insecticides and processed foods.
Commodity Chemicals Sold In The USA At LabAlley.com
- Commodity Chemicals and Bulk Chemicals are sold in large quantities at LabAlley.com. The global commodity chemicals market hit a market value of $2,440 billion in 2017.
- Prices of commodity chemicals are available from Chemical Week. Economic expansion in both developed and developing countries in 2018, increased the market growth of commodity chemicals globally.
- Commodity chemicals, both organic and inorganic, purchased by manufacturing companies at LabAlley.com are used to make tires, plastics, synthetic fibers, construction materials, synthetic rubber, adhesives, dyes, apparel, pigments, paints, coatings, fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, pesticides, cosmetics, soaps, cleaning agent, detergents and pharmaceuticals.
- Commodity chemicals are produced in large volume with negligible product variation.
- Bulk chemicals such as ethanol, methanol, boric acid, hexane, isopropanol, citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid are sold online at LabAlley.com in 1 gallon, 5 gallon, 55 gallon, 250 gallon and 270 gallon containers.
- Typical commodity organic chemicals ordered online at LabAlley.com are butanol, acetic acid, acetone and benzene.
Specialty Chemicals Sold In The USA At LabAlley.com
- Many industrial sectors purchase Specialty Chemicals online at LabAlley.com. Common specialty (specialties or effect chemicals) chemicals sold by LabAlley.com are agrichemicals, cleaning materials, colors, cosmetic additives, construction chemicals, flavors, food additives, lubricants and surfactants.
- Specialty chemicals sold online at LabAlley.com are differentiated products manufactured for specific end uses in many industries. Specialty chemicals available at LabAlley.com are formulations or mixtures of different chemicals. Cosmetic firms, metal manufacturing operations, farms, food and beverage businesses, supplement producers and households order specialty chemicals.
- LabAlley.com sells over 700 specialty chemicals for specific applications. Specialty chemicals such as ACS Grade acetone, Food Grade ethanol, concentrated nitric acid (67% and 70%), Food Grade hydrogen peroxide, ACS Grade chloroform and HPLC Grade Methanol are ordered frequently at LabAlley.com.
- Get more information about specialty chemical manufacturers by learning about the Society of Chemical Manufacturers and Affiliates (SOCMA). This international trade association represents the interests of the batch, custom and specialty chemical industry.
Lab Alley is a specialty chemical distributor and ingredient distributor based in Austin, Texas that was founded in 2013. U.S. chemical manufacturers rely on market insights provided by Lab Alley to identify promising market segments such as the growing plant, botanical and herbal extracts market. Lab Alley focuses its marketing and logistics resources on certain specialty chemicals markets in the United States, which include safe botanical extraction solvents, lab chemicals, acids, salts, inorganic and organic reagents, analytical reagents, cosmetic ingredients, aqueous solutions, phenols, alcohols, standards, bases, electrolyte solutions, raw materials for skin care products, household cleaning chemicals, surfactants, pH buffers and detergents.
Multiple U.S. chemical manufacturers with large portfolios of products rely on Lab Alley to enter new markets, to sell more chemicals, to sell chemicals in small order sizes, to provide technical support and to manage regulatory compliance issues. Lab Alley is a specialty chemical distributor that has above-average penetration in the bulk solvents market segment and the organic and food grade chemical market segment.
Lab Alley has invested heavily in digital technology platforms along with knowledge management tools for technical sales and customer online order tracking capabilities to create added value for chemical manufacturers and end users in the United States. Although other digital players such as Amazon also sell specialty lab chemicals online, Lab Alley has an advantage because the customer support associates that answer the phone at Amazon don't have the same level of technical laboratory and application specific product knowledge, nor the chemical formulation knowledge, as the customer support associates at Lab Alley.
Customers that shop online at LabAlley.com for specialty chemicals value quick chemical shipments and lower prices. Lab Alley is one of the leading distributors of bulk food grade solvents and bulk high purity solvents in the United States. Lab Alley is also a leading distributor in the U.S. of hydrogen peroxide, laboratory reagents and stock chemical solutions.
Executives, managers and sales representatives at LabAlley.com understand a broad range of chemical handling requirements, chemical shipping regulatory issues, chemical safety and hazard issues and technical chemical documentation requirements. Lab Alley bundles specialty chemicals, ingredients and finished products from a wide variety of e-distribution services in order to provide customers with one-stop shopping and the ability to place small orders. Lab Alley sells 55 gallon drums of food grade ethanol to medicinal plant processing facilities and also sells pints of 200 proof ethyl alcohol to individuals for household uses.
Lab Alley executives have implemented multiple strategies to target specific chemical markets in the USA that have resulted in increased productivity, customer service and efficiency. Lab Alley makes chemical information very transparent through digital technology in the form of digitized Safety Data Sheets (SDS/MSDS PDFs) and chemical toxicity and safety information.
Lab Alley provides both B2B and B2C customers with easy access to their order status. Lab Alley provides customers with specialized technical support, shipping and logistics services and product application expertise. In 2019, automation upgrades at the Austin, Texas warehouse and improvements in customer chemical demand forecasting caused Lab Alley's revenues to grow at a much faster pace than other specialty chemical distributors in the United States.
Because Lab Alley is also focusing on the consumer market demand for safe and healthy chemicals for household use, Lab Alley has a good chance of increasing market penetration in 2020. Lab Alley is one of the few specialty chemical distributors that can supply industrial buyers with 55 gallon drums of high purity hydrogen peroxide and also supply individual users in the USA with 1 gallon bottles of food grade hydrogen peroxide. Few specialty chemical distributors in the USA use this marketing and logistics approach.
Chemical Laws And Regulations In The United States
- Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976: The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA or TOSCA) is a United States law, passed by the United States Congress in 1976 and administered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that regulates the introduction of new or already existing chemicals. When the TSCA was put into place, all existing chemicals were considered to be safe for use and subsequently grandfathered in. Its three main objectives are to assess and regulate new commercial chemicals before they enter the market, to regulate chemicals already existing in 1976 that posed an "unreasonable risk to health or to the environment", as for example PCBs, lead, mercury and radon, and to regulate these chemicals' distribution and use.
- The EPA Allowed Companies To Make 40 New PFAS Chemicals Despite Serious Risks: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that includes PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and many other chemicals. All PFAS chemicals persist indefinitely in the environment and have the potential to contaminate water and remain in the bodies of people and animals. According to an EPA spokesperson, the agency has taken steps to restrict the entry of new PFAS onto the market. Since 2006, companies have withdrawn their applications to introduce new PFAS compounds in the class on 44 occasions while they were under EPA review. The EPA has also denied 49 applications for low-volume exemptions for PFAS, which allow the companies to begin producing less than 10,000 kilograms per year of a substance without having to undergo a full safety review.
- Get U.S. Chemical Regulatory Information
- Learn how the EPA uses science to develop ways to help produce safer chemicals and regulate harmful substances.
- 10 Things You Need To Know About The New U.S. Chemicals Law
- The Bizarre Way The U.S. Regulates Chemicals
- Organic 101: Allowed and Prohibited Substances From The U.S. Department Of Agriculture
- The U.S. Response To The European Union's (EU) To REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals).
- How Many Toxic Chemicals Are Banned In The United States
- 9 Chemicals Banned By The EPA
- OSHA Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance
- Chemicals That Are Subject To TSCA: All of the chemical substances appearing on this list are subject to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 12(b) export notification requirements delineated at 40 CFR part 707, subpart D. The list is subject to change periodically. TSCA section 12(b) requires any person who exports or intends to export a chemical substance or mixture to notify the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of such exportation if actions have been taken under TSCA with respect to that chemical substance or mixture.
