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Propylene Glycol Chemical Properties And Reference Information
- Propylene Glycol CAS Registry Number: 57-55-6
- Propylene Glycol Molar Mass: 76.09 g/mol
- Propylene Glycol Formula: C3H8O2
- Propylene Glycol Boiling Point: 370.8°F (188.2°C)
- Propylene Glycol Solubility In Acetone: Miscible
- Propylene Glycol Solubility In Diethyl Ether: Miscible
- Propylene Glycol Solubility In Chloroform: Miscible
- Propylene Glycol PubChem CID: 1030
- Propylene Glycol ChemSpider ID: 13835224
- Propylene Glycol Preferred IUPAC Name: Propane-1,2-diol
- Propylene Glycol Properties, Structure, Spectra, Vendors And Links
- Vegetable Glycerin For Sale Online
- Home Depot Propylene Glycol
- Walmart Propylene Glycol
- Propylene Glycol Safety And Hazards: The chemical has been verified to be of low concern based on experimental and modeled data. Liquid may irritate eyes. This chemical is combustible.
Propylene glycol can also be used as a solvent in the manufacture of oral, topical applications and injections for the pharmaceutical industry, because it is insoluble in water. Propylene glycol is also used as a solvent to make paint, cleansers, inks, fingernail polish and removers and household cleaning agents.
A highly effective humectant, propylene glycol helps the skin and hair absorb and retain moisture. It also absorbs excess water in a formula, reducing bacteria growth to help your products last longer. In haircare products, it softens the hair and makes it easy to comb through.
Industrial And Cosmetic Uses Of Propylene Glycol
Propylene glycol is currently produced from petrochemical derived propylene. A hydrogenation process is used to convert glycerin into propylene glycol (PG). The process has greater than 95% selectivity to PG and produces 98% or higher purity PG for industrial applications.
- Propylene glycol is used as oil dispersant for water cleanups
- As a humectant
- As a moisturizer
- As an emulsifier and carrier for fragrance oils in personal care and pharmaceutical products
- Used to create fake smoke for movies
- As a skin-conditioning agent
- As an alternative for antifreezes and deicers
- As a viscosity-decreasing agent
- Used in solar water heating systems
- As a solvent
- Used in liquid cooling systems.
- As a fragrance ingredient
- As a heat-transfer medium or heat transfer fluids
- Propylene glycol is used to produce unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs), polyester compounds, engine coolants, latex paints and deicing compounds
Information On Propylene Glycol From Wikipedia
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3CH(OH)CH2OH. It is a viscous, colorless liquid, which is nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. Containing two alcohol groups, it is classed as a diol. It is miscible with a broad range of solvents, including water, acetone, and chloroform. In general, glycols are non-irritating, have very low volatility and very low toxicity.
It is produced on a large scale primarily for the production of polymers. In the European Union, it has the E-number E1520 for food applications. For cosmetics and pharmacology, the number is E490. Propylene glycol is also present in propylene glycol alginate, which is known as E405. Propylene glycol is a compound which is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under 21 CFR x184.1666 and is also approved by FDA for certain uses as an indirect food additive. Propylene glycol is approved and used as a vehicle for topical, oral and some intravenous pharmaceutical preparations in U.S. and in Europe.
Forty-five percent of propylene glycol produced is used as chemical feedstock for the production of unsaturated polyester resins. In this regard, propylene glycol reacts with a mixture of unsaturated maleic anhydride and isophthalic acid to give a copolymer. This partially unsaturated polymer undergoes further crosslinking to yield thermoset plastics. Related to this application, propylene glycol reacts with propylene oxide to give oligomers and polymers that are used to produce polyurethanes. Propylene glycol is used in waterbased acrylic architectural paints to extend dry time which it accomplishes by preventing the surface from drying due to its slower evaporation rate compared to water.
Propylene glycol is also used in various edible items such as coffee-based drinks, liquid sweeteners, ice cream, whipped dairy products and soda. Vaporizers used for delivery of pharmaceuticals or personal-care products often include propylene glycol among the ingredients. Propylene glycol is used as a solvent in many pharmaceuticals, including oral, injectable, and topical formulations. Many pharmaceutical drugs which are insoluble in water utilize PG as a solvent and carrier; benzodiazepine tablets are one example. PG is also used as a solvent and carrier for many pharmaceutical capsule preparations. Additionally, certain formulations of artificial tears use proplyene glycol as an ingredient.
