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Benzalkonium Chloride Chemical Properties
Benzalkonium Chloride CAS Number: 8001-54-5
- Benzalkonium Chloride Solubility In Water: Very Soluble
Benzalkonium Chloride Formula: C6H5CH2N(CH3)2RCl
- Benzalkonium Chloride IUPAC ID: benzyl-dimethyl-tridecyl-azanium chloride
- Benzalkonium Chloride Density: 980 kg/m³
- Benzalkonium Chloride Molar Mass: variable
- Benzalkonium Chloride GHS hazard statements: H302, H312, H314, H318, H400, H410
- Benzalkonium Chloride Is Soluble in: Alcohol, Water
- Benzalkonium Chloride SDS/MSDS: Contact Lab Alley
Benzalkonium chloride is widely used as a preservative in eyedrops; in higher concentrations it is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Read more here.
Benzalkonium chloride can be found in household cleaning products, such as laundry rinses/detergents, personal care products, wet wipes, antiseptics, eye drops and ophthalmic solutions, nasal sprays and asthma inhalers (tiotropium), dental products and Plaster of Paris. Read more here.
Benzalkonium chloride is a human skin and severe eye irritant. It is a suspected respiratory toxicant, immunotoxicant, gastrointestinal toxicant and neurotoxicant. Benzalkonium chloride formulations for consumer use are dilute solutions. Concentrated solutions are toxic to humans, causing corrosion/irritation to the skin and mucosa, and death if taken internally in sufficient volumes. 0.1% is the maximum concentration of benzalkonium chloride that does not produce primary irritation on intact skin or act as a sensitizer. Poisoning by benzalkonium chloride is recognised in the literature. A 2014 case study detailing the fatal ingestion of up to 8.1 oz (240ml) of 10% benzalkonium chloride in a 78-year-old male also includes a summary of the currently published case reports of benzalkonium chloride ingestion. While the majority of cases were caused by confusion about the contents of containers, one case cites incorrect pharmacy dilution of benzalkonium chloride as the cause of poisoning of two infants. Benzalkonium chloride poisoning of domestic pets has been recognised as a result of direct contact with surfaces cleaned with disinfectants using benzalkonium chloride as an active ingredient. As many as 20 people were killed in Japan, by a nurse injecting this.
Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat. Read more here.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a preservative that has been used in ophthalmology since the 1940s, and is found in up to 70% of eye drops. BAK, a quaternary ammonium compound, acts as a detergent, lysing cell membranes, and killing microorganisms. This makes it very effective as a preservative. Read more here.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as “dry eye” and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. Read more here.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a wide spectrum quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent that has been used in various dental composites. It is cationically charged and induces antibacterial action through attraction to the negatively charged bacterial membrane. Read more here.
The process of dermal wound healing can be accelerated by the application of active ingredients, such as benzalkonium chloride (BKC). BKC is a widely used disinfectant as well as a bactericidal to prevent infection in wounds. Its antimicrobial activity has been proven in many previous studies. Read more here.
Nutri-Vet Antimicrobial Wound Spray for dogs is an easy-to-use antiseptic for dog wound care. Benzalkonium Chloride works as an antiseptic and is one of the safest synthetic biocides. Soothing aloe contains enzymes, proteins, and growth factors that reduce inflammation, promote healing, and reduce pain. Read more here. Benzalkonium Chloride is used for animal wound care and skin care.
The FDA found that the active ingredient, benzalkonium chloride, is not indicated as a cold sore treatment and may not make cold sore healing claims because there is no scientific evidence to support claims that it heals cold sores. Read more here.
AgriLabs Foot Rot and Ringworm Spray (benzalkonium chloride) for use on cattle, sheep, horses, dogs and cats as an aid in the control of Summer Itch, Girth Itch, Foot Rot, Ringworm and other fungal problems. Read more here.
It is a fact that benzalkonium chloride is toxic to cats. The “primary adverse effects from benzalkonium chloride exposure are due to its irritancy which results in local tissue damage,” notes International Cat Care. Read more here.
Benzalkonium Chloride Uses
Benzalkonium Chloride is primarily used as a preservative and antimicrobial agent, and secondarily used as a surfactant. It works by killing microorganisms and inhibiting their future growth, and for this reason frequently appears as an ingredient in antibacterial hand wipes, antiseptic creams and anti-itch ointments. Read more here.
Benzalkonium Chloride SDS And MSDS
Please contact Lab Alley at 512-668-9918 or by email to request a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) and Certificate of Analysis (COA) for Benzalkonium Chloride 50% Solution.
Benzalkonium chloride, also known as BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a type of cationic surfactant. It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. It has three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase transfer agent. ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the alkyl group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.
Solubility And Physical Properties
Depending on purity, benzalkonium chloride ranges from colourless to a pale yellow (impure). Benzalkonium chloride is readily soluble in ethanol and acetone. Dissolution in water is slow. Aqueous solutions should be neutral to slightly alkaline. Solutions foam when shaken. Concentrated solutions have a bitter taste and a faint almond-like odour. Standard concentrates are manufactured as 50% and 80% w/w solutions, and sold under trade names such as BC50, BC80, BAC50, BAC80, etc. The 50% solution is purely aqueous, while more concentrated solutions require incorporation of rheology modifiers (alcohols, polyethylene glycols, etc.) to prevent increases in viscosity or gel formation under low temperature conditions.
Benzalkonium chloride also possesses surfactant properties, dissolving the lipid phase of the tear film and increasing drug penetration, making it a useful excipient, but at the risk of causing damage to the surface of the eye°.
- Laundry detergents and treatments
- Softeners for textiles
Phase Transfer Agent
Benzalkonium chloride is a mainstay of phase-transfer catalysis, an important technology in the synthesis of organic compounds, including drugs.
Especially for its antimicrobial activity, benzalkonium chloride is an active ingredient in many consumer products:
- Pharmaceutical products such as eye, ear and nasal drops or sprays, as a preservative
- Personal care products such as hand sanitizers, wet wipes, shampoos, deodorants and cosmetics
- Skin antiseptics, such as Bactine and Dettol.
- Throat lozenges and mouthwashes, as a biocide
- Spermicidal creams
- Over-the-counter single-application treatments for herpes, cold-sores, and fever blisters, such as RELEEV and Viroxyn
- Burn and ulcer treatment
- Spray disinfectants for hard surface sanitization
- Cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant, such as Lysol
- Algaecides for clearing of algae, moss, lichens from paths, roof tiles, swimming pools, masonry, etc.
Benzalkonium chloride is also used in many non-consumer processes and products, including as an active ingredient in surgical disinfection. A comprehensive list of uses includes industrial applications. An advantage of benzalkonium chloride, not shared by ethanol-based antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide antiseptic, is that it does not cause a burning sensation when applied to broken skin. However, prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis.
Benzalkonium chloride is a frequently used preservative in eye drops; typical concentrations range from 0.004% to 0.01%. Stronger concentrations can be caustic and cause irreversible damage to the corneal endothelium. Avoiding the use of benzalkonium chloride solutions while contact lenses are in place is discussed in the literature.