U.S. Chemical Organizations
- AIChE | Global Home of Chemical Engineers: The AIChE is the world's leading organization for chemical engineering professionals, with more than 60,000 members from more than 110 countries.
- American Chemistry Council: The American Chemistry Council, formerly known as the Manufacturing Chemists' Association and then as the Chemical Manufacturers' Association, is an industry trade association for American chemical companies, based in Washington, D.C.
- The Chlorine Chemistry Council: The Chlorine Chemistry Division of the American Chemistry Council (ACC) represents major producers and users of chlorine in North America. The Division works to promote and protect the sustainability of chlorine chemistry processes, products and applications in accordance with the principles of Responsible Care®. The chlorine industry contributes over $421.5 billion in annual economic benefits to North American consumers and supports 245,000 U.S. jobs. It helps provide thousands of essential products, including clean drinking water, energy-efficient building materials, electronics, fiber optics, solar energy cells, 88 percent of life-saving pharmaceuticals, 89 percent of crop protection compounds, and much more.
- The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA): This organization is the Worldwide Voice of the Chemical Industry. ICCA and its member associations, federations and companies are working together to pave the way to a more sustainable future and ensure the safety and protection of human health and the environment. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) is an association of innovators, visionaries, solutions providers and product stewardship pioneers.
U.S. Historical Events Related To Chemicals
About Dangerous Unregulated "Research Chemicals" Sold On The Internet
- Misuse Of The Term "Research Chemicals"
- Dangers Of Unregulated Research Chemicals: In the United States, police can lay charges under narrow conditions if they seize unregulated research chemicals. The compounds must be chemically similar to controlled drugs, produce similar effects and be intended for human consumption, factors than can be difficult to prove in court, said Russell Baer, spokesman for the Drug Enforcement Administration. Greater regulation needs to be in place over the availability of various unregulated "research chemicals".
- Dangerous Unregulated Research Chemicals Sold On The Internet Can Be Fatal
- Study Of Surface Internet Marketplace Presence And Availability Of NPS Sold As Research Chemicals: The misuse and abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are facilitated by their sale as “research chemicals” (RC) on the internet. A large, varied and dynamic inventory of NPS, some DEA schedule I, are sold on the surface internet under the guise of “RCs.” This pattern of availability and instability is consistent with previous descriptions describing darknet NPS availability.
- About Research Chemicals Sold In The United States: Research chemicals are chemical substances used by scientists for medical and scientific research purposes. One characteristic of a research chemical is that it is for laboratory research use only; a research chemical is not intended for human or veterinary use. This distinction is required on the labels of research chemicals and is what exempts them from regulation under parts 100-740 in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR). Research chemicals are fundamental in the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Common medical laboratory uses include in vivo and animal testing to determine therapeutic value, toxicology testing by contract research organizations to determine drug safety, and analysis by drug test and forensic toxicology labs for the purposes of evaluating human exposure. Many pharmacologically active chemicals are sold online under the guise of "research chemicals," when in reality they are untested designer drugs that are being consumed by buyers taking advantage of many of the compounds' transitional or nonexistent legal status. In some jurisdictions, drugs that are highly similar in structure to a prohibited drug are illegal to trade regardless of that drug's legal status. In other jurisdictions, their trade is a legal grey area, making them grey market goods. Some jurisdictions may have analogue laws which ban drugs similar in chemical structure to other prohibited drugs, while some designer drugs may be prohibited irrespective of the legal status of structurally similar drugs; in both cases, their trade may take place on the black market. In the United States, the Controlled Substances Act was amended by the Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement of 1986, which attempted to ban designer drugs pre-emptively by making it illegal to manufacture, sell, or possess chemicals that were substantially similar in chemistry and pharmacology to Schedule I or Schedule II drugs.
2020 Chemical Industry News
U.S. medical supply firms and online retailers of antiviral hospital grade sanitizers and virus disinfectants such as LabAlley.com, have been challenged by U.S. tariffs on imports of hand sanitizers and chemical disinfectants such as glutaraldehyde, used to fight the pandemic.
Canada's Interim Guide On The Production Of Ethanol For Use In Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers
May 8, 2020
- Acceptable Quality Grades
- Recommended Formulation
- Non-Medicinal Ingredients (NMIs)
- Formula Substitutions
- Use Of Non-USP Grade Alcohol
- Excise Tax Implications
- Obtaining A Licensee, Registration And/Or Approved Formulation Under The Excise Act, 2001
- End Of Interim Approach
- Contact Health Canada
This document provides information on the use of ethanol as an ingredient in alcohol-based hand sanitizers sold in Canada. Numerous Canadian entities and industries not currently regulated by Health Canada have expressed interest in providing additional and/or alternate sources of ethanol (also known as anhydrous alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol) for use in the production of hand sanitizers to support the national response to the supply shortage during the pandemic.
To help reduce the risk of infection or spreading infection to others, Health Canada recommends that individuals wash their hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available. Similarly, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that individuals regularly and thoroughly clean their hands with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub, as part of proper hand hygiene.
On March 27, 2020, Health Canada released the Guide on Health Canada's Interim Expedited Licensing Approach for the Production and Distribution of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers. The purpose of that Guide is to support companies that intend to manufacture, package, label and/or distribute alcohol-based hand sanitizers in response to the current shortage by providing a simplified and expedited pathway to obtaining the required authorizations.
This document provides further guidance on the quality requirements for ethanol to be used in the production of hand sanitizers. It also highlights key formulation aspects and points to additional flexibilities that can be leveraged during this emergency situation.
To protect the health and safety of Canadians, Health Canada remains committed to its mandate while balancing the need for exceptional measures during the pandemic. As such, the quality of ethanol used in manufacturing hand sanitizers must be fit for purpose and meet safety, efficacy and quality requirements.
This interim approach takes into account the current policies and best practices of foreign regulatory partners, including the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as well as the recommendations of the WHO and the US Pharmacopeia (USP).
Ethanol used for the production of hand sanitizers should conform to one of the identity and purity criteria published in any of the following quality standards, with any noted deviations provided in this interim guidance. For details on these quality standards, please refer to the weblinks provided below. Please note that some of these references may be accessed for free, while others require payment for full access:
- USP Monograph
- European Pharmacopeia (Ph. Eur.)
- Food Chemical Codex (FCC)
- British Pharmacopoeia (BP)
- Pharmacopée française (Ph.f.) (refer to monographs in subfolder “13-Formulaire national”)
- Pharmacopoeia Internationalis (Ph.I.)
- Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) (refer to page 896)
- National Formulary (NF)
The USP monograph specifies that ethanol must be 94.9% to 96.0% pure by volume, and provides the following concentration limits for impurities commonly found in ethanol:
- Methanol: No more than 200 µL/L
- Acetaldehyde and acetal: No more than 10 µL/L, expressed as acetaldehyde
- Benzene: No more than 2 µL/L
- Sum of all other impurities: No more than 300 µL/L
All formulations must meet the safety and efficacy requirements established in Health Canada’s Antiseptic Skin Cleansers (Personal Domestic Use) monograph.
Health Canada recommends the manufacturing of ethanol‑based hand sanitizer as per the WHO formulation. Specifically, the WHO-recommended handrub formulations (2010) provides a recipe for the preparation of a hand sanitizer with a final concentration of 80% v/v ethanol. While Health Canada’s monograph stipulates a range of 60%-80 v/v ethanol, an 80% v/v concentration is recommended for increased efficacy.
