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Triton X-100 Chemical Properties And Reference Information
Triton X-100 is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain and an aromatic hydrocarbon lipophilic or hydrophobic group. The hydrocarbon group is a 4--phenyl group.
Triton x-100 Chemical Properties
- Triton X-100 CAS Registry Number: 9002-93-1
- Triton X-100 Density: 1.07 g/cm³
- Triton X-100 Formula: C14H22O(C2H4O)n(n=9-10)
- Triton X-100 Molar Mass: 647 g mol−1
- Triton X-100 Refractive Index (nD): 1.490-1.494
- Triton X-100 Solubility In Water: Soluble
- Triton X-100 Appearance: Viscous Colourless Liquid
- Triton X-100 (Octoxinol) PubChem CID: 5590
Triton X-100 Safety And Hazards: Irritation of the respiratory tract. Irritation of the nasal mucous membranes. Symptoms/effects after skin contact : Tingling/irritation of the skin. Symptoms/effects after eye contact : Irritation of the eye tissue. Read more here (PDF).
- Triton X-100 SDS: Contact Lab Alley to request the Safety Data Sheet for Triton X-100.
- Synonyms For Triton X-100: Octoxinol, t-Octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol, Polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether, Polyethylene glycol p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenyl ether, Octyl phenol ethoxylate, Polyoxyethylene octyl phenyl ether, 4-Octylphenol polyethoxylate, Mono 30, TX-100, Octoxynol-9
- Triton X-45 Technical Data Sheet In PDF Format
About Triton X-100 | Non-Ionic Surfactant, Emulsifier And Detergent | IGEPAL CA-630
Triton X-100 is a commonly used non-ionic surfactant and emulsifier. Triton X-100 is frequently usedin biochemical applications to solubilize proteins. Triton X-100 is used as a detergent. It is classified as 100% "active" and biodegradable in liquid form.
IGEPAL CA-630 (Triton X-100) Features:
|Cloud Point of a 1% soln||63.0 - 67�C|
|Neutralization Number||0.5mg KOH/g|
Triton X-100 Description
Triton X-100 has hemolytic property and is used for DNA extraction. Triton™ X-100 is a common non-ionic surfactant and emulsifier which is often used in biochemical applications to solubilize proteins. It is considered a comparatively mild detergent, non-denaturing, and is reported in numerous references as a routinely added reagent. It is utilized for lysing cells to extract protein and cellular organelles. It can also permeabilize the living cell membrane for transfection.
Triton X-100 Applications
- In the permeabilization of cells for immunofluorescence staining
- As a component of lysis buffer in western blot analysis
- As a component of Tris-buffered saline for the preparation of cell sections in Immunogold labelling for electron microscope
Triton X-100. Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). O)n) is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain (on average it has 9.5 ethylene oxide units) and an aromatic hydrocarbon lipophilic or hydrophobic group. Read more here.
The results showed that Triton X-100 can extract outer membrane protein without co extraction of inner membrane or cellular protein as evidenced by the absence of cell lysis. The comparison with existing Triton X-114 method showed that Triton X-100 is more selective in partitioning protein into the detergent phase.
Triton X-100 (TX100) is one of the most widely used nonionic surfactants for lysing cells to extract protein and other cellular organelles or to permeabilize the living cell membrane for transfection. However, if large amounts are added or the cells are subject to prolonged exposure to TX100, the cells die. Read more here.
Because Triton has micelles of size about 90 kDa, one cannot use gel filtration chromatography, or filtration devices used for standard concentration. Read more here.
Triton X-100 Protein Aggregation | Detergents: Triton X-100, Tween-20, and More
The number of detergent molecules in a micelle is called the aggregation number, an important parameter used to assess membrane protein solubility
Here we present a comprehensive review of laboratory detergents and their applications in biomedical experiments. This review includes discussions of ionic, non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents, their general properties as well as information about commonly used detergents from each group. Read more here.