The freezing point of water is depressed when mixed with propylene glycol. It is used as aircraft de-icing fluid. Water-propylene glycol mixtures dyed pink to indicate the mixture is relatively nontoxic are sold under the name of RV or marine antifreeze. Propylene glycol is frequently used as a substitute for ethylene glycol in low toxicity, environmentally friendly automotive antifreeze. It is also used to winterize the plumbing systems in vacant structures. The eutectic composition/temperature is 60:40 propylene glycol:water/-60 °C. The −50 °F/−45 °C commercial product is, however, water rich; a typical formulation is 40:60.
Propylene glycol (often abbreviated 'PG') has many applications. Some common applications see PG used:
- As a solvent for many substances, both natural and synthetic.
- As a humectant (E1520).
- In veterinary medicine as an oral treatment for hyperketonaemia in ruminants.
- In the cosmetics industry, where PG is very commonly used as a carrier or base for various types of makeup.
- For trapping and preserving insects (including as a DNA preservative).
- For the creation of theatrical smoke and fog in special effects for film and live entertainment. So-called 'smoke machines' or 'hazers' vaporize a mixture of PG and water to create the illusion of smoke. While many of these machines use a PG-based fuel, some use oil. Those which use PG do so in a process which is identical to how electronic cigarettes work; utilizing a heating element to produce a dense vapor. The vapor produced by these machines has the aesthetic look and appeal of smoke, but without exposing performers and stage crew to the harms and odors associated with actual smoke.
- As an additive in PCR to reduce the melting temperature of nucleic acids for targeting of GC rich sequences.
The Truth About Propylene Glycol, According to a Chemist [By Tonya McKay Becker]
June 5, 2018
An ingredient found in many personal-care products like shampoo, hair conditioner, and styling product, propylene glycol is widely used because of its relatively low cost and versatile nature. Its inclusion in a formula can fulfill a variety of purposes, which makes it a popular choice by the cosmetics chemist. However, some manufacturers have recently made the decision to no longer include propylene glycol in their products.
This is possibly due to misinformation and propaganda circulated on the Internet in the interest of marketing "natural" products. I am an avid supporter of using natural products, avoiding putting toxins into our bodies whenever possible or practical. I get frustrated by the dissemination of inaccurate and incomplete information in an attempt to frighten consumers into using different products. In this article, I seek to clear up some misconceptions about this chemical.
The chemical facts about propylene glycol
- It is water-soluble.
- It is synthetic.
- It is non-toxic.
- It is easily metabolized.
Propylene glycol (also known as 1,2 propanediol) is a relatively small molecule with two alcohol (hydroxyl) groups (-OH). It is a colorless, odorless liquid that is completely water-soluble. PG is a synthetic product obtained from the hydration of propylene oxide, which is derived from petroleum products. Read more here.
Propylene Glycol (90% aqueous solution) inactivates (kills) the influenza virus within 3 minutes. It has been found that propylene glycol vapor dispersed into the air of an enclosed space produces a marked and rapid bactericidal effect on microorganisms introduced into such an atmosphere in droplet form. Concentrations of 1 gm. of propylene glycol vapor in two to four million cc. of air produced immediate and complete sterilization of air into which pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococci, H. influenzae, and other microorganisms as well as influenza virus had been sprayed.
The test concluded that air containing propylene glycol kills off bacteria of all kinds, including disease-causing ones and that PG vapor is invisible, odorless, and non-irritating. It added that PG is essentially non-toxic. Read more here.
It has been found that propylene glycol vapor dispersed into the air of an enclosed space produces a marked and rapid bactericidal effect on microorganisms introduced into such an atmosphere in droplet form. Concentrations of 1 gm. of propylene glycol vapor in two to four million cc. of air produced immediate and complete sterilization of air into which pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococci, H. influenzae, and other microorganisms as well as influenza virus had been sprayed. With lesser concentrations of propylene glycol, rapid and marked reduction in the number of air-borne bacteria occurred, but complete sterilization of the air required a certain interval of time. Pronounced effects on both pneumococci and hemolytic streptococci were observed when concentrations as low as 1 gm. of glycol to fifty million cc. of air were employed.
Numerous control tests showed that failure of the glycol-treated microorganisms to grow on the agar plates was due to actual death of the bacteria. The means by which propylene glycol vapor produces its effect on droplet-borne bacteria is discussed and data relating the bactericidal properties of propylene glycol in vitro to the lethal action of its vapor is presented.
Atmospheres containing propylene glycol vapor are invisible, odorless, and non-irritating. This glycol is essentially non-toxic when given orally and intravenously. Tests on possible deleterious effects of breathing propylene glycol containing atmospheres over long periods of time are being carried out.
