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Uses Of Phosphoric Acid
- Phosphoric Acid For Plants
- Phosphoric Acid For Rust Removal, Conversion, Prevention, Inhibition And Treatment
- Phosphoric Acid For Cleaning Bricks
- Phosphoric Acid Is Used To Make Phosphate Salts For Fertilizers
- Phosphoric Acid For Nausea Medications
- Phosphoric Acid For Pharmaceuticals
- Phosphoric Acid For Aluminum Cleaning
- Phosphoric Acid For Aquaponics
- Use Phosphoric Acid To Remove Rust From Iron And Steel Surfaces
- Phosphoric Acid For Cleaning Products
- Products containing muriatic acid or phosphoric acid are best for removing hard water stains from glass.
- Phosphoric Acid For Brewing
- Phosphoric Acid For Dog Food (Acidifier)
- Phosphoric Acid is an inorganic mineral acid commonly used by food and beverage makers to add tang and act as a preservative.
- Phosphoric Acid is used to remove milkstone from bulk tanks, pipeline cleaners, pipeline, milking machines, utensils, and other dairy equipment.
- Phosphoric Acid Uses In Dentistry
- Phosphoric Acid is used to clean pre-cast concrete, concrete, masonry, grout, tile and natural stone surfaces. It will remove cement grout haze and mortar residue, joint cement, lime and hard water deposits, efflorescence, rust and other dirt and grime.
- Phosphoric Acid Is Used As A Food Additive
- Phosphoric Acid Used In Agriculture
- Phosphoric Acid is used to clean rust from a fuel tank.
- Phosphoric Acid Uses In Cosmetics
- Phosphoric Acid Used In Soda
- Phosphoric Acid Used In HPLC
- Phosphoric Acid Used In Soda
- Phosphoric Acid Used To Control pH
Phosphoric Acid Properties
- Phosphoric Acid Formula: H3PO4
- Phosphoric Acid Molar Mass: 97.994 g/mol
- Phosphoric Acid IUPAC ID: Orthophosphoric Acid
- Phosphoric Acid Density: 1.6845 g/cm-3
- Phosphoric Acid Boiling Point: 407 °C
- Phosphoric Acid Melting Point: 42.4 °C
- Phosphoric Acid pH
- Phosphoric Acid CAS Number: 7664-38-2
- Phosphoric Acid Properties, Structure, Spectra, and ChemSpider ID: 979
- Phosphoric Acid Structure
- Phosphoric Acid PubChem CID: 1004
- Phosphoric Acid Uses and Manufacturing on PubChem
- Phosphoric Acid Information on Wikipedia
- Phosphoric Acid safety and Hazards Information
- Phosphoric Acid Uses: Rust removal, Food and Beverage production, Personal care products, Agriculture and fertilizer, Pharmaceuticals
Information About Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a colorless, odorless crystalline liquid or transparent crystalline solid. The pure solid melts at 42.35°C and has a density of 1.834 g / cm3. Phosphoric Acid is a clear, colorless to light yellow, syrupy liquid and is odorless. It is soluble in water and ethanol.
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric (V) acid) is a mineral inorganic acid. Orthophosphoric acid refers to phosphoric acid in which the prefix ortho is used to distinguish the acid from related phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids. Orthophosphoric acid, when pure, is a solid at room temperature and pressure. The most common source of phosphoric acid is an 85% aqueous solution that is colorless and nonvolatile but is sufficiently acidic to be corrosive. Because of the high percentage of phosphoric acid in this reagent, at least some of the orthophosphoric acid is condensed into polyphosphoric acids. For the sake of labeling and simplicity, the 85% represents the acid as if it was all orthophosphoric acid. Dilute aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid exist in the orthoform.
Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical formula H3PO4. It is normally encountered as a colorless syrup of 85% concentration in water. The pure compound is a colorless solid. All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be lost from the molecule as H+ ions (protons). When all three H+ ions are removed, the result is an orthophosphate ion PO43−, commonly called "phosphate". Phosphoric acid is commonly encountered in chemical laboratories as an 85% aqueous solution, which is a colourless, odourless, and non-volatile syrupy liquid. Although phosphoric acid does not meet the strict definition of a strong acid, the 85% solution can still severely irritate the skin and damage the eyes. The name "orthophosphoric acid" can be used to distinguish this specific acid from other "phosphoric acids", such as pyrophosphoric acid. Nevertheless, the term "phosphoric acid" often means this specific compound; and that is the current IUPAC nomenclature.