Triton is normally used in inmuno pp to isolate hydrophobic proteins; Tween 20 for lysis of cells and inmunoblots washes. The difference seems to be that Triton X-100 it has a phenolic ring that absorbs UV, can interfere in UV spectrometry to determinate proteins at 280 nm. Read more here.
A multitude of life-saving drugs is produced from biological source materials, most importantly human plasma or mammalian cells. To guarantee the safe application of these medicines, highly effective measures to inactivate viruses are implemented in the manufacture. For decades, the detergent Triton X-100 has widely been used as part of the so-called solvent/detergent treatment of biopharmaceutical process intermediates. Upon contact with Triton X-100, lipid-enveloped viruses – such as hepatitis B and C (HBV, HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – are destroyed within seconds to minutes. Read more here.
Highly pathogenic viruses such as EBOV are a threat to routine laboratory workers. Virus inactivation procedures with Triton X-100 0.1% and/or heat are currently recommended.
Introduction of a new influenza virus in humans urges quick analysis of its virological and immunological characteristics to determine the impact on public health and to develop protective measures for the human population. At present, however, the necessity of executing pandemic influenza virus research under biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) high-containment conditions severely hampers timely characterization of such viruses. We tested heat, formalin, Triton X-100, and -propiolactone treatments for their potencies in inactivating human influenza A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) viruses, as well as seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1) virus isolates, while allowing the specimens to retain their virological and immunological properties. Successful heat inactivation coincided with the loss of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) characteristics, and -propiolactone inactivation reduced the hemagglutination titer and NA activity of the human influenza virus 10-fold or more. Although Triton X-100 treatment resulted in inconsistent HA activity, the NA activities in culture supernatants were enhanced consistently. Nonetheless, formalin treatment permitted the best retention of HA and NA properties. Triton X-100 treatment proved to be the easiest-to-use influenza virus inactivation protocol for application in combination with phenotypic NA inhibitor susceptibility assays, while formalin treatment preserved B-cell and T-cell epitope antigenicity, allowing the detection of both humoral and cellular immune responses. In conclusion, we demonstrated successful influenza virus characterization using formalin- and Triton X-100-inactivated virus samples. Application of these inactivation protocols limits work under BSL-3 conditions to virus culture, thus enabling more timely determination of public health impact and development of protective measures when a new influenza virus, e.g., pandemic A(H1N1)v virus, is introduced in humans. Read more here.
One of the most widely used detergents used in solvent‐detergent (S/D) treatments to inactivate viruses is Triton X‐100.
Do Nonionic Surfactants Kill Viruses?
Yes, nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. HIV, HBV, HCV) during the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals.
Triton X-100 is a commonly used detergent in laboratories. Triton X-100 is widely used to lyse cells to extract protein or organelles, or to permeabilize the membranes of living cells. Read more here.
Triton-X 100 is considered a pretty strong skin irritant. It is frequently used for formulating scapies-treatment ointments and it really irritates users' skin and mucous membranes. Read more here.
Triton X-100, a typical non-ionic detergent, derives from polyoxyethylene and contains an alkylphenyl hydrophobic group. ... This allows for membrane protein extraction and solubilization in Triton X-114 without bringing the samples up to warmer temperatures which may denature many proteins. Read more here.
Triton X-100 For Permeabilization
Triton X-100 Concentration Effects On Membrane Permeability Of A Single HeLa Cell By Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM)
Changes in HeLa cell morphology, membrane permeability, and viability caused by the presence of Triton X-100 (TX100), a nonionic surfactant, were studied by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). No change in membrane permeability was found at concentrations of 0.15 mM or lower during an experimental period of 30 to 60 min. Permeability of the cell membrane to the otherwise impermeable, highly charged hydrophilic molecule ferrocyanide was seen starting at concentrations of TX100 of about 0.17 mM. This concentration level of TX100 did not affect cell viability. Based on a simulation model, the membrane permeability for ferrocyanide molecules passing though the live cell membrane was 6.5 ± 2.0 × 10-6 m/s. Cells underwent irreversible permeabilization of the membrane and structural collapse when the TX100 concentration reached the critical micelle concentration (CMC), in the range of 0.19 to 0.20 mM. The impermeability of ferrocyanide molecules in the absence of surfactant was also used to determine the height and diameter of a single living cell with the aid of the approach curve and probe scan methods in SECM. Read more here.
