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- What Kills Viruses
- Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses | Molecular Cell Biology. 4th Edition
- Use Of Disinfectants: Alcohol And Bleach | Infection Prevention and Control of Epidemic- and Pandemic-Prone Acute Respiratory Infections in Health Care
Antimicrobial Products That Are Effective Against Norovirus (Norwalk-Like Virus)
April 8, 2020
For pesticide registration information, review this list from the EPA, "List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against Norovirus (Norwalk-Like Virus)".
Notes About This List
- All EPA-registered pesticides must have an EPA registration number, which consists of a company number and a product number (e.g., 123-45). Alternative brand names have the same EPA registration number as the primary product.
- When purchasing a product for use against a specific pathogen, check the EPA Reg. No. versus the products included on this list.
- In addition to primary products, distributors may also sell products with formulations and efficacy identical to the primary products. Distributor products frequently use different brand names, but you can identify them by their three-part EPA registration number (e.g., 123-45-678, which represents a distributor product identical to the product example listed above, EPA Reg. No. 123-45).
- If you would like to review the product label information for any of these products, please visit the EPA product label system.
- Information about listed products is current as of the date on this list.
- Inclusion on this list does not constitute an endorsement by EPA.
- Download List G: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Effective Against Norovirus (PDF)(6 pp, 130 K, March 4, 2020)
- Contact the EPA about pesticide labels, to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem.
The Pesticide Product and Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been accepted by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on April 08, 2020.
- Search EPA Registration, Distributor Product, or Special Local Need Number Here
- The EPA Registration Number (EPA Reg. No.) appears on all registered pesticides sold in the United States. It is usually found on the back panel of the label along with the detailed instructions for use.
- Enter the company number (the first set of digits before the dash) to see all products marketed by that company or the entire number (including the dash) to view the label for a particular product.
- To search by Special Local Need Number, please enter two-letter state abbreviations with or without 6 digit number (i.e. OH123456).
- Search Buy Product or Alternative Brand Name: Enter the name of the product. As you type, options will be presented to you. Keep in mind that product names may vary, so if you don’t find the product you are looking for, try the EPA Registration Number Search.
- Search By Company Name: Enter the name of the company. Some companies may have several divisions that manufacture and market pesticides products. You can select among these divisions using the drop-down list or choose the root of the company name (e.g., "Bayer" or "3M") to see products associated with all of the divisions.
- Search By Company Number: Enter the company number. Please use digit without dash.
- Search By Chemical Name (Active Ingredient): Enter the name of the chemical (Active Ingredients only) you are interested in. Because there are many naming conventions for chemicals, you can enter the common chemical name of the chemical or other variants, including scientific names or partial names. This search function will help guide you to products that contain that active ingredient.
- Search By CAS Number Or PC Code: Enter the CAS Number or PC Code you are interested in. You may use the % wild card before and/or after your entry to enter a partial value.
- Web-Distributed Labels
- Label Review Manual
- Label Review Training
- Pesticide Registration Notices About Labels
- Label Guidance For Specific Types Of Pesticides
- SmartLabel Pilot
- Logos And Graphics On Pesticide Labels
- International Pesticide Label Issues
- Endangered Species Bulletins
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- Spanish Translation Guide For Pesticide Labeling
Virucidal Efficacy Testing Introduction
In the United States, virucidal disinfectants used on environmental surfaces are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The EPA regulates disinfectants and sanitizers as pesticides, often referring to them as "antimicrobial pesticides." Before a disinfectant can be sold in the U.S. it must first be registered with the EPA, as well as with all 50 states. Currently the U.S. EPA does not recognize "virucidal sanitizers" - all virucides must meet disinfectant-grade efficacy guidelines.
To register a virucidal disinfectant, companies must submit chemical characterization, safety, and efficacy data to the EPA, as well as pay registration fees. Efficacy data should be generated in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice Regulations (GLP). Test methods used should be taken from the Series 810 guidance, and companies should consult the EPA's Pesticide Registration Manual.
VIRUCIDAL EFFICACY TESTING IS DIFFERENT - HERE'S HOW:
Disinfectant Testing Basics:
The EPA currently only recognizes "hard surface carrier" methods for substantiation of virucidal efficacy claims. These methods consist of a non-porous carrier (typically glass) being inoculated with the selected virus, dried, and then treated with the disinfectant. Virucidal hard surface carrier methods are quantitative, meaning that percent and log reductions are calculated by determining the TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose) per carrier before and after treatment with the disinfectant. The disinfectant must demonstrate complete inactivation of the virus down to the limit of detection of the assay, or (if cytotoxicity is observed) a ≥ 3.00 log10 reduction (99.9%).