Formulation For A 10-Litre Preparation
- Ethanol 96%: 8,333 ml
- Hydrogen peroxide 3%: 417 ml
- Glycerol 98%: 145 ml
Other Acceptable Formulations Include:
Records must be maintained on how the hand sanitizer is prepared, including details on how the final ethanol dilution in the finished product was derived. The amount of ethanol needed in the formulation should be calculated using the following equation (as set out in the USP guidance):
Non-Medicinal Ingredients (NMIs)
All NMIs added to a hand sanitizer product must be listed in Health Canada’s Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID), indicated with an acceptable purpose and comply with all listed restrictions (as per the NHPID). Additional information is outlined below on quality requirements for specific NMIs used in ethanol-based hand sanitizers, based on the WHO guidance:
|Hydrogen Peroxide||The low concentration of Hydrogen peroxide in the finished product (0.125%) is intended to help eliminate contaminating spores in the bulk solutions and recipients and is not an active substance for hand antisepsis.|
|Glycerol and other humectants or emollients||
Glycerol (also known as glycerine or 1,2,3-Propanetriol) is added as a humectant at a final concentration of 1.45%, to increase the acceptability of the product and not to enhance viscosity.
Other humectants or emollients at a similar concentration may be used for skin care, provided that they are affordable, available locally, miscible (mixable) in water and alcohol, non-toxic, and not likely to cause an allergic reaction. Glycerol has been chosen because it is safe and relatively inexpensive. Lowering the percentage of glycerol may be considered to further reduce the stickiness of the handrub.
|Use of proper
|While sterile distilled water is preferred, boiled and cooled tap water may also be used as long as it is free of visible particles.|
|Addition of other additives||It is strongly recommended that no ingredients other than those specified in this document be added to the formulations. All NMIs (including denaturants) must be listed in the Product License application. If additions or substitutions of an NMI are made after the product license is issued, documentation must be maintained on the safety of the additive and its compatibility with the other ingredients. These documents must be available upon request by Health Canada. Any substitutions should come from approved ingredients in the NHPID. If the NMI that you intend to use is not found in NHPID, you can complete a Natural Health Products Ingredients Database Issue Form and submit to this email to add the ingredient. The full list of ingredients must be provided on the product label.|
|Denaturants||The use of denaturants is recommended to avoid the unintentional ingestion of hand sanitizers (particularly by children), but is not required under this interim approach. The NHPID includes a listing of acceptable denaturants that should be used if applicable in your formulation. Once this interim approach ceases to be in effect, to continue with the manufacture of hand sanitizer products, companies will be required to confirm with Health Canada that denaturants will be used from that point on.|
|Gelling agents||No data are available to assess the suitability of adding gelling agents to WHO-recommended liquid formulations; any additives selected for this purpose must be listed in Health Canada’s NHPID and comply with listed restrictions. The addition of a gelling agent must be included in the list of ingredients on the product label.|
|Fragrances||Adding fragrances, while not prohibited, is not recommended because of the risk of potential allergic reactions. As with other ingredients, a fragrance would be considered an NMI and must be included in the Product License application and be listed on the product label.|
Ingredients adhering to USP (or other acceptable standards, as listed above) should be used as the source of ingredients. However, given that there may currently be shortages of ingredients used to manufacture formulations of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, the following substitutions are acceptable:
- When components meeting compendial quality standards are not obtainable, components of similar quality – such as those that are chemically pure, analytical reagent grade, or American Chemical Society-certified – may be used.
- No ingredients should be added to enhance viscosity as they may decrease the effectiveness of the final preparation.
Disinfectant product ingredients, whether registered with the US Environmental Protection Agency or Health Canada, are not suitable as components for manufacturing hand sanitizers as they may not be safe for use on skin (i.e., may cause burns).
As per the Natural Health Products Regulations (NHPR), a Product License will not be issued if a product is likely to result in injury to the health of the consumer. Non-USP grade ethanol should be of a level of quality that is fit for human use in the finished hand sanitizer formulation.
For any products containing ethanol with specifications that deviate from the recommended standards, such as higher than permitted level of impurities in the above referenced standards, a risk assessment must be conducted and submitted to Health Canada for review. Each risk assessment will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if the ethanol is safe for use in hand sanitizer production. In the risk assessment, particular attention should be given to identify and quantify impurities, which are expected to be present (or likely to be present) as a result of manufacturing processes, starting materials, etc. An example of some impurities that would be expected in a non-USP or food grade ethanol product include acetaldehyde, benzene and methanol, though there may be others as well. Documentation including certificates of analysis (CoA) must be kept on record and made available at the request of Health Canada.
The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) administers the Excise Act, 2001 which governs the federal taxation of several commodities, including spirits, and regulates activities involving the manufacture, possession and distribution of these products. For example, persons who produce and package spirits, persons who use non-duty-paid spirits in the manufacture of non-beverage spirit-based products such as cosmetics or hand sanitizers, and persons who operate warehouses to store non-duty-paid alcohol must possess an excise duty license issued under the Excise Act, 2001.
Depending on the circumstances, a person may require a spirits license, a user’s license and/or a specially denatured alcohol registration in order to legally produce hand sanitizer using non-duty-paid alcohol in Canada. There are a number of ways hand sanitizer can be produced by licensees or registrants without incurring an excise duty liability, for example:
- A user licensee can produce hand sanitizer in accordance with an approved formulation without the payment of excise duty on the final product.
- There are also provisions that would allow a specially denatured alcohol registrant to possess and use certain grades of specially denatured alcohol to produce hand sanitizer without the payment of duty.
- A spirits licensee is authorized under the Excise Act, 2001 to denature spirits according to specified criteria, which are not subject to excise duty.
- Although it could be cost prohibitive, there is also the option to use duty-paid alcohol to produce hand sanitizer.
The requirements under the Act will vary depending on the circumstances of each case and the proposed activities to be undertaken.
Obtaining A License, Registration And/Or Approved Formulation Under The Excise Act, 2001
A number of spirits licensees, licensed users and brewer licensees (excise licensees) have expressed an interest in using non-duty-paid alcohol to make hand sanitizer. These are existing excise licensees who are seeking to temporarily expand their operations in response to the shortage in supply as a result of the pandemic. In some cases, excise licensees are requesting specially denatured alcohol registrations to allow them to possess and use specially denatured alcohol for this purpose. In other cases, spirits or brewer licensees are requesting users’ licenses and approved formulations. The CRA is also receiving enquiries from non-licensees who would like to apply for a specially denatured alcohol registration or user’s license and approved formulation for the purpose of producing hand sanitizer. In response to the current circumstances, the CRA has implemented a streamlined process to expedite the review and approval of these applications.
Applications for users’ licenses and specially denatured alcohol registrations should be submitted to your regional excise duty office using Form L63 License and Registration Application Excise Act, 2001. Applications for formulation approval should be submitted using Form Y15D - Request for Formula Approval. Note that a sample is not currently required for excise licensees applying for an approved formulation for the production of hand sanitizer. For questions or further information, please visit this website Excise Duties, Excise Taxes, Fuel Charge and Air Travelers Security Charge, which also includes the contact information for your regional excise duty office. These regional offices are your best source for information on excise taxes.
This interim approach is in effect immediately, and will be in effect until March 31, 2021 or until a notice is issued by Health Canada to license holders (whichever is earliest). When the approach expires, production must cease, although existing product stock can be exhausted.
If you have questions in relation to this Guide or the licensing of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, please contact Health Canada's Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Information On Hand Sanitizer Ingredients From Wikipedia
Hand sanitizer is a liquid, gel, or foam generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. In most settings, hand washing with soap and water is generally preferred. Hand sanitizer is less effective at killing certain kinds of germs, such as norovirus and Clostridium difficile and unlike soap and water, it cannot remove harmful chemicals. People may incorrectly wiped off hand sanitizer before it has dried, and some are less effective because their alcohol concentrations are too low.