Triton X-100 is a poly(ethylene glycol) derivative that is poly(ethylene glycol) in which one of the terminal hydroxy groups has been converted to the corresponding p-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-3-yl)phenyl ether. It has a role as a nonionic surfactant. Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide. Read more here.
Triton X-100 (C14H22O(C2H4O)n) is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain (on average it has 9.5 ethylene oxide units) and an aromatic hydrocarbon lipophilic or hydrophobic group. The hydrocarbon group is a 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenyl group. Triton X-100 is closely related to IGEPAL CA-630 or former Nonidet P-40, which might differ from it mainly in having slightly shorter ethylene oxide chains. Thus Triton X-100 is slightly more hydrophilic than Igepal CA-630; these two detergents may not be considered to be functionally interchangeable for most applications. Triton X-100 was originally a registered trademark of Rohm & Haas Co. It was subsequently purchased by Union Carbide and then acquired by Dow Chemical Company upon the acquisition of Union Carbide. Soon afterward (in 2009), Dow also acquired Rohm & Haas Co. Other trademarks for very similar compounds include Conco NI, Dowfax 9N, Igepal CO, Makon, Neutronyx 600's, Nonipol NO, Plytergent B, Renex 600's, Solar NO, Sterox, Serfonic N, T-DET-N, Tergitol NP, Triton N, etc. Triton X detergents are distantly related to Pluronic range of detergents marketed by BASF. The pluronics are triblock copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide with the ethylene oxide segments being more hydrophilic than the propylene oxide.
Undiluted Triton X-100 is a clear viscous fluid (less viscous than undiluted glycerol) owing to the hydrogen bonding of its hydrophilic polyethylene oxide parts. Undiluted Triton X-100 has a viscosity of about 270 centipoise at 25 °C which comes down to about 80 centipoise at 50 °C. Triton X-100 is soluble at 25 °C in water, toluene, xylene, trichloroethylene, ethylene glycol, ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene dichloride. Triton X-100 is insoluble in kerosene, mineral spirits, and naphtha, unless a coupling agent like oleic acid is used.
Triton X-100 is a commonly used detergent in laboratories. Triton X-100 is widely used to lyse cells to extract protein or organelles, or to permeabilize the membranes of living cells.
Some applications include:
- Inactivation of lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. HIV, HBV, HCV) in manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals
- Industrial purpose (plating of metal)
- Ingredient in influenza vaccines, including Fluzone
- Permeabilizing unfixed (or lightly fixed) eukaryotic cell membranes
- Solubilizing membrane proteins in their native state in conjunction with zwitterionic detergents such as CHAPS
- Part of the lysis buffer (usually in a 5% solution in alkaline lysis buffer) in DNA extraction
- Reducing surface tension of aqueous solutions during immunostaining (usually at a concentration of 0.1-0.5% in TBS or PBS Buffer)
- Dispersion of carbon materials for soft composite materials
- Restricting colony expansion in Aspergillus nidulans in microbiology
- Decellularization of animal-derived tissues
- Removing SDS from SDS-PAGE gels prior to renaturing the proteins within the gel
- Disruption of cell monolayers as a positive control for TEER measurements
- Micellar catalyst
Apart from laboratory use, Triton X-100 can be found in several types of cleaning compounds, ranging from heavy-duty industrial products to gentle detergents. It is also a popular ingredient in homemade vinyl record cleaning fluids together with distilled water and isopropyl alcohol.
In December 2012, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) included the substance group “4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol, ethoxylated” – which includes Triton X-100 – in the Candidate List of substances of very high concern of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation which addresses the production, import and use of chemical substances and their potential impacts on human health and the environment. A Triton X-100 degradation product has indeed turned out to be ecotoxic as it possesses hormone-like (estrogeno-mimetic) activity that may act on wildlife. The ECHA finally included the substance group in the Authorisation List (Annex XIV), mandating the pharmaceutical and other industries to replace this detergent by the “sunset date” January 4, 2021, thereby affecting EU manufacturers, importers, and downstream users, as well as non-European manufacturers exporting their products into the EU.