Observation of Results:
Virus testing is unique within the laboratory because the presence of viruses before and after product treatment is not determined by observing growth of virus but rather by observing the damage caused by infection to mammalian host cells. When virologists analyze individual sets of cells after a study, they use a microscope to look for where healthy cell layers become damaged. This damage is known as the cytopathic effects (CPE) of infection. The quantity and quality of CPE is used to calculate the amount of virus present.
CPE is typically observed as changes to cell appearance and monolayer (the layer host cells form when they attach to a flask or tray) disruptions. CPE can vary depending on the virus and host cell line used. Some instances of CPE are distinct, consisting of severe monolayer disruption and cell rounding. Some CPE can be subtle, consisting of gradual enlargement of host cells that is only recognizable when compared to a negative control. In cases where CPE is difficult to distinguish, special confirmatory assays are used to verify the results of the assay. Some more common confirmatory assays include Hemagglutination Assays (HA) and immunofluorescent staining (IF).
Study Preparation and Timeline:
From the laboratory's perspective, a significant amount of work and time is required to grow and maintain the sterile cell cultures that are needed to propagate and detect viruses in antimicrobial efficacy studies. From our customer's point of view, the cell culture requirement means that extra time must be given to the laboratory to prepare for and execute the study. Most studies take 1-2 weeks to complete, though some can take 3-4 weeks. The behind-the-scenes cell culture work and extraordinary expertise necessary to conduct virological assays also means that virological studies are more expensive than their related bacteriological assays.
Study Conduct and Parameters:
There are two main viral morphologies - enveloped and non-enveloped. Non-enveloped viruses consist of genetic material surrounded by a hard protein coat. Enveloped viruses have an additional lipid layer encompassing their protein coat. The limited sensitivity of non-enveloped viral components means that these viruses can persist in an infectious state even when exposed to harsh environmental conditions - including exposure to UV or relatively high temperatures. When it comes to testing, this means that one can translate almost any bacteriological study into a non-enveloped viral assay without changing too many parameters.
Enveloped viruses are another story. Their delicate lipid envelopes leave them vulnerable to environmental factors like osmotic pressure, low humidity, and high temperatures. When working with enveloped viruses, certain parameters (like contact times and contact temperatures) and even general study methods may need to be modified to accommodate the unique demands of these microbes.
VIRUSES TESTED AT THE MICROCHEM LABORATORY*
- Adenovirus 1
- Adenovirus 2
- Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (US EPA-Approved Hepatitis C Surrogate)
- Bovine Rotavirus
- Canine Distemper Virus
- Canine Parainfluenza Virus
- Canine parvovirus
- Coxsackievirus B3
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- Echovirus 11
- Enterovirus 68
- Enterovirus 71
- Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus
- Equine Herpesvirus 1
- Feline Calicivirus (US EPA-Approved Norovirus Surrogate)
- Human herpesvirus 1 (HSV1)
- Human herpesvirus 2 (HSV2)
- Human herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)
- Hepatitis A virus
- Influenza A virus, H1N1 (human)
- Influenza A virus, H1N1 (swine)
- Influenza B virus
- Measles virus
- Minute Virus of Mice
- MS2 Bacteriophage (Viral Screening Tool)
- Poliovirus 1
- Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV)
- Rotavirus (Group A)
- Vesicular Stomatitis Virus
- Zika Virus
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These documents guide the United States’ preparedness and response in an influenza pandemic, with the intent of stopping, slowing or otherwise limiting the spread of a pandemic to the United States; limiting the domestic spread of a pandemic, mitigating disease, suffering and death; and sustaining infrastructure and mitigating impact to the economy and the functioning of society.
- Lysol® Disinfectant Spray - Crisp Linen® EPA #777-99
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Chemical disinfection is widely practiced as a means of controlling and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although disinfection of bacteria has been widely studied, much less attention has been paid to the virucidal potential of commonly used disinfectants in spite of the low infective dose of many human pathogenic viruses. This review considers what is known about the disinfection of viruses and the virucidal properties of different classes of disinfectant chemicals. It focuses on virus disinfection from a practical viewpoint and also critically evaluates the testing techniques currently used for examining the efficacy of disinfectant products. Read more here.
Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the ‘gold standard’ for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. Read more here.
Chemical disinfectants, water disinfectants and cleaning chemicals used in science labs and healthcare settings include isopropyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, bromine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, iodophors, peracetic acid and chlorine compounds. Disinfectants are chemicals that reduce the number of pathogens to safe levels. Chemical disinfectants are not formulated to clean surfaces, so in order to work effectively, surfaces should be cleaned and free from grease, dirt and food before chemical disinfectants are used.