In most healthcare settings alcohol-based hand sanitizers are preferable to hand washing with soap and water. Reasons include it being better tolerated and more effective. Hand washing with soap and water; however, should be carried out if contamination can be seen, or following the use of the toilet. The general use of non-alcohol-based hand sanitizers has no recommendations.
Alcohol-based versions typically contain some combination of isopropyl alcohol, ethanol (ethyl alcohol), or n-propanol, with versions containing 60% to 95% alcohol the most effective. Care should be taken as they are flammable. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer works against a wide variety of microorganisms but not spores. Compounds such as glycerol may be added to prevent drying of the skin. Some versions contain fragrances; however, these are discouraged due to the risk of allergic reactions. Non-alcohol based versions typically contain benzalkonium chloride or triclosan; but are less effective than alcohol-based ones.
Alcohol has been used as an antiseptic at least as early as 1363 with evidence to support its use becoming available in the late 1800s. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer has been commonly used in Europe since at least the 1980s. The alcohol-based version is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$1.40–3.70 per liter bottle.
The Clean Hands campaign by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) instructs the public in hand washing. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is recommended only if soap and water are not available.
When using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer:
- Apply product to the palm of one hand.
- Rub hands together.
- Rub the product over all surfaces of hands and fingers until hands are dry.
- Do not go near flame or gas burner or any burning object during applying hand sanitizer.
- The current evidence for the effectiveness of school hand hygiene interventions is of poor quality.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers may not be effective if the hands are greasy or visibly soiled. In hospitals, the hands of healthcare workers are often contaminated with pathogens, but rarely soiled or greasy. In community settings, on the other hand, grease and soiling is common from activities such as handling food, playing sports, gardening, and being active outdoors. Similarly, contaminants like heavy metals and pesticides (generally found outdoors) cannot be removed by hand sanitizers. Hand sanitizers may also be swallowed by children, especially if brightly-coloured.
Some commercially-available hand sanitizers (and online recipes for homemade rubs) have alcohol concentrations that are too low. This makes them less effective at killing germs. Poorer people in developed countries and people in developing countries may find it harder to get a hand sanitizer with an effective alcohol concentration. Fraudulent labelling of alcohol concentrations has been a problem in Guyana.
Hand sanitizers were first introduced in 1966 in medical settings such as hospitals and healthcare facilities. The product was popularized in the early 1990s.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is more convenient compared to hand washing with soap and water in most situations in the healthcare setting. Among healthcare workers, it is generally more effective for hand antisepsis, and better tolerated than soap and water. Hand washing should still be carried out if contamination can be seen or following the use of the toilet.
Hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol or contains a "persistent antiseptic" should be used. Alcohol rubs kill many different kinds of bacteria, including antibiotic resistant bacteria and TB bacteria. They also kill many kinds of viruses, including the flu virus, the common cold virus, and HIV.
90% alcohol rubs are more effective against viruses than most other forms of hand washing. Isopropyl alcohol will kill 99.99 % or more of all non-spore forming bacteria in less than 30 seconds, both in the laboratory and on human skin.
The alcohol in hand sanitizers may not have the 10–15 seconds exposure time required to denature proteins and lyse cells in too low quantities (0.3 ml) or concentrations (below 60%). In environments with high lipids or protein waste (such as food processing), the use of alcohol hand rubs alone may not be sufficient to ensure proper hand hygiene.
For health care settings like hospitals and clinics, optimum alcohol concentration to kill bacteria is 70% to 95%. Products with alcohol concentrations as low as 40% are available in American stores, according to researchers at East Tennessee State University.
Alcohol rub sanitizers kill most bacteria, and fungi, and stop some viruses. Alcohol rub sanitizers containing at least 70% alcohol (mainly ethyl alcohol) kill 99.9% of the bacteria on hands 30 seconds after application and 99.99% to 99.999% in one minute.
For health care, optimal disinfection requires attention to all exposed surfaces such as around the fingernails, between the fingers, on the back of the thumb, and around the wrist. Hand alcohol should be thoroughly rubbed into the hands and on the lower forearm for a duration of at least 30 seconds and then allowed to air dry.
Use of alcohol-based hand gels dries skin less, leaving more moisture in the epidermis, than hand washing with antiseptic/antimicrobial soap and water.
There are certain situations during which hand washing with soap and water are preferred over hand sanitizer, these include: eliminating bacterial spores of Clostridioides difficile, parasites such as Cryptosporidium, and certain viruses like norovirus depending on the concentration of alcohol in the sanitizer (95% alcohol was seen to be most effective in eliminating most viruses). In addition, if hands are contaminated with fluids or other visible contaminates, hand washing is preferred as well as after using the toilet and if discomfort develops from the residue of alcohol sanitizer use. Furthermore, CDC states hand sanitizers are not effective in removing chemicals such as pesticides.
Alcohol gel can catch fire, producing a translucent blue flame. This is due to the flammable alcohol in the gel. Some hand sanitizer gels may not produce this effect due to a high concentration of water or moisturizing agents. There have been some rare instances where alcohol has been implicated in starting fires in the operating room, including a case where alcohol used as an antiseptic pooled under the surgical drapes in an operating room and caused a fire when a cautery instrument was used. Alcohol gel was not implicated.
To minimize the risk of fire, alcohol rub users are instructed to rub their hands until dry, which indicates that the flammable alcohol has evaporated. Igniting alcohol hand rub while using it is rare, but the need for this is underlined by one case of a health care worker using hand rub, removing a polyester isolation gown, and then touching a metal door while her hands were still wet; static electricity produced an audible spark and ignited the hand gel. Fire departments suggest refills for the alcohol-based hand sanitizers can be stored with cleaning supplies away from heat sources or open flames.
Research shows that alcohol hand sanitizers do not pose any risk by eliminating beneficial microorganisms that are naturally present on the skin. The body quickly replenishes the beneficial microbes on the hands, often moving them in from just up the arms where there are fewer harmful microorganisms.
However, alcohol may strip the skin of the outer layer of oil, which may have negative effects on barrier function of the skin. A study also shows that disinfecting hands with an antimicrobial detergent results in a greater barrier disruption of skin compared to alcohol solutions, suggesting an increased loss of skin lipids.
In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) controls antimicrobial handsoaps and sanitizers as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) because they are intended for topical anti-microbial use to prevent disease in humans.
The FDA requires strict labeling which informs consumers on proper use of this OTC drug and dangers to avoid, including warning adults not to ingest, not to use in the eyes, to keep out of the reach of children, and to allow use by children only under adult supervision. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, there were nearly 12,000 cases of hand sanitizer ingestion in 2006. If ingested, alcohol-based hand sanitizers can cause alcohol poisoning in small children. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommends using hand sanitizer with children to promote good hygiene, under supervision, and furthermore recommends parents pack hand sanitizer for their children when traveling, to avoid their contracting disease from dirty hands.
There have been reported incidents of people drinking the gel in prisons and hospitals, where alcohol consumption is not allowed, to become intoxicated leading to its withdrawal from some establishments.
On April 30, 2015, the FDA announced that they were requesting more scientific data based on the safety of hand sanitizer. Emerging science suggests that for at least some health care antiseptic active ingredients, systemic exposure (full body exposure as shown by detection of antiseptic ingredients in the blood or urine) is higher than previously thought, and existing data raise potential concerns about the effects of repeated daily human exposure to some antiseptic active ingredients. This would include hand antiseptic products containing alcohol and triclosan.
Hands must be disinfected before any surgical procedure by hand washing with mild soap and then hand-rubbing with a sanitizer. Surgical disinfection requires a larger dose of the hand-rub and a longer rubbing time than is ordinarily used. It is usually done in two applications according to specific hand-rubbing techniques, EN1499 (hygienic handwash), and EN 1500 (hygienic hand disinfection) to ensure that antiseptic is applied everywhere on the surface of the hand.
