Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate | 25 Grams | White Solid | Formula C8H16Cl6O3 | Molecular Weight: 372.9 g/mol | PubChem CID: 5284505 | Alcohol-Based Pharmaceutical Preservative, Sedative, Hypnotic & Weak Local (Topical) Anesthetic, Antibacterial, Fungicidal
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Chlorobutanol, or trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol, is an analgesic and sedative hypnotic in man, and an experimental general anesthetic. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is also used chemical preservative for parenteral drugs. It was found, that chlorobutanol inhibited mammalian Nav 1.2 channels at concentrations less than those used to preserve parenteral solutions. Its mechanism of inhibiting Na channels differs from that of local anesthetics in that it does not show use dependent or state dependent inhibition.
Chlorobutanol is a well accepted widely used, very effective preservative in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products, e.g. injections, ointments, products for eyes, ears and nose, dental preparations, etc. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties and has been used for more than 130 years when it was first manufactured. Chlorobutanol is typically used at a concentration of 0.5 % where it lends long term stability to multi-ingredient formulations. Chlorobutanol, or chlorbutol, is an alcohol-based preservative with no surfactant activity. Chlorobutanol is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. Topical application or Chlorobutanol gels may cause mild anesthesia of the skin.
A hemihydrate is crystalline hydrate containing one molecule of water for every two molecules of the compound in question.
Information On Chlorobutanol From Wikipedia
Chlorobutanol (trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol) is a preservative, sedative, hypnotic and weak local anesthetic similar in nature to chloral hydrate. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Chlorobutanol is typically used at a concentration of 0.5% where it lends long term stability to multi-ingredient formulations. However, it retains antimicrobial activity at 0.05% in water. Chlorobutanol has been used in anesthesia and euthanasia of invertebrates and fishes. It is a white, volatile solid with a menthol-like odor.
- Chlorobutanol CAS Registry Number: 57-15-8
- Chlorobutanol Formula: C4H7Cl3O
- Chlorobutanol Molar Mass: 175.5 g/mol
- Chlorobutanol Boiling Point: 332.6°F (167°C)
- Chlorobutanol Solubility In Acetone: Soluble
- Chlorobutanol Melting Point: 95–99 °C (203–210 °F; 368–372 K)
- Chlorobutanol Solubility In Water: Slightly Soluble
- Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate Synonym: β,β,β-Trichloro-tert-butyl alcohol hemihydrate, ‘Acetone chloroform’, ‘Chlorobutanol’, 1,1,1-Trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol hemihydrate
Chlorobutanol is formed by the reaction of chloroform and acetone in the presence of potassium or sodium hydroxide.
Chlorobutanol is highly toxic to the liver, is a skin irritant and a severe eye irritant.
Chlorobutanol has proven effective at stimulating parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs up to the pluteus stage, possibly by increasing irritability to cause stimulation. For the eggs of the fish Oryzias latipes, however, chlorobutanol only acted as an anesthetic.
It is an anesthetic with effects related to isoflurane and halothane
Chlorobutanol, Hydrous, NF is a very effective preservative in many pharmaceutical products for eyes, ears and nose, dental preparations. The hemihydrate form is useful in formulations where the absence of water is not critical.
Chlorobutanol - An Overview [ScienceDirect Topics]
Chlorobutanol is a detergent preservative that has been included in a wide spectrum of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because of its antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, its use as an ophthalmic preservative has become limited due to its instability when stored at room temperature for an extended period of time.
Chlorobutanol's mechanism of action differs from BAK because it causes disorganization at the lipid layer of cell membranes, which leads to increased cell permeability and thus, cell lysis.11 In vitro studies have demonstrated that chlorobutanol can cause cessation of normal cell movement and mitotic activity that lead to conjunctival and corneal cytotoxicity. With chronic use, significant keratitis has been noted due to degeneration of human corneal epithelial cells.
However, chlorobutanol does not affect the stability of the lipid component of the tear film and in vitro studies have shown that it is less toxic to rabbit corneal epithelial cells, in comparison to BAK. In human corneal epithelial cells, the cytotoxic effects of chlorobutanol occurred less rapidly and were less severe than cells exposed to BAK.
Multi-dose eye drops contain antimicrobial preservatives. Many substances have been used for this purpose, including benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorbutanol thimerosal, paraben esters, and mercuric salts. Preservatives are probably the most common cause of toxic conjunctivitis. In a study comprising over 9500 patients, signs and symptoms were more frequent in patients taking preserved medications, compared with those using preservative-free eye drops.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a quaternary ammonium hapten highly hydrosoluble with surfactant properties. In concentrations ranging from 0.005% to 0.03%, the drug is generally well tolerated. However, it can cause epithelial toxicity and at higher concentrations can even cause irreversible corneal edema. Thimersoal is an organomercurial derivative used in concentrations varying from 0.001% to 0.004%. It is a common cause of hypersensitivity reactions and follicular conjunctivitis, the reported incidence being as high as 8%. Chlorbutanol is an alcohol that increases lipid solubility and its antimicrobial activity is based on its ability to cross the bacterial lipid layer. It is widely used in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products. In concentrations of 0.5% it is normally well tolerated and has been found to be less toxic than BAK or thimerosal.
Toxic keratoconjunctivitis (TK) is an underrecognized complication of ophthalmic drug use and various environmental or occupational exposures.
Toxic keratoconjunctivitis results when an acute or chronic chemical exposure causes damage to ocular tissue structures with subsequent disruption of normal function. These toxic effects occur either through direct cytotoxicity or indirect mechanisms such as reduced tear film stability or tear production.
Purity (1) Acid--Shake thoroughly 0.10 g of the powder of Chlorobutanol with 5 mL of water: the solution is neutral. (2) Chloride-Dissolve 0.5 g of Chlorobutanol in 25 mL of dilute ethanol, and add 6 mL of dilute nitric acid and water to make 50 mL.
Chemical Composition Of Chlorobutanol, Hemihydrate Sold Online At LabAlley.com
|Assay (C4H7Cl3O; Anhydrous basis)||98.0-100.5%|
|Reaction (to Litmus)||Neutral|
|Organic Volatile Impurities||To Pass Test|
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