3M™ Disinfectant Concentrates and U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy
Due to the 2019-nCoV being a newly emerging pathogen there is no U.S. EPA registered disinfectant currently available on the market with the 2019-nCoV efficacy claim specifically listed on their container label. The U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy allows for professional judgments on effectiveness of disinfectants with current registrations with similar, representative microorganism families based on their cell structures. A person with the appropriate knowledge and technical skills to analyze such information can make a determination based on published information on disinfectant cleaners that meet the U.S. EPA Emerging Pathogen Policy for use on non-critical, hard, non-porous surfaces as defined by U.S. EPA. The following products are U.S. EPA-registered 3M disinfectants that meet U.S. EPA’s Emerging Pathogen Policy.
EPA Registered, Quaternary Disinfectant Cleaners | Kills HIV-1, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), MRSA, VRE, KPC, Rotavirus, Acinetobacter, VRE, Herpes Simplex I And Other Pathogens
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Glycerol Inactivates Viruses
Effect of glycerol on intracellular virus survival: implications for the clinical use of glycerol-preserved cadaver skin.
Glycerol has long been used for the preservation of skin allografts. The antimicrobial activity of glycerol has not been fully documented. This paper reports the results of an investigation of a model studying the effect of glycerol on the inactivation of intracellular viruses. Two viruses--herpes simplex type I (HSV-1) and poliovirus--were cultured within human dermal fibroblasts. These intracellular viruses were incubated with 50 per cent, 85 per cent and 98 per cent glycerol at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C for 4 weeks. Each week, the cultures in glycerol and controls in fibroblast maintenance medium were assayed for virus infectivity by examining the ability of harvested viruses to infect further fibroblasts. At 4 degrees C, 85 per cent glycerol could not fully inactivate intracellular HSV-I or poliovirus even after 4 weeks; 98 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (after 3 weeks) but could not fully inactivate intracellular poliovirus after 4 weeks. At 20 degrees C, 85 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (within 1 week) but could not fully inactivate intracellular poliovirus after 4 weeks; 98 per cent glycerol inactivated intracellular HSV-I (within 1 week) and inactivated intracellular poliovirus (after 2 weeks). It is suggested that, on the basis of this study, glycerol can reduce intracellular virus infectivity but that its effects are very dependent on concentration, time and temperature such that we would recommend that allograft skin be exposed to 98 per cent glycerol for a minimum of at least 4 weeks at a minimum temperature of 20 degrees C before clinical use.
Monolaurin, also known as glycerol monolaurate (GML), glyceryl laurate or 1-lauroyl-glycerol, is a monoglyceride. It is the mono-ester formed from glycerol and lauric acid. Monolaurin is known to inactivate lipid-coated viruses by binding to the lipid-protein envelope of the virus, thereby preventing it from attaching and entering host cells, making infection and replication impossible. Other studies show that Monolaurin disintegrates the protective viral envelope, killing the virus.Monolaurin has been studied to inactivate many pathogens including Herpes simplex virus and Chlamydia trachomatis. Read more here.
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A number of antiseptics were tested for their inactivating effect upon the virus of influenza during a brief period of exposure. This was accomplished by preparing mixtures of the antiseptics and virus, allowing them to remain in contact for 3 minutes, diluting the mixtures to the point where they would not be toxic for chick embryos and then injecting the material into embryonated eggs. Survival of the embryos indicated inactivation of the virus. The following preparations were found to inactivate the virus in 3 minutes or less: phenol, 3 per cent; tincture of iodine, U.S.P. XII, 0.1 per cent; Lugol's solution, U.S.P. XII, 1 per cent; mercuric chloride, 1:1000; potassium permanganate, 1:1000; copper sulfate, 1 per cent; propylene glycol, 90 per cent; liquor antisepticus, N.F. VII, 80 per cent. Read more here.
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Buy Steris Coverage Spray To Disinfect TB
Steris Disinfectant is ideal for use in laboratories, hospitals, surgical centers, medical and dental offices, and other patient-care facilities. STERIS' Coverage® Spray TB Ready-To-Use Disinfectant Cleaner is a ready-to-use, quaternary ammonium chloride (quat) based disinfectant spray effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (BCG) and other bacteria, the HIV-1 virus (associated with AIDS), Canine parvovirus and pathogenic fungi. It is recommended for use on floors, walls, metal surfaces, stainless steel surfaces, glazed ceramic tile, and other hard nonporous environmental surfaces. Buy Steris Coverage Spray to disinfect Tuberculosis (TB) At LabAlley.com.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but they can also damage other parts of the body. TB spreads through the air when a person with TB of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, or talks. Read more here.