Some hand sanitizer products use agents other than alcohol to kill microorganisms, such as povidone-iodine, benzalkonium chloride or triclosan. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the CDC recommends "persistent" antiseptics for hand sanitizers. Persistent activity is defined as the prolonged or extended antimicrobial activity that prevents or inhibits the proliferation or survival of microorganisms after application of the product. This activity may be demonstrated by sampling a site several minutes or hours after application and demonstrating bacterial antimicrobial effectiveness when compared with a baseline level. This property also has been referred to as "residual activity." Both substantive and non-substantive active ingredients can show a persistent effect if they substantially lower the number of bacteria during the wash period.
Laboratory studies have shown lingering benzalkonium chloride may be associated with antibiotic resistance in MRSA. Tolerance to alcohol sanitizers may develop in fecal bacteria. Where alcohol sanitizers utilize 62%, or higher, alcohol by weight, only 0.1 to 0.13% of benzalkonium chloride by weight provides equivalent antimicrobial effectiveness.
Triclosan has been shown to accumulate in biosolids in the environment, one of the top seven organic contaminants in waste water according to the National Toxicology Program Triclosan leads to various problems with natural biological systems, and triclosan, when combined with chlorine e.g. from tap water, produces dioxins, a probable carcinogen in humans. However, 90–98% of triclosan in waste water biodegrades by both photolytic or natural biological processes or is removed due to sorption in waste water treatment plants. Numerous studies show that only very small traces are detectable in the effluent water that reaches rivers.
A series of studies show that photodegradation of triclosan produced 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD). The 2,4-dichlorophenol itself is known to be biodegradable as well as photodegradable. For DCDD, one of the non-toxic compounds of the dioxin family, a conversion rate of 1% has been reported and estimated half-lives suggest that it is photolabile as well. The formation-decay kinetics of DCDD are also reported by Sanchez-Prado et al. (2006) who claim "transformation of triclosan to toxic dioxins has never been shown and is highly unlikely."
Alcohol-free hand sanitizers may be effective immediately while on the skin, but the solutions themselves can become contaminated because alcohol is an in-solution preservative and without it, the alcohol-free solution itself is susceptible to contamination. However, even alcohol-containing hand sanitizers can become contaminated if the alcohol content is not properly controlled or the sanitizer is grossly contaminated with microorganisms during manufacture. In June 2009, alcohol-free Clarcon Antimicrobial Hand Sanitizer was pulled from the US market by the FDA, which found the product contained gross contamination of extremely high levels of various bacteria, including those which can "cause opportunistic infections of the skin and underlying tissues and could result in medical or surgical attention as well as permanent damage". Gross contamination of any hand sanitizer by bacteria during manufacture will result in the failure of the effectiveness of that sanitizer and possible infection of the treatment site with the contaminating organisms.
Alcohol-based hand rubs are extensively used in the hospital environment as an alternative to antiseptic soaps. Hand-rubs in the hospital environment have two applications: hygienic hand rubbing and surgical hand disinfection. Alcohol based hand rubs provide a better skin tolerance as compared to antiseptic soap. Hand rubs also prove to have more effective microbiological properties as compared to antiseptic soaps.
The same ingredients used in over-the-counter hand-rubs are also used in hospital hand-rubs: alcohols such ethanol and isopropanol, sometimes combined with quaternary ammonium cations (quats) such as benzalkonium chloride. Quats are added at levels up to 200 parts per million to increase antimicrobial effectiveness. Although allergy to alcohol-only rubs is rare, fragrances, preservatives and quats can cause contact allergies. These other ingredients do not evaporate like alcohol and accumulate leaving a "sticky" residue until they are removed with soap and water.
The most common brands of alcohol hand rubs include Aniosgel, Avant, Sterillium, Desderman and Allsept S. All hospital hand rubs must conform to certain regulations like EN 12054 for hygienic treatment and surgical disinfection by hand-rubbing. Products with a claim of "99.99% reduction" or 4-log reduction are ineffective in hospital environment, since the reduction must be more than "99.99%".
The hand sanitizer dosing systems for hospitals are designed to deliver a measured amount of the product for staff. They are dosing pumps screwed onto a bottle or are specially designed dispensers with refill bottles. Dispensers for surgical hand disinfection are usually equipped with elbow controlled mechanism or infrared sensors to avoid any contact with the pump.
In 2010 the World Health Organization produced a guide for manufacturing hand sanitizer, which received renewed interest because of shortages of hand sanitizer in the wake of the pandemic. Dozens of liquor and perfume manufactures switched their manufacturing facilities from their normal product to hand sanitizer. In order to keep up with the demand, local distilleries started using their alcohol to make hand sanitizer. Distilleries producing hand sanitizer originally existed in a legal grey area in the United States, until the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau declared that distilleries could produce their sanitizer without authorization.
There are cautions against making your own hand sanitizer. Some widely-circulated home recipes are ineffective or even poisonous.
World Health OrganizationThe has published a guide to producing large quantities of hand sanitizer from chemicals available in developing countries, where commercial hand sanitizer may not be available:
|FORMULATION 1||10-L prep.||Active ingredient (v/v)||FORMULATION 2||10-L prep.||Active ingredient (v/v)|
|Distilled water||added to 10000 mL||18.425%||Distilled water||added to 10000 mL||23.425%|
|Ethanol 96%||8333 mL||80%||Isopropyl alcohol 99.8%||7515 mL||75%|
|Glycerol 98%||145 mL||1.45%||Glycerol 98%||145 mL||1.45%|
|Hydrogen peroxide 3%||417 mL||0.125%||Hydrogen peroxide 3%||417 mL||0.125%|
The WHO formulation are less viscous than commercial sanitizer gel, so like alcohol, they are a greater fire hazard.
Consumer alcohol-based hand sanitizers, and health care "hand alcohol" or "alcohol hand antiseptic agents" exist in liquid, foam, and easy-flowing gel formulations. Products with 60% to 95% alcohol by volume are effective antiseptics. Lower or higher concentrations are less effective; most products contain between 60% and 80% alcohol.
In addition to alcohol (ethanol, isopropanol or n-Propanol), hand sanitizers also contain the following:
- additional antiseptics such as chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium derivatives,
- sporicides such as hydrogen peroxides that eliminate bacterial spores that may be present in ingredients,
- emollients and gelling agents to reduce skin dryness and irritation,
- a small amount of sterile or distilled water,
- sometimes foaming agents, colorants or fragrances.
Hydrogen peroxide may be added to inactivate spores within bottle of hand sanitizer but does not play a role when the hand sanitizer is used.
Antimicrobial Products That Are Effective Against Norovirus (Norwalk-Like Virus)
April 8, 2020
For pesticide registration information, review this list from the EPA, "List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against Norovirus (Norwalk-Like Virus)".
Notes About This List
- All EPA-registered pesticides must have an EPA registration number, which consists of a company number and a product number (e.g., 123-45). Alternative brand names have the same EPA registration number as the primary product.
- When purchasing a product for use against a specific pathogen, check the EPA Reg. No. versus the products included on this list.
- In addition to primary products, distributors may also sell products with formulations and efficacy identical to the primary products. Distributor products frequently use different brand names, but you can identify them by their three-part EPA registration number (e.g., 123-45-678, which represents a distributor product identical to the product example listed above, EPA Reg. No. 123-45).
- If you would like to review the product label information for any of these products, please visit the EPA product label system.
- Information about listed products is current as of the date on this list.
- Inclusion on this list does not constitute an endorsement by EPA.
View more information about EPA lists of registered antimicrobial products here. You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
- Download List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against Norovirus (PDF)(6 pp, 130 K, March 4, 2020)
- Contact the EPA about pesticide labels, to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem.