Propylene glycol is a synthetic liquid substance that absorbs water. Propylene glycol is also used to make polyester compounds, and as a base for deicing solutions. Propylene glycol is used by the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries as an antifreeze when leakage might lead to contact with food. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified propylene glycol as an additive that is “generally recognized as safe” for use in food. It is used to absorb extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or food products. It is a solvent for food colors and flavors, and in the paint and plastics industries. Propylene glycol is also used to create artificial smoke or fog used in fire-fighting training and in theatrical productions. Other names for propylene glycol are 1,2-dihydroxypropane, 1,2-propanediol, methyl glycol, and trimethyl glycol. Propylene glycol is clear, colorless, slightly syrupy liquid at room temperature. It may exist in air in the vapor form, although propylene glycol must be heated or briskly shaken to produce a vapor. Propylene glycol is practically odorless and tasteless.
Propylene glycol is a synthetic liquid substance that absorbs water. Propylene glycol is also used to make polyester compounds, and as a base for deicing solutions. Propylene glycol is used by the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries as an antifreeze when leakage might lead to contact with food. Read more here. Learn about the antiviral activity of propylene glycol here.
Propylene Glycol For Taxidermy
Isopropyl Alcohol and Propylene Glycol combined makes humectant fluid (used most often in museums in Australia). Learn about a new method of taxidermy using polyethylene glycol as an impregnation medium here.
About Food Grade Propylene Glycol
Propylene glycol is a synthetic liquid substance that absorbs water and maintains moisture in food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified propylene glycol as an additive that is "generally recognized as safe" for use in food. Food grade propylene glycol is used in food, hair care products, skin care products. Food grade proylene glycol is used as a laxative to treat constipation for dogs and cats. It is also used to empty the intestines prior to diagnostic procedures. It is commonly used in humans before diagnostic procedures such as colonoscopy. Propylene glycol (PG) is one of the least toxic glycols.
Propylene Glycol For Dogs
Food grade propylene glycol is used in dog food animal health care products. Food grade proylene glycol is used as a laxative to treat constipation for dogs and cats. It is also used to empty the intestines prior to diagnostic procedures. It is used in popular dog food brands and dog treats. Propylene glycol is used to clean a dog's ears because it moisturizes, removes ear wax and is a weak anti-fungal agent.
Propylene glycol (PG) is one of the least toxic glycols. If cats or dogs ingest large amounts of propylene glycol, poisoning can occur. This is most commonly seen when pets ingest liquid, high concentration propylene glycol products.
Propylene Glycol For Animal Health Care
Propylene Glycol is given for the prevention and treatment of Ketosis in dairy cattle. In veterinary medicine, it is also used as as a solvent for many pharmaceuticals. In veterinary medicine propylene glycol is used for the treatment of acetonaemia and ketosis. In the pharmaceutical industry it is used as a solvent and as a stabilizing agent for vitamin preparations. It is also used as an excipient in a large number of parenteral and topical medicinal products, particularly for drugs which are unstable or insoluble in water.
Propylene Glycol For Goats
Propylene Glycol is used to treat Pregnancy Toxemia/ Ketosis in female goats. It is an appetite suppressant and it inhibits rumen bacteria in goats. Goat Ketosis is treated by administering propylene glycol.
Propylene Glycol For Sheep [Sheep Production And Management: Sheep Health | College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences | ACES | New Mexico State University
Pregnancy Disease (ketosis, pregnancy toxemia)
Pregnancy disease is the most common metabolic disease of sheep. It affects improperly fed ewes in late pregnancy. Often it is observed in overly fat ewes and ewes in poor condition. Almost always, affected ewes are carrying twins or triplets. It is generally accepted that the basic cause of pregnancy disease is a carbohydrate metabolism disturbance that is associated with, or results in, low sugar levels, ketosis, depressed liver glycogen, and fatty infiltration of the liver. The disease is usually fatal.
From 60 to 80 percent of the growth of the fetus occurs during the last six weeks of pregnancy. If twins are present, the increase in total weight is considerable. The total metabolic rate increases by at least 50 percent during late pregnancy. Compared to dry ewes, ewes in late pregnancy require about 50 percent more feed if bearing a single lamb and about 75 percent more feed if carrying twins. This amount of feed may exceed their intake capacity unless grain is substituted for part of the ration.
It is likely that inadequate nutrition most commonly renders ewes susceptible to the disease, but many stresses can trigger pregnancy disease. Undernourished ewes may begin showing symptoms after they have been hauled or driven, during shearing, during short periods of fasting, during storms, during extreme cold or heat, or when they are excited by predators. Ketotic ewes normally lag behind the others when the flock is moving.
