Sodium Hypochlorite pH: Sodium hypochlorite is a clear, slightly yellowish solution with a characteristic odor. As a bleaching agent it is usually a 5 percent sodium hypochlorite with a pH of about 11. More concentrated solutions (10 to 15 percent) have a pH of about 13.
Sodium Hypochlorite SDS/MSDS: Contact Lab Alley At 512-668-9918 For A Safety Data Sheet
Other Names For Sodium Hypochlorite: Antiformin, Bleach, Chloride Of Soda, In Dilution: Carrel-Dakin solution, Modified Dakin's solution, Surgical Chlorinated Soda Solution
Sodium Hypochlorite Uses
Household and Laundry Bleaching, Anti-Infective (Topical), Cleaning, Sanitizer In Swimming Pools, Disinfecting Utensils And Apparatus In Daries, Disinfection, Deodorizing, Water Purification, Medicine, Fungicides., Waste Water Treatment, Endodontics, Nerve Agent Neutralization And Reduction Of Skin Damage
Sodium hypochlorite, commonly known as bleach, is most frequently used as a disinfecting agent. It is a broad-spectrum disinfectant that is effective for the disinfection of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mycobacterium. However, sodium hypochlorite is NOT effective in the disinfection of bacterial spores and prions. Read more here.
In some countries, sodium hypochlorite is used for both oxidation and disinfection of swimming pools. When it is added to water, sodium hypochlorite increases the pH value. It is better to use chlorine as a disinfectant and an oxidizer at a pH value of 6,5. Often, acid is added to lower the pH value.
We evaluated the antiviral activity of a chlorine dioxide gas solution (CD) andsodium hypochlorite (SH)against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus. CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating >or= 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of SH.Read more here.
Sodium hypochlorite washes are skin cleansers formulated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants. These cleansing liquids or gels are lathered onto wet skin and rinsed off. They are recommended for inflammatory skin conditions (eczema, atopic dermatitis and radiation dermatitis), microbial driven skin disorders (folliculitis, acne, ring worm, skin infections and staph colonization) and body odor. Read more here.
Sodium hypochlorite itself may be toxic if ingested, or by dermal or ocular exposure. Ingestion of small volumes of sodium hypochlorite causes burns to the mouth and throat, gastrointestinal irritation, nausea and vomiting. Read more here.
A sodium hypochlorite cleanser is used to cleanse and soothe skin that is prone to infection and conditions such as eczema, atopic dermatitis, folliculitis and other skin conditions. Cleansers were formulated into body washes for a gentle, convenient use in the shower as opposed to having bath treatments. Read more here.
After swallowing sodium hypochlorite the effects are stomach ache, a burning sensation, coughing, diarrhea, a sore throat and vomiting. Sodium hypochlorite on skin or eyes causes redness and pain. After prolonged exposure, the skin can become sensitive. Sodium hypochlorite is poisonous for water organisms. Read more here.
Sodium hypochlorite, in its liquid chlorine state, is the simplest form of pool sanitizer in that it is already diluted appropriately and can be added straight to your pool water. Most of the time, you'll just pour the directed amount into your skimmer, and keep the pump running to distribute it. Read more here.
Sodium hypochlorite is used as an endodontic irrigant as it is an effective antimicrobial and has tissue-dissolving capabilities. Sodium hypochlorite reacts with fatty acids and amino acids in dental pulp resulting in liquefaction of organic tissue. Read more here.
Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solution is widely used in dental practice during root canal treatment. Although it is generally regarded as being very safe, potentially severe complications can occur when it comes into contact with soft tissue. Read more here.
Dakin's solution is used to prevent and treat skin and tissue infections that could result from cuts, scrapes and pressure sores. It is also used before and after surgery to prevent surgical wound infections. It is made from bleach that has been diluted and treated to decrease irritation. Read more here.
Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation (Na+) and a hypochlorite anion (OCl−or ClO−). It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H2O, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated. Sodium hypochlorite is most often encountered as a pale greenish-yellow dilute solution commonly known as liquid bleach or simply bleach, a household chemical widely used (since the 18th century) as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. The compound in solution is unstable and easily decomposes, liberating chlorine, which is the active principle of such products. Indeed, sodium hypochlorite is the oldest and still most important chlorine-based bleach. Its corrosive properties, common availability, and reaction products make it a significant safety risk. In particular, mixing liquid bleach with other cleaning products, such as acids or ammonia, may produce toxic fumes.
Household bleach sold for use in laundering clothes is a 3–8% solution of sodium hypochlorite at the time of manufacture. Strength varies from one formulation to another and gradually decreases with long storage. Sodium hydroxide is usually added in small amounts to household bleach to slow down the decomposition of NaClO. A 10–25% solution of sodium hypochlorite is, according to Univar's safety sheet, supplied with synonyms or trade names bleach, Hypo, Everchlor, Chloros, Hispec, Bridos, Bleacol, or Vo-redox 9110. A 12% solution is widely used in waterworks for the chlorination of water, and a 15% solution is more commonly used for disinfection of waste water in treatment plants. Sodium hypochlorite can also be used for point-of-use disinfection of drinking water. Dilute solutions (50 ppm to 1.5%) are found in disinfecting sprays and wipes used on hard surfaces.
Cleaning Uses Of Sodium Hypochlorite: Sodium hypochlorite has destaining properties. Among other applications, it can be used to remove mold stains, dental stains caused by fluorosis, and stains on crockery, especially those caused by the tannins in tea. It has also been used in laundry detergents and as a surface cleaner. Its bleaching, cleaning, deodorizing and caustic effects are due to oxidation and hydrolysis (saponification). Organic dirt exposed to hypochlorite becomes water-soluble and non-volatile, which reduces its odor and facilitates its removal.
Bleaching Uses Of Sodium Hypochlorite: Household bleach is, in general, a solution containing 3–8% sodium hypochlorite, by weight, and 0.01–0.05% sodium hydroxide; the sodium hydroxide is used to slow the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate.
Disinfection Uses Of Sodium Hypochlorite: Sodium hypochlorite in solution exhibits broad spectrum anti-microbial activity and is widely used in healthcare facilities in a variety of settings. It is usually diluted in water depending on its intended use. "Strong chlorine solution" is a 0.5% solution of hypochlorite (containing approximately 5000 ppm free chlorine) used for disinfecting areas contaminated with body fluids, including large blood spills (the area is first cleaned with detergent before being disinfected). It may be made by diluting household bleach as appropriate (normally 1 part bleach to 9 parts water). Such solutions have been demonstrated to inactivate both C. difficile and HPV. "Weak chlorine solution" is a 0.05% solution of hypochlorite used for washing hands, but is normally prepared with calcium hypochlorite granules. "Dakin's Solution" is a disinfectant solution containing low concentration of sodium hypochlorite and some boric acid or sodium bicarbonate to stabilize the pH. It has been found to be effective with NaOCl concentrations as low as 0.025%. US government regulations allow food processing equipment and food contact surfaces to be sanitized with solutions containing bleach, provided that the solution is allowed to drain adequately before contact with food, and that the solutions do not exceed 200 parts per million (ppm) available chlorine (for example, one tablespoon of typical household bleach containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, per gallon of water). If higher concentrations are used, the surface must be rinsed with potable water after sanitizing. A similar concentration of bleach in warm water is used to sanitize surfaces prior to brewing of beer or wine. Surfaces must be rinsed with sterilized (boiled) water to avoid imparting flavors to the brew; the chlorinated byproducts of sanitizing surfaces are also harmful. The mode of disinfectant action of sodium hypochlorite is similar to that of hypochlorous acid. Solutions containing more than 500 ppm available chlorine are corrosive to some metals, alloys and many thermoplastics (such as acetal resin) and need to be thoroughly removed afterwards, so the bleach disinfection is sometimes followed by an ethanol disinfection. Liquids containing sodium hypochlorite as the main active component are also used for household cleaning and disinfection, for example toilet cleaners. Some cleaners are formulated to be viscous so as not to drain quickly from vertical surfaces, such as the inside of a toilet bowl. The undissociated (nonionized) hypochlorous acid is believed to react with and inactivate bacterial and viral enzymes. Neutrophils of the human immune system produce small amounts of hypochlorite inside phagosomes, which digest bacteria and viruses.