Since the inclusion of Triton X-100 in the candidate list of substances of very high concern for authorization, pharmaceutical companies, as well as bioprocessing research groups, are in need of an alternative detergent which must at the same time be eco-friendly and effective. Ideally, a Triton X-100 replacement should generate minimal manufacturing process change, because only then the necessary updates of regulatory filings for medicines could be realized without additional animal experiments or even clinical studies. Therefore, an alternative virus-inactivating detergent should have physico-chemical properties similar to Triton X-100, should be soluble, easy to remove, eco-friendly, but not degrade to toxic metabolites. In a recent study,[ two alternatives for antiviral treatment in biopharmaceutical manufacturing have been identified: Triton X-100 reduced, as well as a novel compound which was named Nereid (after the mermaids in Greek mythology). As reflected by the name, Nereid can be seen as just another relative of the Triton X-100 family, however, due to a small molecular difference, it does not degrade into phenolic compounds the way that Triton X-100 does. The virus inactivation studies comprised experiments with several relevant viruses under various conditions. It turned out that at room temperature, where most virus inactivation steps in biopharmaceutical manufacturing are conducted, both Triton X-100 reduced and Nereid showed similar virus inactivating performances as Triton X-100. In contrast, for some processes that are conducted at cold temperatures, Nereid and Triton X-100 gave better results than Triton X-100 reduced. To date, Nereid can be produced at kilogram-scale using a three-step synthesis, and a patent has been applied for. Nereid is scalable and compatible with existing processes and has not shown any impact on product activity so far. In terms of performance, Nereid would be a robust “all-in-one” replacement for Triton X-100. Thus, it is currently tested in ecotoxicology and biodegradation studies to confirm that it is environmentally safe.
Ethyoxylated alkyl phenol with an average of nine ethoxy groups per molecule.
- Triton X-114 CAS Registry Number 9036-19-5
- Triton X-114 Synonyms: (1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol, Polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether
- Phase separations in Triton X-114 are designed to remove bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
- If the antigen is a membrane protein, fractionation of the antigen mixture in Triton X-114 provides an enrichment of about 20-fold.
- Triton X-114 has a shorter polyoxyethylene headgroup than Triton X-100.
- TRITON™ Anionic and Nonionic Surfactants Reference Chart
- Triton X-114 For DNA
- Triton X-114 Cloud Point
- Triton X-100 vs Triton X-114 For Extraction
- Triton X-114 Molecular Formula: (C2H4O)x • C14H22O x=7-8
- Triton X-114 MSDS/SDS: Contact Lab Alley for a Triton S-114 Safety Data Sheet.
- Triton X-114 Solubility: TRITON X-114 is soluble in ethanol (1 ml/10 ml)1 and is soluble in cold water to at least 5% (w/w). Above the cloud point, phase separation occurs.
Analysis of Antigens Recognized by Monoclonal Antibodies
Preliminary Enrichment for Membrane Antigens by Fractionation in Triton X-114 | If the antigen is a membrane protein, fractionation of the antigen mixture in Triton X-114 provides an enrichment of about 20-fold (see Bordier, 1981, 1988; Brusca and Radolf, 1994). This simple procedure selectively partitions membrane proteins into a detergent-rich phase. It is simple, economical and effective. Details are given in Section 10.7.4. The presence of large amounts of Triton X-114 in the sample will cause SDS gels to run badly, and it is strongly recommended that the protein be precipitated with nine volumes of ice-cold acetone followed by centrifugation (5 min in Eppendorf centrifuge at 13000 g) prior to resuspending in SDS sample buffer (see section 10.7.3).
Investigations into the immunological response of proteins is often masked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. We report an optimized Triton X-114 (TX-114) based LPS extraction method for β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and soy protein extract suitable for cell-based immunological assays.