About The EPA Pesticide Product and Label System
The Pesticide Product and Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been accepted by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on April 08, 2020.
- Search EPA Registration, Distributor Product, or Special Local Need Number Here
- The EPA Registration Number (EPA Reg. No.) appears on all registered pesticides sold in the United States. It is usually found on the back panel of the label along with the detailed instructions for use.
- Enter the company number (the first set of digits before the dash) to see all products marketed by that company or the entire number (including the dash) to view the label for a particular product.
- To search by Special Local Need Number, please enter two-letter state abbreviations with or without 6 digit number (i.e. OH123456).
- Search Buy Product or Alternative Brand Name: Enter the name of the product. As you type, options will be presented to you. Keep in mind that product names may vary, so if you don’t find the product you are looking for, try the EPA Registration Number Search.
- Search By Company Name: Enter the name of the company. Some companies may have several divisions that manufacture and market pesticides products. You can select among these divisions using the drop-down list or choose the root of the company name (e.g., "Bayer" or "3M") to see products associated with all of the divisions.
- Search By Company Number: Enter the company number. Please use digit without dash.
- Search By Chemical Name (Active Ingredient): Enter the name of the chemical (Active Ingredients only) you are interested in. Because there are many naming conventions for chemicals, you can enter the common chemical name of the chemical or other variants, including scientific names or partial names. This search function will help guide you to products that contain that active ingredient.
- Search By CAS Number Or PC Code: Enter the CAS Number or PC Code you are interested in. You may use the % wild card before and/or after your entry to enter a partial value.
Regulation Of Pesticide Labels
- Web-Distributed Labels
- Label Review Manual
- Label Review Training
- Pesticide Registration Notices About Labels
- Label Guidance For Specific Types Of Pesticides
- SmartLabel Pilot
Information On Pesticide Product Label Topics
- Logos And Graphics On Pesticide Labels
- International Pesticide Label Issues
- Endangered Species Bulletins
- Adding Statements On Labels About Consumer And Environmental Protection
- Spanish Translation Guide For Pesticide Labeling
Get Help With Pesticide Label Issues
Where To Buy Ethanol To Make Your Own Hand Sanitizers, Surface Disinfectants And Household Cleaners To Use Against Viruses
Properly made homemade hand sanitizer solutions can destroy the viruses. Ethanol Alcohol (ethyl alcohol) can be used at home to make your own hand sanitizer mixtures. Alcohol (ethanol) used for alcohol-based hand sanitizers is derived from distillation or fermentation processes typically used for consumable goods. Antiviral hand sanitizer ingredients are for sale online here. 60% ethanol or 70% isopropyl alcohol inactivates viruses. Help protect against viruses by cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces and objects in your home like tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, sinks, etc.
Use Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) To Make Household Surface Disinfectants And Commercial Cleaners To Control Viruses
To increase the supply of hand sanitizers, the FDA issued guidance for manufacturers that would like to produce alcohol (ethanol or ethyl alcohol) for use in alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumers and health care personnel. LabAlley.com has addressed shortages of alcohol-based hand sanitizers associated with the virus pandemic by stocking the ingredients used to compound alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Buy safe chemical ingredients to make DIY homemade hand sanitizers and commercial cleaning solutions, here. Buy virus disinfectants and sprays for household use, here. Purchase hospital grade disinfectants here. Buy denatured ethanol here.
Drinking methanol, ethanol or bleach DOES NOT prevent or cure viruses and can be extremely dangerous. Methanol, ethanol, and bleach are poisons.
ViruScrub Virus Disinfectant, Mildewcide, Fungicide & Virucide Cleaner
For use as a general, hospital, medical disinfectant, fungicide and virucide cleaner. Kills HIV, HBV and HCV on pre-cleaned hard, non-porous surfaces/objects previously soiled with blood/body fluids. This product can also be used as a non-acid toilet bowl and urinal disinfectant/cleaner. Cleans and disinfects shower rooms, locker room and other large, open areas with floor drains.
- Kills a variety of viruses
- Neutral pH
- Makes 256 Gallons
- Scent: Lemon
- Unit of Measure: 1 Gallon
Ideal for hospitals, medical and dental offices and clinics, healthcare facilities, nursing homes, day care centers and nurseries, kindergartens, and preschools, restaurants and bars, kitchens, cafeterias, fast food operations, supermarkets, convenience stores, retail and wholesale establishments. Institutional facilities, laboratories, factories, business and office buildings, restrooms, hotels and motels, schools, colleges, churches, athletic facilities and locker rooms, exercise facilities, gymnasiums. Read more here.
Does Hydrogen Peroxide Kill Viruses?
Yes, in all probability, viruses can be efficiently inactivated with surface disinfection procedures that use hydrogen peroxide ordered at LabAlley.com.
3% hydrogen peroxide purchased online at LabAlley.com is used as a spray sanitizer to kill rhinovirus on surfaces.
Hydrogen peroxide is active against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses, and spores. The CDC provides information on the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide solutions against viruses. The hydrogen peroxide solutions listed on the CDC website include 0.5% accelerated hydrogen peroxide, 3% concentration, 6% hydrogen peroxide, 10% hydrogen peroxide solution, 7% stabilized hydrogen peroxide and 13.4% hydrogen peroxide.
Quinine And Synthetic Derivatives Are Antiviral, Bactericidal, Antibacterial, Antimicrobial And Antimalarial
- Quinine sulfate (Quinine Hydrogen Sulfate) is a organic sulfate salt obtained from guanethidine and sulfuric acid in a 2:1 ratio. It has a role as an antimalarial. It contains a quinine and a quinine(1+).
- Chloroquine is a semisynthetic derivative of quinine.
- Currently in 2020, the synthetic form of quinine, Chloroquine is being researched and studied to see if it can effectively treat infectious diseases.
- FDA approved drugs such as quinine sulfate inhibit Dengue virus (DENV) replication.
Virus Pandemic Sparks Price Surge for Alcohol Used in Hand Sanitizer
April 4, 2020
A leap in demand for isopropyl alcohol pushes prices to record highs in U.S. and Europe. A key ingredient in hand sanitizers and medical disinfectants has become hard to obtain, triggering its price to surge to an all-time high. Isopropyl-alcohol prices have more than tripled in the U.S. since March 10. Read more here.
Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Compounders Protect Children By Using Denatured Ethanol Or Isopropyl Alcohol
The FDA provides guidance on the production of alcohol-based hand sanitizer to help boost supply and protect public health. The CDC and the FDA are helping to keep children safe by recommending that compounders use denatured alcohol and isopropyl alcohol to formulate and manufacture hand sanitizers and disinfectants. Because denatured alcohol (ethanol/ethyl alcohol) tastes awful and it smells bad, this hand sanitizer ingredient discourages young children from eating virus disinfectants. Denaturants in alcohol make it unfit for human consumption.
To protect young children from accidental poisoning caused by unintentionally ingesting virus disinfectants and hand sanitizers, the CDC and FDA are recommending that compounders and consumers use denatured alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, glycerin (glycerol) and sterile water to prepare alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumer use and for use as health care personnel hand rubs. Get updated core disinfection/cleaning guidance from the CDC here.
Virus disinfectants ordered online at LabAlley.com are used to clean the things that people touch the most such as phones, shopping carts, remote controls, tables, toilets, toothbrush holders, faucets, doorknobs, computer keyboards, light switches, desks, toilets, sinks and door handles.
Consumers and alcohol-based hand sanitizer manufacturers can order order approved denatured alcohol (isopropyl alcohol and denatured ethyl alcohol), hydrogen peroxide, USP and FCC grade glycerin (glycerol), antiviral disinfectants, hospital grade disinfectants, raw materials for hand sanitizer ingredients and sterile water online at LabAlley.com to make products to fight viral infections.