Deodorizing Uses Of Sodium Hypochlorite: Sodium hypochlorite has deodorizing properties, which go hand in hand with its cleaning properties.
Waste Water Treatment Uses Of Sodium Hypochlorite: Sodium hypochlorite solutions have been used to treat dilute cyanide waste water, such as electroplating wastes. In batch treatment operations, sodium hypochlorite has been used to treat more concentrated cyanide wastes, such as silver cyanide plating solutions. Toxic cyanide is oxidized to cyanate (OCN−) that is not toxic, idealized as follows: CN− + OCl− → OCN− + Cl−Sodium hypochlorite is commonly used as a biocide in industrial applications to control slime and bacteria formation in water systems used at power plants, pulp and paper mills, etc., in solutions typically of 10–15% by weight.
Endodontics Uses Of Sodium Hypochlorite: Sodium hypochlorite is the medicament of choice due to its efficacy against pathogenic organisms and pulp digestion in endodontic therapy. Its concentration for use varies from 0.5% to 5.25%. At low concentrations it dissolves mainly necrotic tissue; at higher concentrations it also dissolves vital tissue and additional bacterial species. One study has shown that Enterococcus faecalis was still present in the dentin after 40 minutes of exposure of 1.3% and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, whereas 40 minutes at a concentration of 5.25% was effective in E. faecalis removal. In addition to higher concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, longer time exposure and warming the solution (60 °C) also increases its effectiveness in removing soft tissue and bacteria within the root canal chamber. 2% is a common concentration as there is less risk of an iatrogenic hypochlorite incident. A hypochlorite incident is an immediate reaction of severe pain, followed by edema, haematoma, and ecchymosis as a consequence of the solution escaping the confines of the tooth and entering the periapical space. This may be caused by binding or excessive pressure on the irrigant syringe, or it may occur if the tooth has an unusually large apical foramen.
Nerve Agent Neutralization Uses Of Sodium Hypochlorite: At the various nerve agent (chemical warfare nerve gas) destruction facilities throughout the United States, 50% sodium hypochlorite is used to remove all traces of nerve agent or blister agent from Personal Protection Equipment after an entry is made by personnel into toxic areas. 50% sodium hypochlorite is also used to neutralize any accidental releases of nerve agent in the toxic areas. Lesser concentrations of sodium hypochlorite are used in similar fashion in the Pollution Abatement System to ensure that no nerve agent is released in furnace flue gas.
Sodium Hypochlorite Uses For Reduction Of Skin Damage: Dilute bleach baths have been used for decades to treat moderate to severe eczema in humans, but it has not been clear why they work. According to work published by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine in November 2013, a very dilute (0.005%) solution of sodium hypochlorite in water was successful in treating skin damage with an inflammatory component caused by radiation therapy, excess sun exposure or aging in laboratory mice. Mice with radiation dermatitis given daily 30-minute baths in bleach solution experienced less severe skin damage and better healing and hair regrowth than animals bathed in water. A molecule called nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is known to play a critical role in inflammation, aging, and response to radiation. The researchers found that if NF-κB activity was blocked in elderly mice by bathing them in bleach solution, the animals' skin began to look younger, going from old and fragile to thicker, with increased cell proliferation. The effect diminished after the baths were stopped, indicating that regular exposure was necessary to maintain skin thickness.
We evaluated the antiviral activity of a chlorine dioxide gas solution (CD) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus. CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating ≥ 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of SH.
Environmental cleaning is only one of several recommended methods to reduce transmission of deadly germs among patients and healthcarepersonnel. Cleaning and disinfection, along with other infection control measures like hand hygiene and isolation precautions, are important ways to help stop the spread of Ebola virus. 1-8 This guidance primarily aims to address infection prevention and control practices in areas where chlorine solutions are primarily used for disinfection and antisepsis, but are not standardized and can vary widely in concentration and source.