The dominant use of phosphoric acid is for fertilizers, consuming approximately 90% of production. Food-grade phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages such as various colas and jams, providing a tangy or sour taste. Soft drinks containing phosphoric acid, which would include Coca-Cola, are sometimes called phosphate sodas or phosphates. Phosphoric acid in soft drinks has the potential to cause dental erosion. Phosphoric acid also has the potential to contribute to the formation of kidney stones, especially in those who have had kidney stones previously.
Specific applications of phosphoric acid include:
- In anti-rust treatment by phosphate conversion coating or passivation
- As an external standard for phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance.
- In phosphoric acid fuel cells.
- In activated carbon production.
- In compound semiconductor processing, to etch Indium gallium arsenide selectively with respect to indium phosphide.
- In microfabrication to etch silicon nitride selectively with respect to silicon dioxide.
- As a pH adjuster in cosmetics and skin-care products.
- As a sanitizing agent in the dairy, food, and brewing industries.
About Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric acid has been used for centuries, unknown to those people using it until 1669 when an alchemist named Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus. He found a recipe in a book that claimed alum, saltpeter, and concentrated urine could turn base metals into silver. This didn’t work as we all know, but he heated residues from boiled-down urine until it was red hot and glowing fumes filled it and liquid dripped out and burst into flames. He got the liquid and covered it where it then solidified and gave off a pale green glow. He named it from the Greek language it was known to them as “light-bearing”, what he collected was phosphorus.
A pure phosphoric acid is found in crystal that is extracted from rocks. By burning the phosphorus element and adding water to the byproduct we obtain phosphoric acid. It is an example of a corrosive acid, when it is in contact with organic compounds it can form toxic gas.
Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric (V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical formula H3PO4. The prefix ortho distinguishes the acid form related phosphoric acids. There are various kinds of phosphoric acids and phosphates. Phosphoric acids from the phosphorus oxoacids, constitute the largest and most diverse group. The simplest phosphoric acid series begins with monophosphoric (orthophosphoric) acid, then comes pyrophosphoric acid and concludes with the polyphosphoric acids. By joining two or more orthophosphoric acid molecules together by condensation into larger molecules (elimination of water), a series of polyphosphoric acids can be obtained.
Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic acid, when it is pure at room temperature it is a solid. Phosphates are essential for life, being the building blocks for both DNA and RNA. Commonly phosphoric acid is an 85% aqueous solution. Such solutions are colorless, odorless, and non-volatile. This solution is a syrupy liquid.
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is one of the simplest phosphates. Under the IUPAC system nomenclature, the name of phosphoric acid is OrthoPhosphoric acid.
Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Process
Phosphoric acid is produced by two general routes industrially. There is a wet process mainly used in feedstock. There is also a process to make food grade phosphoric acid. In the wet process a phosphate containing mineral like calcium hydroxyapatite is treated with sulfuric acid. The phosphoric acid solution may be concentrated to produce commercial or merchant grade phosphoric acid. To produce food grade phosphoric acid, phosphate ore is reduced with coke in an electric arc furnace, in order to make elemental phosphorus. Next silica is added, this produces calcium silicate slag. The elemental phosphorus is distilled out of the furnace and burned with air to produce high-purity phosphorus pentoxide. Lastly, it is dissolved in water to make phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric Acid Uses and Applications in The United States
Phosphoric acid is an important industrial chemical, it is used as an intermediate in the fertilizer industry, as an additive in the food industry, and for metal surface treatment in the metallurgical industry.
Phosphoric acid is found in plants, milk, dairy, poultry, bread rolls, crackers, tortillas, pizza, baked goods, sugar-sweetened/ diet beverages, enhanced meat products, multivitamins and some prescription medicines. There are two kinds of phosphorus in food, organic and inorganic. Plants are a rich source of organic phosphorus.
Phosphoric acid is commonly used as a food additive (additive E338). It is used to acidify foods and drinks and it provides as tangy or sour taste.