CDC recommends washing hands with soap and water whenever possible because handwashing reduces the amounts of all types of germs and chemicals on hands. But if soap and water are not available, using a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol can help you avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. The guidance for effective handwashing and use of hand sanitizer in community settings was developed based on data from a number of studies. Read more here.
EPA-registered chlorine bleach/hypochlorite solutions are also effective against viruses. Follow label instructions when using any EPA-registered disinfectant. Disinfect with bleach if you don't have a disinfecting cleaner or wipe on hand. The CDC recommends using 1/4 cup chlorine bleach with one gallon of cool water. Read more here.
Lugol's Iodine, also known as aqueous iodine and strong iodine solution, is a solution of potassium iodide with iodine in water. Iodine products and Lugol's Iodine are sold online at LabAlley.com. Cleaning with iodine may stop the spread of viruses. Jean Guillaume Auguste Lugol (18 August 1786 – 16 September 1851) was a French physician. It has been know for a long time that iodine kills viruses. Povidone iodine has been used in hospitals under the brand name Betadine. BETADINE® is used for upper respiratory tract infection care.
Ethyl alcohol kills bacteria mainly through 2 mechanisms: protein denaturation and dissolving the lipid membrane. Proteins, the machinery of the cell, must be dissolved in water in order to properly function. When one puts a protein in ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the protein can not function properly and becomes denatured. Also, bacteria are surrounded by a lipid membrane (fatty acids). The membrane is held together because the alkane chain of a fatty acid is hydrophobic, and thus buries itself amongst other lipids. However, the lipids will freely dissolve in ethanol, causing a disruption of the bacterial membrane. This ruptures the bacteria so it can no longer live. Read more here.
Hand sanitizer often has a form of alcohol, such as ethyl alcohol, as an active ingredient and works as an antiseptic. Other ingredients could include water, fragrance, and glycerin. Other non-alcohol based hand sanitizers contain an antibiotic compound called triclosan or triclocarban. Read more here.
A special hormone called interferon is produced by the body when viruses are present, and this stops the viruses from reproducing by killing the infected cell and its close neighbours. Inside cells, there are enzymes that destroy the RNA of viruses. Some blood cells engulf and destroy other virus infected cells. Read more here.
Alcohol-free products, which CDC research has found are less effective at killing germs, employ a variation of antiseptic active ingredients, such as Benzalkonium chloride. The bottom line: “Alcohol sanitizers, natural or not natural, are safe, or safer than anything else to clean your hands with,” Larson said. Read more here.
Alcohol is effective against influenza virus (252). Ethyl alcohol (70%) is a powerful broad-spectrum germicide and is considered generally superior to isopropyl alcohol. Alcohol is often used to disinfect small surfaces (e.g. rubber stoppers of multiple-dose medication vials, and thermometers) and occasionally external surfaces of equipment (e.g. stethoscopes and ventilators). Since alcohol is flammable, limit its use as a surface disinfectant to small surface-areas and use it in well-ventilated spaces only. Prolonged and repeated use of alcohol as a disinfectant can also cause discoloration, swelling, hardening and cracking of rubber and certain plastics. Read more here.
Most consumer hand sanitizers sold in the US contain ethyl alcohol, according to the FDA. Read more here.
Hand sanitizer is a liquid generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. Formulations of the alcohol-based type are preferable to hand washing with soap and water in most situations in the healthcare setting. It is generally more effective at killing microorganisms and better tolerated than soap and water. Hand washing should still be carried out if contamination can be seen or following the use of the toilet. The general use of non-alcohol based versions has no recommendations. Outside the health care setting, evidence to support the use of hand sanitizer over hand washing is poor. They are available as liquids, gels, and foams. Read more here.
Washing your hands is one of the most important things you can do to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to people around you. The best way to prevent the spread of infections and decrease the risk of getting sick is by washing your hands with plain soap and water, advises the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). If soap and water are not available, the CDC recommends using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60 percent alcohol to reduce the number of germs on your hands. However, hand sanitizers do not eliminate all types of germs, are not as effective when hands are visibly dirty or greasy, and may not remove harmful chemicals. Hand sanitizers are an easy, quick alternative when handwashing with plain soap and water isn’t convenient or possible. Hand sanitizers often have a form of alcohol, such as ethyl alcohol, as an active ingredient and are used as an antiseptic. Millions of Americans use these products every day, sometimes several times daily, to help reduce bacteria on their hands. That’s one of the reasons the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to help ensure that over-the-counter (OTC) hand sanitizers are safe and effective for regular use. Recently, the FDA asked manufacturers of hand sanitizers for more information on three commonly used active ingredients in OTC hand sanitizers. Those ingredients — alcohol (ethanol or ethyl alcohol), isopropyl alcohol, and benzalkonium chloride — are used in approximately 97 percent of OTC hand sanitizers. The FDA’s request for more data about these three ingredients doesn’t mean the agency believes these products are ineffective or unsafe, or that these products should be removed from the marketplace. Rather, the agency asked for more data to help assess whether these products are safe and effective for regular use. Read more here.