Description of Chlorine Use as a Disinfectant
Rationale for use
Chlorine solutions (Cl2, NaOCL, Ca[OCl]2, ClO) have been used extensively as disinfectants and antiseptics since the 1800s11. Guidance documents on use of these compounds for environmental and healthcare infection control in the context of the Ebola preparedness and response in the United States have recently been published9. Chlorine solutions are oxidative chemicals and have broad-spectrum activity against a wide variety of microorganisms, from viruses to protozoa11-31.
During Ebola responses, chlorine solutions of 0.5% (in the United States, this would generally be equivalent to a 1:10 dilution of household bleach) have been used for environmental surface disinfection, while a 0.05% solution has been used for hand hygiene. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have typically provided hospitals and safe water programs with sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), an EPA-approved pool chemical in the United States, for use in preparing disinfectant solutions as well as other chlorine-based products for disinfection use. There have also been some projects in Africa that have involved creating sodium hypochlorite electrolytically from brine solutions (primarily to disinfect drinking water, for example, CDC Safe Water, UNICEF Safe Waterexternal icon).
Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) solutions are produced in different concentrations in different parts of the world, and solution strength can vary between 2% and 12% NaOCl. (In comparison, most U.S. bleach products are currently 6%-6.15%, but can range from 2.5%-8.25%, depending on their intended use). Since there is such a wide variation in the strength of products available in some countries, it is strongly recommend that concentration of the chlorine product be evaluated prior to use.
Chlorine inactivates most pathogens that cause diarrheal disease in humans. The tables below detail the effectiveness of chlorine against disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The Ct factor can be used to compare the effectivenessof chlorine against different pathogens, and is calculated by multiplying the concentration of chlorine (in mg/L or ppm/parts per million) needed to inactivate a certain percentage of the pathogen by the time (in minutes) the pathogen was exposed to that concentration of chlorine. Higher Ct factors indicate relatively higher tolerance to chlorine, while lower Ct factors indicate relatively low tolerance to chlorine. The Ct factors shown in the tables below were calculated from data in peer-reviewed research articles. The efficacy of disinfection using chlorine is dependent not only on the pathogen itself, but also on the pH and temperature of the water. In general, disinfection is more effective at higher temperatures and lower pH. Attachment to particulate matter, aggregation, encapsulation of the pathogen, ingestion by protozoa, and water turbidity may also affect chlorine efficacy. The results below reflect conditions of low water turbidity (<1 NTU), chlorine demand-free water systems. The Safe Water System accounts for variations in water quality by doubling the chlorine used for turbid drinking water. The maximum Ct factor created by adding 1.9 mg/L sodium hypochlorite to water for 30 minutes (the minimum chlorine dosage recommended by the Safe Water System for clear, non-turbid, demand-free water) is 56 mg·min/L 1. For turbid water, the dose is doubled to 3.8mg/L, with a resulting maximum Ct factor of 112 mg·min/L.
The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite was assessed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suspended in low (8% v/v) or high (80% v/v) concentrations of serum or in a high (80%) concentration of blood. In the presence of 8% serum, 100 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture inactivated 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml within 30 s. When the test mixture contained 80% serum, 500 p.p.m. available chlorine inactivated more than 4 log TCID50 HIV/ml in 1-2 min. Lower concentrations of available chlorine were unable to inactivate the virus completely. In the presence of 80% blood, 1000 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture was unable to inactivate 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml, although 2500 p.p.m. available chlorine was able to inactivate at least 1.5 log TCID50 HIV/ml. In all test mixtures, the chlorine rapidly became combined and thus less active. Our results emphasise the importance of cleaning prior to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite since it may prove to be ineffective in the presence of high levels of organic matter. In cases where prior cleaning is impossible, care must be taken to use the higher recommended concentration (a minimum of 10,000 p.p.m. available chlorine).