The nutrient intake of ewes must be increased during the last three to four weeks of pregnancy. Grains are especially effective in providing a higher energy level. Ewes should not be allowed to become fat in early pregnancy, but they should be maintained in good condition. Avoid severely stressing ewes during the last three to four weeks of pregnancy. Avoid drenching and excessive working in corrals during this period.
Treatment of this disorder usually is unsuccessful. However, intravenous administrations of glucose may be effective in the early stages of the disease. However, glucose (200 mL twice daily) given in this manner is used up rapidly, and frequent injections are necessary. Administering propylene glycol as a drench (2 ounces three or four times a day) is a common treatment for affected ewes.
Common Uses of Propylene Glycol
Propylene glycol is an organic compound. It is a viscous, colorless liquid that is almost odorless. It does have a faint sweet taste. Generally, glycols are non-irritating, have low volatility and very low toxicity. It is found in a wide variety of products in the food, drug, cosmetic, and manufacturing industry. PG is considered generally safe for use in foods by the FDA. Propylene glycol has many uses in the food industry. It is an anti-caking agent which helps prevent food from sticking together and forming clumps. It is an antioxidant, so it extends the shelf life of food. It strengthens dough and preserves moisture. Food grade propylene glycol can also be used to thicken food components and change the appearance of a food. PG is a great carrier, it dissolves other food additives or nutrients to be used in processing, like flavors or antioxidants. Propylene glycol is used in food, hair conditioner, skin care products and antifreeze. PG is a synthetic liquid that belongs to the same chemical class as alcohol. It is different than ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol is used for trapping and preserving insects. It is used as a humectant. Propylene glycol is used in a range of oral, topical and intravenous medicines. It is also used as a drug stabilizer.
Propylene glycol is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheese, chewing gum, confection, frosting, fats, oils, frozen dairy, fruit juice, gelatin, pudding, gravies, hard candy, meat products, milk products, nonalcoholic beverages, grain, poultry, processed vegetables, reconstituted vegetables, snack foods, soft candy, sweet sauce.
Propylene glycol is used in industrial applications such as hydraulic fluids, rubber lubricants, antifoam agents, intermediates in urethane foams, adhesives, coatings, elastomers, plasticizers, paint formulations, laboratory reagents. It is a solvent for vegetables, oils, waxes and resins.
In the cosmetic industry it is a great wetting agent. Propylene glycol helps the skin retain moisture. It enhances the ability of cosmetic creams to spread across the surface of the skin. In the cosmetic industry it is used in more than 4,000 products and formulas. Propylene glycol has a long history and has been used in a variety of applications. In the drug industry it is used as a drug solubilizer in different medications. In vitamins it is used as a stabilizer. Industrial uses for propylene glycol include; making other materials like unsaturated polyester resins, manufacturing paints, foams, and coatings.
Food Grade/ USP Grade Propylene Glycol Used in the Botanical Industry
It is considered a sugar alcohol and it is not intoxicating. Propylene glycol is used for its emulsifying properties. Without propylene glycol the ingredients would not mix with one another. PG is able to keep the ingredients in suspension.
Alternative Way to Seasoning a Humidor: What You'll Need
To absorbed water from the humidifier and to clean up any spills. Instead of distilled water, you can also fill the sponge with a propylene glycol solution. Propylene glycol is an organic compound commonly used in humidors as a stabilizing agent.
How Propylene Glycol is Used in Food
There is a lot of misconception around propylene glycol and its role in food. First it is important to know the difference between Propylene glycol and ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is very toxic and is harmful to humans. These two chemicals are not the same and, in many cases, companies are now replacing the use of ethylene glycol with propylene glycol because PG is safe and non-toxic. Propylene glycol is a common ingredient found in many products. It is used in products such as baked goods, frostings, and candies. It helps to evenly distribute the flavoring throughout the product. Propylene glycol is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) food ingredient. It was classified by the FDA in 1973. Propylene glycol can maintain moisture in food, and it works to maintain the flavor quality for longer periods of time. The FDA regulates how propylene glycol is used in food consumption. They set limits on the uses and amounts that can be safely used in food.