Distilleries, compounders, sanitizer manufacturers, botanical makers and American households purchase disinfectants and other cleaning supplies online at LabAlley.com to kill common viruses, mold, mildew, fungi, bacteria, pathogens and viruses on contaminated surfaces. Online orders of ingredients used to make virus disinfectants, aerosol disinfectants and multipurpose cleaners surged in March of 2020.
To learn more about U.S. regulations concerning the use of denatured alcohol, please refer to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations here. For guidance from the FDA for using denatured alcohol to make commercial hand sanitizers, please refer to this PDF titled, "Policy for Temporary Compounding of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Products During the Public Health Emergency Immediately in Effect Guidance for Industry".
Isopropyl Alcohol For Virus Protection
If your local store is out of hand sanitizer, buy isopropyl alcohol (better known as rubbing alcohol) at LabAlley.com to make do-it-yourself sanitizers. Tests have confirmed that two hand sanitizer formulations recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) inactivate the virus. Hand sanitizer can be made out of either ethyl alcohol, like the ethanol in alcoholic beverages, or isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing alcohol that's at least 70% alcohol will also kill virus on surfaces; 60% for your hands.
How To Make Your Own Hand Sanitizer | Dr. Ian Smith
DIY Hand Sanitizers, Face Masks And Disinfecting Sprays | DIY Alternatives for When Stores Are Out of Virus-Fighting Products
April 4, 2020
DIY hand sanitizers were the index species in the current wave of shelf extinctions, with usually plentiful supplies of Purell gel and similar products vanishing fast. Even without sanitizers, epidemiologists stress there is an exceedingly reliable alternative that works just as well: wash your hands with soap and water. Read more here.
Chemical Disinfection Of Virus‐Contaminated Surfaces
Chemical disinfection is widely practiced as a means of controlling and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although disinfection of bacteria has been widely studied, much less attention has been paid to the virucidal potential of commonly used disinfectants in spite of the low infective dose of many human pathogenic viruses. This review considers what is known about the disinfection of viruses and the virucidal properties of different classes of disinfectant chemicals. It focuses on virus disinfection from a practical viewpoint and also critically evaluates the testing techniques currently used for examining the efficacy of disinfectant products. Read more here.
Learn About The U.S. National Pandemic Strategy
These documents guide the United States’ preparedness and response in an influenza pandemic, with the intent of stopping, slowing or otherwise limiting the spread of a pandemic to the United States; limiting the domestic spread of a pandemic, mitigating disease, suffering and death; and sustaining infrastructure and mitigating impact to the economy and the functioning of society.
Factors In The Selection Of Surface Disinfectants For Use In A Laboratory Animal Setting
Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the ‘gold standard’ for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. Read more here.
Demand For Antiviral Compounds And Bioactive Compounds Surges
March 31, 2020
Antiviral compounds (AVCs) are a category of antimicrobial drugs used specially for treating viral infections by inhibiting the development of the viral pathogen inside the host cell. Review a list of antiviral drugs here. Several potent and selective antiviral agents against herpes virus infections have been developed. Research other methods for killing viruses here.
Some natural small molecules that could reduce the infectivity of viruses, possibly by inhibiting viral lipid-dependent attachment to host cells, are currently being studied. Companies such as R&D Systems (a brand of Bio-Techne) and Lab Alley sell antiviral compounds online. Firms such as BioGems (PeproTech brand), CPC Scientific, Sigma-Aldrich and R&D Systems sell antiviral compounds and products such as bioactive small molecules, small drug molecules and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Enveloped viruses can be killed by antimicrobial peptides.
The four FDA-approved antiviral flu drugs recommended by CDC to treat the flu are oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza), baloxavir marboxil (trade name Xofluza®) and peramivir (Rapivab). The FDA assists sponsors in the development of antiviral drugs and biological products.
A bioactive compound is a type of chemical found in small amounts in plants and certain foods. Studies are being conducted to evaluate the medicinal potential of bioactive compounds against viruses. Bioactive compounds have actions in the body that may promote good health. They are being studied in the prevention of diseases. Bioactive compounds are substances that have biological activity, related to their ability to modulate one or more metabolic processes. Bioactive compounds such as fatty acids have an effect on the body as a whole or specific tissues or cells. Bioactive compounds have a positive role in human health.
Medium-chain saturated and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids are highly active against enveloped viruses. Bioactive compounds sold online at LabAlley.com include saturated fatty acids such as stearic acid and palmitic acid.
The Best (A+) Virus Killers Sold Online At LabAlley.com
- Isopropyl Alcohol (99%, 91% & 70%)
- Benzalkonium Chloride (Quaternary Ammonium Compound)
- Hydrogen Peroxide (3%, 6%, 10%, 30%, 32%, 35%)
- Sodium Hypochlorite
- 100% Alcohol (200 Proof Ethanol/ Ethyl Alcohol)
- 95% Alcohol (Antiviral Disinfectant)
- 70% Alcohol (140 Proof Ethanol/ Ethyl Alcohol)
- Sodium Chloride
- Citric Acid
- Antiviral Ammonium Chloride
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Lactic Acid
- Acetic Acid
- Sodium Carbonate
- Triethylene Glycol
US IPA Prices Soar On Rising Global Demand And Supply Shortage
Author: Deniz Koray | Published On March 19, 2020
Posted Here On March 27, 2020
HOUSTON -- US isopropanol (IPA) prices surged this week on heavy demand for hand sanitizer, and there are no quick fixes for either the strong demand or the shortages of product. While European prices had risen to even higher numbers in the past month, US increases had been modest. However, prices surged this week, as domestic IPA spot prices are now assessed at 62-85 cents/lb ($1,367-1,874/tonne) FOB (free on board) US Gulf. IPA prices DEL (delivered) to the US Gulf are assessed at 64-90 cents/lb.
DOMESTIC IPA MARKETS
Until this week, prices in the US were increasing at much smaller rates than in Europe, generally in the range of 5 cents/lb or less. However, this week was a tipping point for the domestic market. Isopropyl alcohol is used in many hand sanitizers, which are in high demand among consumers because of their ability to kill germs. Hand sanitizers were among the first products to sell out at grocery stores and pharmacies, but demand has increased since then. It was believed that the US was not seeing the level of IPA price increases as in Europe since it had more ethanol. However, due to the increase in US exports to Europe as well as the rapid rise domestic demand, supply of IPA was nevertheless overwhelmed. One market participant said many producers were on sales allocations, but this could not be confirmed.
Last week, an export deal for Europe was heard at $1,350/tonne (61.24 cents/lb) CFR (cost and freight) Europe. Another was heard at $1,700/tonne CFR Europe. This week, prices for individual deals were heard for up to triple these numbers in Europe on imported IPA. However, these are not yet considered representative for the market. According to a market source, prices of exports to Asia in the past several days doubled, while another market participant said that Latin American demand began to heavily increase this week, but that there was almost no supply to provide to buyers there. Export prices now range from 57.52-95.00 cents/lb, although much higher individual spot prices were heard. IPA is a solvent principally used in industrial and consumer products including cosmetics and personal-care products, paints and resins, pharmaceuticals, food, inks and adhesives. It is also used in de-icers in the winter.
Ethanol Plants Seek Rule Changes To Resupply Hand Sanitizer
By David Pitt Associated Press March 26, 2020
Hospitals and nursing homes are desperately searching for hand sanitizer amid the virus outbreak and the ethanol industry is ready to step in to provide the alcohol, a key ingredient.
DES MOINES, Iowa -- As hospitals and nursing homes desperately search for hand sanitizer, federal regulators are preventing ethanol producers from providing millions of gallons of alcohol that could be transformed into the germ-killing mixture. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's roadblock has been frustrating the health care and ethanol industries, which have been calling for a relaxed regulation to deal with the public health care emergency. “Hand sanitizer is a big part of our lives,” said Eric Barber, CEO of Mary Lanning Healthcare, a hospital in Hastings, Nebraska. “We can’t get any. We order it and it’s just not available.” The problem for the ethanol industry is that most plants make food-grade ethanol, one step below the highest pharmaceutical grade. But since the plants aren't certified to comply with stringent production standards designed to protect quality of medicines, food ingredients and dietary supplements, the FDA doesn't want the alcohol used for a product to be applied to the skin. In addition, the alcohol is not denatured or mixed with a bitter additive to make it undrinkable. The FDA insists this step is “critical” because of cases of poisoning, sometimes fatal, among young children who have accidentally ingested hand sanitizers. An FDA spokesman said Thursday that regulators have already seen a rise in poisonings linked to hand sanitizers in recent weeks, “heightening this public concern.” The FDA is also skeptical of industry claims that undenatured sanitizers could be distributed in a way that would keep them away from children. “It is unclear what, if any, measure could be instituted to ensure that the product does not make its way into consumer hands, where children could have access,” FDA’s Jeremy Kahn said in an emailed statement. Facing a nationwide shortage, Barber said the FDA should temporarily relax regulations to allow alternative production. “You’re talking about alcohol. Does it matter if it's fuel grade or whatever the stuff is they’re trying to price gouge now? I think its common sense,” he said. “We may need to consider a range of possible solutions that were not on the table before the pandemic,” said Nancy Foster, a vice president with the group, in an emailed statement to the AP. The Consumer Brands Association, formerly the Grocery Manufacturers Association, has had conversations with the FDA to push the agency to reconsider its guidelines. The group, which represents branded food, consumer products and beverage companies, said that hand sanitizer supplies are running so low that its members have had to ration it out to workers in stores, distribution centers and manufacturing plants. "We need a temporary solution," said Mike Gruber, vice president of regulatory and technical affairs at the trade association. “This goes toward ensuring basic food safety practices.” Distillers that produce vodka, whisky and other alcoholic drinks have been given some regulatory waivers by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau allowing them to produce hand sanitizer. Many have done that, but they produce much smaller volumes of alcohol than an ethanol plant could produce. They also receive a benefit in the Senate-passed stimulus bill. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, which represents dozens of large and small distillers, applauded Congress for easing taxes on distillers who make hand sanitizer. Under the stimulus package passed late Wednesday, distillers don’t have to pay federal excise taxes on alcohol used for hand sanitizer through Jan. 1, 2021. “Hundreds of U.S. distillers are stepping up to produce hand sanitizer and they should not be hit with a huge tax bill for producing this much-needed item, especially at a time when so many of them are struggling,” said Chris Swonger, the group’s president and CEO. But the council said it’s urging the FDA to update its guidance and let distillers use undenatured alcohol for hand sanitizer. The stimulus bill requires distillers to follow the FDA’s guidance if they want to receive the tax breaks. The FDA has waived dozens of regulations in recent weeks to boost production of key medical supplies, including virus tests, ventilators, gloves and hand sanitizers. Under the latest FDA guidelines, regulators maintain standards for alcohol, requiring new producers to use alcohol that meets federal or international standards for use in either drugs or food products. The regulatory hurdles are especially frustrating for Midwest ethanol producers who are facing plunging fuel demand and a petroleum fight between Saudi Arabia and Russia that caused prices to plummet. The factors are forcing more plants to curtail production and close. For ethanol producers relaxed rules, including a requirement of the hard-to-acquire denaturant, would allow them to step in an help in a national emergency. “If we could get the FDA to say yes you can use the beverage grade and for the duration of this emergency at least for some point in time here for the next two weeks you can waive the denaturant we would literally have millions of gallons of hand sanitizer available within a matter of days,” said Monte Shaw, CEO of Iowa Renewable Fuels Association, an ethanol trade group. “Every one of our plants has gotten contacted by people who want this stuff and we can’t send it to them.” Andrew Vrbas owner of Pacha Soap, a boutique soap shop in Hastings, Nebraska, had just finished renovating a 100,000-square-foot former bread factory as a project to boost the community. Now, he’s preparing to set up hand sanitizer production there to supply to hospitals. He’s received calls from hospitals in Nebraska, Florida and New York City seeking hand sanitizer. “We are literally three miles from a plant that has as much ethanol as you could imagine,” he said. “We’re sitting on millions of gallons of alcohol. If we could rally the federal government to say look if you just let us work with local ethanol producers we have the expertise, we have the ability to provide hand sanitizer to hospitals not only in Nebraska but all across the country that are just reaching out through my network saying if you could send us hand sanitizer, we’re out.”
Antiviral Substances And Antiviral Chemical Compounds Are Selling At A Brisk Pace In The U.S.
Posted On March 21, 2020
Buy bulk antiviral chemical compounds, antiviral drug components, antiviral substances, antiviral cleaning products and antiviral medication ingredients online at LabAlley.com.
Buy Hospital Grade Disinfectants, Sanitizers, Sprays, Cleaners And Detergents Online In The U.S.
Posted On March 21, 2020
Hospital Grade Disinfectants For Infection Control, Antiviral Products, Supplies And Ingredients To Make Virus Disinfectants, Hand Sanitizers, Medical Disinfectant Sprays, Virus Disinfectant Chemicals, Wipes And Detergents Are For Sale Online At LabAlley.com.
Overview Of Disinfectant Products
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of Antiviral Triethylene Glycol
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of Antiviral n-Propanol
- Buy Antiviral Triethanolamine 99%
- Buy Antiviral Quinine Sulfate
- Antiviral Products, Antiviral Chemical Compounds And Antiviral Substances
- Buy Ethanol To Prevent Coronvirus Infection
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of Antimicrobial Ammonium Hydroxide
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of Lucasol™ One Step Hospital Grade Disinfectant
- Buy 91% Isopropyl Alcohol In A 16 Ounce Bottle
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of 91% Isopropyl Alcohol
- Buy A 1 Pint Bottle Of 100% Food Grade Ethanol
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of 100% Alcohol (Denatured)
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of 100% Ethyl Alcohol (Denatured)
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of 6% Hydrogen Peroxide
- Buy 70% Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)
- Buy A 1 Gallon Bottle Of 70% Alcohol
- Buy Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions Here
- Buy Sodium Hypochlorite Here
- Buy A 33 Ounce Bottle Of 10% Hydrogen Peroxide (Lab Grade)
- Buy A Touchless Sanitizer Dispenser For
- Buy 200 Proof, 190 Proof And 140 Proof Denatured Alcohol For Household Cleaning
- Buy 70% Isopropyl Alcohol Spray
- Buy A 16.9 Ounce (500ml) Bottle Of Benzalkonium Chloride 50% Solution
Demand For Antiviral Substances Explodes Due To Virus Outbreak
March 20, 2020
Buy bulk antiviral chemical compounds, antiviral drug components, antiviral substances, antiviral cleaning products and antiviral medication ingredients online at LabAlley.com.
Trade War Woes
Most observers expect the trade war between the United States and China will continue to place pressure on the chemical industry during 2020. Tariffs are currently impacting some 1,500 chemicals from China worth $26.5 billion and over 1,000 chemicals made in America valued at $11 billion, according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC). The situation could result in American firms buying less chemicals from China due to higher prices and China lowering its imports of U.S.-made chemicals.
Texas Chemical Plant Bears Long History Of Environmental Violations
A Texas chemical plant rocked by a series of explosions last month has a long history of state and federal environmental violations.