It is used in anti-rust treatment by phosphate conversion coating. Phosphoric acid is economical because it can be found in households. It has the ability to remove rust because it can turn rust into ferric phosphate which is basically a black coating. It also dissolves the rust quickly and leaves a coating of iron phosphate which prevents further rust corrosion. It will make the surface with a hard and bright metal finish. Phosphoric acid is also used as an external standard for phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance.
Phosphoric acid is used in fuel cells, they are the first generation of commercial modern fuel cells operation at temperatures between 170°C and 210°C. They were developed for terrestrial applications. Phosphoric acid can tolerate CO2 in fuel gas streams and in air. It is considered well suited for distributed generation because electricity can be generated near with it is being used. This is significant because it will reduce the amount of energy lost in transmitting electricity. It will also reduce the construction of power grid infrastructure. Lastly, phosphoric acid fuel cells generate high temperature waste heat that can be used for heating water, space heating, and low-pressure steam in a cogeneration system.
Phosphoric acid is a common substance used in activated carbon. The concentration of the H3PO4 solution seems to control the process of impregnation, carbonization and washing in the preparation of activated carbon from olive stones by H3PO4. Activated carbons are high-surface area, high porosity carbons that are produced by two principle methods: thermal activation and chemical activation. Phosphoric acid is the dehydrating agent in the chemical activation process. Chemical activation involves heating a mixture of the raw material and a dehydrating agent to temperatures from 4000 to 10,000 °C.
Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental applications or fillings will be placed. It is a constituent in bone and teeth, and plays a role in many metabolic processes
Phosphoric Acid Used in Rust Removal
Phosphoric acid is commonly used in the removal of rust from metals such as iron and steel. When phosphoric acid is applied to the surface it reacts with the rust and forms ferric phosphate. This is then easily removed from the metal surface. In order to remove the rust, soak the metal overnight in a solution of phosphoric acid. Then scrape off the ferric phosphate, finally rinse it with water.
Phosphoric Acid Used in Food and Beverage Production
Phosphoric acid is used as a food additive because it regulates the acidity in foods like jam, cereal and processed meats. In beverages it acts as an acidulant, phosphoric acid helps to slow down the growths of molds and bacteria in sugar formula. It also adds to the taste, giving the drink a sharper and tangy taste. Phosphoric acid has its appeal in the food industry due to its cheap prices. Food-grade phosphoric acid is often referred to as additive E338.
In dairy products the salts of phosphoric acid are used to alter the protein and the pH level of the product to improve quality. It is also used as a sanitizing agent in the dairy, food, and brewing industries.
Phosphoric Acid Used in Personal Care
Phosphoric acid is used in the production of a variety of personal care products. To name a few; cleansing products, fragrances, nail products, bath products, hair care products and dyes, makeup and other skin care products. It acts as a pH adjuster in cosmetics and skin-care products.
Phosphoric Acid Used in Agriculture
The main use of phosphoric acid is in fertilizer, over 90% of produced phosphoric acid is used to make fertilizers. There are three common phosphoric acid-based fertilizers: triple superphosphate, diammonium hydrogen phosphate, and monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate.
All plants require the correct balance of minerals and nutrients in order to thrive. Phosphate is one of those and it is included in all fertilizers. This is accomplished in the form of phosphoric acid. Phosphoric acid cannot be taken up directly by plants, it needs to be altered. After it is applied to the soil, the acid is converted into hydrogen phosphate by chemical actions and biological agents. The primary source of phosphorus in commercial fertilizers is phosphoric rock. Acid is then applied to the rock once it is mined and crushed. Then the phosphoric acid can be applied in many different ways.
Phosphoric Acid Used in Pharmaceuticals
Phosphoric acid is used as an intermediate in pharmaceuticals like in anti-nausea medicines. It is also used in dentistry because it can be used as an etching solution and it is used to clean teeth.
Phosphoric Acid Structure
Phosphoric acid is an inorganic mineral, it is considered a weak acid. It is colorless and odorless. Its chemical formula is H3PO4. Its molecular formula is written as H3O4P and its molar mass is 97.99 g/mol. Phosphoric acid is also known as Orthophosphoric acid, it has three hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen atoms in its structure. All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be lost form the molecule as H+ ions.