Propylene glycol is water-soluble, and it is synthetic and easily metabolized by the liver into normal products of the citric acid metabolic cycle. 45% of PG that is ingested is secreted directly from the body and does not come into contact with the liver. Many articles try to scare consumers away from using PG because it is an ingredient in “antifreeze”. Antifreeze is a scientific word used to describe the lowering of the freezing point of a liquid. Another example of this would be how salt is used to melt the snow and ice from the roads and walkways. The salt lowers the freezing point of water. This is a safe chemical that is being used as antifreeze. The overall take away is that propylene glycol is safe to use in food and it is safe to consume. Propylene glycol is used in flavored iced tea, ice cream, packaged frostings, boxed cake mix, food coloring, salad dressing, and more. It is a great ingredient and raises no concern. The levels it is consumed at are below the safe limit. Lab Alley has propylene glycol for sale online, they offer fast shipping in the USA.
How Propylene Glycol Used in Hair Products
Propylene glycol has many uses. The cosmetic industry has found many great ways to utilize this product. Lab Alley has cosmetic grade propylene glycol for sale online. They offer fast shipping in the USA. Propylene glycol is known as 1,2-propanediol. It is a safe, vegetable-based synthetic and it attracts water. Because it is able to attract water, PG functions as a humectant. It is used as an ingredient in moisturizers in order to reduce flaking and restoring suppleness. When it is used in products it absorbs excess water, which reduces bacteria and helps the products last longer. Propylene glycol can be found in shampoo, conditioners, and leave-in styling products. It is very versatile and can fulfill many purposes in the hair products. Because propylene glycol is a humectant it is great for moisturizing the hair when it is used with water. Propylene glycol is recognized as safe for use in cosmetics, food, and medicine.
How Propylene Glycol is Used in Skin Care
Propylene Glycol is a common ingredient in skin care. It is a hydrating and delivery ingredient used in skin care products. Research from toxicologists show that PG does not present a health risk when used in cosmetics and skin care. Propylene glycol is used in small amounts as an ingredient in skin care, it helps keep the products lasting longer on the shelf. PG can prevent the product from developing a grainy texture when exposed to low temperatures. Propylene glycol is an organic alcohol and it is used as a skin condition agent. PG attracts water and it is used in moisturizers to enhance the skin. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Board determined that propylene glycol is “safe for use in cosmetic products when formulated to be non-irritating”. Based on the most recent research propylene glycol is safe and using products that contain PG does not pose any threats. Lab Alley sells propylene glycol in various quantities. Lab Alley provides fast shipping in the USA.
Propylene Glycol Side Effects
Propylene glycol is considered generally safe by the FDA. Most creams that have PG in them are safe to use and they have no side effects. However, stinging, burning, redness, or irritation may occur. Serious allergic reactions to PG are rare. If you experience rash, sweating, or loose bowl movements you are probably allergic to propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is found in many everyday products like shampoo, deodorant, and lotions. Normal use of the products is not dangerous or toxic. But prolonged or excessive use can cause redness and itching to the skin.
Propylene glycol is not safe for infants or pregnant women. Infants can not break down propylene glycol as quickly as an adult. When we eat food that has propylene glycol in it 45% will be excreted by the kidneys but the rest is broken down in the body into lactic acid. The buildup of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and kidney failure. Acidosis occurs when the body can’t get rid of the acid fast enough. It then builds up in the blood and interferes with proper functioning. Although cases of toxicity are rare and usually only occur when someone consumes high doses of medicine that contains propylene glycol. The FDA does recognize propylene glycol as generally safe in proper proportions.
Propylene Glycol Structure
The chemical formula for PG is CH3CH(OH)CH2OH it is a viscous, colorless liquid. It contains two alcohol groups. It mixes with a wide range of solvents. It is produced on a large scale and it is used in the production of polymers. It is sometimes called a-propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is also known as propane-1, 2-diol. It is an organic compound, and it has many applications. If you would like to view the structural formula or the molecular model, click here.
Propylene Glycol Alginate
Propylene glycol alginate is used many ways in food products. It is an ester of propylene glycol and alginic acid. It is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener. PGA is obtained from algae and its chemical formula is C9H14O7. Propylene glycol alginate is soluble in water and it is a stabilizer for the foam head on beer, salad dressing, frozen custard, cheese, non carbonated fruit drinks and frozen milk deserts.
How Propylene Glycol is Used in Antifreeze
Antifreeze is an additive that lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. Water and antifreeze are used in combustion engines and other heat transfer applications. The purpose is to prevent an enclosure from bursting due to expansion. Propylene glycol is commonly used in antifreeze because it is considerably less toxic than ethylene glycol. It is referred as “non-toxic antifreeze”. Propylene glycol is used as an ingredient in antifreeze and it is a safer option than ethylene glycol. PG is generally regarded as safe by the FDA.