Buy Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H8O) Online Here Or By Phone: 512-668-9918
If you have questions about ordering isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) online here at LabAlley.com or would like to place an order, call 512-668-9918 or email email@example.com to talk with a Isopropyl Alcohol Specialist. Isopropyl Alcohol is shipped to customers in the United States by UPS.
Oxidative processes are often harnessed as tools for pathogen disinfection. Although the pathways responsible for bacterial inactivation with various biocides are fairly well understood, virus inactivation mechanisms are often contradictory or equivocal. In this study, we provide a quantitative analysis of the total damage incurred by a model virus (bacteriophage MS2) upon inactivation induced by five common virucidal agents (heat, UV, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, and chlorine dioxide). Each treatment targets one or more virus functions to achieve inactivation: UV, singlet oxygen, and hypochlorous acid treatments generally render the genome nonreplicable, whereas chlorine dioxide and heat inhibit host-cell recognition/binding. Using a combination of quantitative analytical tools, we identified unique patterns of molecular level modifications in the virus proteins or genome that lead to the inhibition of these functions and eventually inactivation. UV and chlorine treatments, for example, cause site-specific capsid protein backbone cleavage that inhibits viral genome injection into the host cell. Combined, these results will aid in developing better methods for combating waterborne and foodborne viral pathogens and further our understanding of the adaptive changes viruses undergo in response to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Read more here.
- Isopropyl Alcohol
- Alcohol (Ethanol)
- Herbal Medicine
- Antiviral Drugs
- Cleaning Products
- Common Detergents And Chemicals
- Chlorine and Chlorine Compounds
- Virus-Killing Proteins
- Essential Oils
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- RNA Interference
- Benzalkonium Chloride
- Propylene Glycol
- Glycerol (Glycerin)
- Antiviral Hand Sanitizers
- Antiviral Chemicals And Antiviral Agents
- Hospital Grade Disinfectants, Cleaners, Wipes And Sterilization Sprays
- Phenolic Compounds
- Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
- Acidic pH (Low pH)
- Interferons: Cytokines With Antiviral Activity
- Broad-Spectrum Germicidal UV (Ultraviolet) Light
- WHO Guidelines On Viral Inactivation And Removal Procedures
- Virucidal Agents
- Iodophors And Iodine Solutions
- Cupric And Ferric Ions
- Per-Acid Based Disinfectants
- Powerful Virucides
- Genetically Modified Mosquitoes
- EP 0978289 A1 with iodine
- Virkon disinfectant-cleaner P.W.S. virucide (for veterinary use)
- V-Bind Viricide (for Agricultural Use)
- Combination Therapy
- Organic Solvents And Compounds
- Chlorhexidine Gluconate
- Curdlan Sulfate
- Purified Lipids And Fatty Acids
- Azodicarbonamide (ADA)
- Cicloxolone Sodium (CCX)
- Sodium Salt Of Dichloroisocyanuric Acid
- Benzalkonium Salts
- Citric Acid
- Organic Acids
- Solvent/Detergent (S/D) Treatments
- Acidic pH
- Ultraviolet (UV) Light
- Oleanolic Acid (OA)
- CRISPR (Clustered Regularly InterSpaced Palindromic Repeats)
- Calcium Hypochlorite
- Acetic Acid
- Malic Acid
- Phosphoric Acid
- Sodium Hypochlorite
- Commonly Used Virus Inactivation Methods
- Disulfide Benzamides And Benzisothiazolones
- Enveloped Virus Inactivation By Caprylate: A Robust Alternative
- Congo Red Dye (CR)
- Ascorbic Acid
- Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA)
- Photosensitizing Virucidal Agents
- Benzoporphyrin Derivative Monoacid Ring A
- Rose Bengal
- Hypocrellin A
- Anthraquinones Extracted From Plants
- Sulfonated Anthraquinones And Other Anthraquinone Derivatives
- Natural Antiviral Agents And Products
- Wild Berry Fruit Extracts
- Extracts of Ledium, Motherworth, Celandine, Black Currant, Coaberry and Billberry
- Silver Nanoparticles
- Natural Catechins From Green Tea Extracts (GT)
- Active Component Of Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhizin)