Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate

Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate | 25 Grams | White Solid | Formula C8H16Cl6O3 | Molecular Weight‎: ‎372.9 g/mol | PubChem CID‎: ‎5284505 | Alcohol-Based Pharmaceutical Preservative, Sedative, Hypnotic & Weak Local (Topical) Anesthetic, Antibacterial, Fungicidal

What Is Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate?

Chlorobutanol, or trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol, is an analgesic and sedative hypnotic in man, and an experimental general anesthetic. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is also used chemical preservative for parenteral drugs. It was found, that chlorobutanol inhibited mammalian Nav 1.2 channels at concentrations less than those used to preserve parenteral solutions. Its mechanism of inhibiting Na channels differs from that of local anesthetics in that it does not show use dependent or state dependent inhibition.

Chlorobutanol is a well accepted widely used, very effective preservative in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products, e.g. injections, ointments, products for eyes, ears and nose, dental preparations, etc. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties and has been used for more than 130 years when it was first manufactured. Chlorobutanol is typically used at a concentration of 0.5 % where it lends long term stability to multi-ingredient formulations. Chlorobutanol, or chlorbutol, is an alcohol-based preservative with no surfactant activity. Chlorobutanol is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. Topical application or Chlorobutanol gels may cause mild anesthesia of the skin.

What Does Hemihydrate Mean?

A hemihydrate is crystalline hydrate containing one molecule of water for every two molecules of the compound in question.

Information On Chlorobutanol From Wikipedia

Chlorobutanol (trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol) is a preservative, sedative, hypnotic and weak local anesthetic similar in nature to chloral hydrate. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Chlorobutanol is typically used at a concentration of 0.5% where it lends long term stability to multi-ingredient formulations. However, it retains antimicrobial activity at 0.05% in water. Chlorobutanol has been used in anesthesia and euthanasia of invertebrates and fishes. It is a white, volatile solid with a menthol-like odor.

Chlorobutanol is formed by the reaction of chloroform and acetone in the presence of potassium or sodium hydroxide.
Chlorobutanol is highly toxic to the liver, is a skin irritant and a severe eye irritant.

Chlorobutanol has proven effective at stimulating parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs up to the pluteus stage, possibly by increasing irritability to cause stimulation. For the eggs of the fish Oryzias latipes, however, chlorobutanol only acted as an anesthetic.

It is an anesthetic with effects related to isoflurane and halothane

Chlorobutanol, Hydrous, NF is a very effective preservative in many pharmaceutical products for eyes, ears and nose, dental preparations. The hemihydrate form is useful in formulations where the absence of water is not critical.

Chlorobutanol - An Overview [ScienceDirect Topics]

Chlorobutanol is a detergent preservative that has been included in a wide spectrum of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because of its antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, its use as an ophthalmic preservative has become limited due to its instability when stored at room temperature for an extended period of time.

Chlorobutanol's mechanism of action differs from BAK because it causes disorganization at the lipid layer of cell membranes, which leads to increased cell permeability and thus, cell lysis.11 In vitro studies have demonstrated that chlorobutanol can cause cessation of normal cell movement and mitotic activity that lead to conjunctival and corneal cytotoxicity. With chronic use, significant keratitis has been noted due to degeneration of human corneal epithelial cells.

However, chlorobutanol does not affect the stability of the lipid component of the tear film and in vitro studies have shown that it is less toxic to rabbit corneal epithelial cells, in comparison to BAK. In human corneal epithelial cells, the cytotoxic effects of chlorobutanol occurred less rapidly and were less severe than cells exposed to BAK.

Toxic Keratoconjunctivitis


Multi-dose eye drops contain antimicrobial preservatives. Many substances have been used for this purpose, including benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorbutanol thimerosal, paraben esters, and mercuric salts. Preservatives are probably the most common cause of toxic conjunctivitis. In a study comprising over 9500 patients, signs and symptoms were more frequent in patients taking preserved medications, compared with those using preservative-free eye drops.

Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a quaternary ammonium hapten highly hydrosoluble with surfactant properties. In concentrations ranging from 0.005% to 0.03%, the drug is generally well tolerated. However, it can cause epithelial toxicity and at higher concentrations can even cause irreversible corneal edema. Thimersoal is an organomercurial derivative used in concentrations varying from 0.001% to 0.004%. It is a common cause of hypersensitivity reactions and follicular conjunctivitis, the reported incidence being as high as 8%. Chlorbutanol is an alcohol that increases lipid solubility and its antimicrobial activity is based on its ability to cross the bacterial lipid layer. It is widely used in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products. In concentrations of 0.5% it is normally well tolerated and has been found to be less toxic than BAK or thimerosal.

Toxic keratoconjunctivitis (TK) is an underrecognized complication of ophthalmic drug use and various environmental or occupational exposures.

Toxic keratoconjunctivitis results when an acute or chronic chemical exposure causes damage to ocular tissue structures with subsequent disruption of normal function. These toxic effects occur either through direct cytotoxicity or indirect mechanisms such as reduced tear film stability or tear production.

Making An Old Hypnotic Sedative And Preservative [Making Chlorobutanol] | YouTube Video

How Does Chlorobutanol Dissolve In Water? 

Purity (1) Acid--Shake thoroughly 0.10 g of the powder of Chlorobutanol with 5 mL of water: the solution is neutral. (2) Chloride-Dissolve 0.5 g of Chlorobutanol in 25 mL of dilute ethanol, and add 6 mL of dilute nitric acid and water to make 50 mL.

Chemical Composition Of Chlorobutanol, Hemihydrate Sold Online At

CAS Number 6001-64-5
Molecular Formula C4H7Cl3O-1/2H2O
Formula Weight 186.46
Assay (C4H7Cl3O; Anhydrous basis) 98.0-100.5%
Reaction (to Litmus) Neutral
Water 6.0%
Chloride 0.07%
Organic Volatile Impurities To Pass Test


Please contact us to request a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) and Certificate of Analysis (COA) for Chlorobutanol, Hemihydrate.

Product Ordering Options, Prices, Bulk Sizes & Shipping

You can buy Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate for $114 online, locally or call 512-668-9918 to order bulk sizes. Your packages will be shipped in 1-2 business days via UPS or LTL. Lab Alley Brand Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate is for sale in bulk sizes and is in stock. Handy individual consumer size containers for DIY projects are leak resistant. This high quality compound is made in America. It is a high purity chemical substance that is ideally suited for scientific, development, analytical, clinical, medical, research and testing applications. Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate is delivered quickly to laboratories, factories and businesses in safe chemical resistant containers. 

Manufacturing size drums, IBC totes, pallet loads and bulk industrial production scale quantities are shipped from Lab Alley's U.S.-based distribution centers by LTL freight carriers. Request a discounted wholesale price quote, here. Read customer and product reviews, here. Read return and refund policies, here. Lab Alley, founded in 2013, is a reliable Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate supplier and distributor headquartered near Austin, Texas. Lab Alley was a 2021 Inc. 5000 honoree. Email if you have questions about buying Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate. 

Download the Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate MSDS/SDS to get safety tips and health hazard information. Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate should be carefully handled, stored in a cool dry place and chemical waste should be disposed of properly and safely.

Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate Retail Prices, Package Sizes And Bulk Quantity Ordering Options: 25g $114.

Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate

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