Phosphoric Acid Safety, Hazards, and Storage
Inorganic phosphoric acid is classified as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) as a food additive by the FDA.
Phosphoric acid can be very hazardous in the case of skin contact, eye contact, and ingestion. It can also cause irritation if vapors are inhaled. Repeated or prolonged exposure to phosphoric acid mist can lead to chronic eye irritation severe skin irritation, or prolonged respiratory tract issues.
If phosphoric acid is inhaled seek fresh air and medical attention. If it comes in contact with the eyes, flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention. If it comes in contact with the skin, wash with soap and water and then cover the area with an emollient. If phosphoric acid is ingested do not induce vomiting, seek medical attention if adverse symptoms occur. For more information about phosphoric acid you can view the safety data sheet.
Storage for phosphoric acid needs to be in a cool, well-ventilated area protected from moisture. Keep away from incompatible substances like an oxidizing agent or combustible materials. Store it in a metallic or coated fiberboard container using a strong polyethylene inner package. Dispose of this chemical in accordance with federal, state, and local government environment control regulations.
Information About Phosphoric Acid From PubChem
Phosphoric Acid is a colorless, odorless phosphorus-containing inorganic acid. Phosphoric acid is a sequestering agent which binds many divalent cations, including Fe++, Cu++, Ca++, and Mg++. Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings will be placed. In addition, phosphoric acid is a constituent in bone and teeth, and plays a role in many metabolic processes.
Phosphoric acid appears as a clear colorless liquid or transparent crystalline solid. The pure solid melts at 42.35°C and has a density of 1.834 g / cm3. Liquid is usually an 85% aqueous solution. Shipped as both a solid and liquid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in making fertilizers and detergents and in food processing.
Phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry, biogeochemistry and ecology. Phosphate (Pi) is an essential component of life. In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free phosphate ion in solution and is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at physiological (neutral) pH primarily consists of a mixture of HPO2-4 and H2PO-4 ions. phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates, (AMP, ADP and ATP) and in DNA and RNA and can be released by the hydrolysis of ATP or ADP. Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Phosphoanhydride bonds in ADP and ATP, or other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, contain high amounts of energy which give them their vital role in all living organisms. Phosphate must be actively transported into cells against its electrochemical gradient. In vertebrates, two unrelated families of Na+-dependent Pi transporters carry out this task. Remarkably, the two families transport different Pi species: whereas type II Na+/Pi cotransporters (SCL34) prefer divalent HPO4(2), type III Na+/Pi cotransporters (SLC20) transport monovalent H2PO4. The SCL34 family comprises both electrogenic and electroneutral members that are expressed in various epithelia and other polarized cells. Through regulated activity in apical membranes of the gut and kidney, they maintain body Pi homeostasis, and in salivary and mammary glands, liver, and testes they play a role in modulating the Pi content of luminal fluids. Phosphate levels in the blood play an important role in hormone signaling and in bone homeostasis. In classical endocrine regulation, low serum phosphate induces the renal production of the seco-steroid hormone 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25(OH)2D3). This active metabolite of vitamin D acts to restore circulating mineral (i. e. phosphate and calcium) levels by increasing absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidney, and mobilization of calcium and phosphate from bone. Thus, chronic renal failure is associated with hyperparathyroidism, which in turn contributes to osteomalacia (softening of the bones). Another complication of chronic renal failure is hyperphosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in the blood). Hyperphosphatemia (excess levels of phosphate in the blood) is a prevalent condition in kidney dialysis patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Hypophosphatemia (hungry bone syndrome) has been associated to postoperative electrolyte aberrations and after parathyroidectomy (PMID: 17581921, 11169009, 11039261, 9159312, 17625581). Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has recently been recognized as a key mediator of phosphate homeostasis, its most notable effect being promotion of phosphate excretion. FGF-23 was discovered to be involved in diseases such as autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked hypophosphatemia, and tumor-induced osteomalacia in which phosphate wasting was coupled to inappropriately low levels of 1, 25(OH)2D3. FGF-23 is regulated by dietary phosphate in humans. In particular it was found that phosphate restriction decreased FGF-23, and phosphate loading increased FGF-23.
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