Inorganic Compound | Salt | Formula AgNO3 | For Topical Solutions, Antiseptics, Disinfection, Applicators (Wooden Sticks), Medicine, Organic Synthesis, Histology, Dentistry, Gynecology, Wound Healing, Burns, Warts, Bleeding, Canker Sore, Granulation Tissue, Nosebleeds | CAS # 7761-88-8
What Is Silver Nitrate?
The chemical formula for Silver Nitrateis AgNO3. Silver Nitrate is an inorganic chemical withantiseptic activity. Silver nitrate appears as a colorless or white crystalline solid becoming black on exposure to light or organic material. Silver nitrate can potentially be used as a cauterizing orsclerosing agent. Silver Nitrate is used tofeminize seedsof medicinal and botanical plants.
Silver Nitrate Uses
Silver Nitrate Ointment: Silver Nitrate is a prescription topical solution used in treating wounds and burns on the skin as an anti-infective agent.
Silver Nitrate Cream: Silver Nitrate Cream is used to cauterize infected tissues around a skin wound.
Silver Nitrate For Burns: Silver Nitrate Cream is used totreat burns. Topical antimicrobialsfor the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection include silver nitrate.
In Medicine: Silver nitrate is used to cauterize superficial blood vessels in the nose to help prevent nose bleeds. Dentists sometimes use silver nitrate-infused swabs to heal oral ulcers. Silver nitrate is used by some podiatrists to kill cells located in the nail bed.
Silver Nitrate Sticks For Wound Care: A caustic pencil (orsilver nitrate stick) is a device for applying topical medication containing silver nitrate and potassium nitrate, used to chemically cauterize skin, providing hemostasis or permanently destroying unwanted tissue such as a wart, skin tag, aphthous ulcers, or over-production of granulation tissue. Silver nitrate applicators(sticks) are firm wooden sticks with 75% silver nitrate and 25% potassium nitrate embedded on the tip. Moistening the tip sparks a chemical reaction that burns organic matter (skin), coagulates tissue, and destroys bacteria.
Silver Nitrate On Skin: A Topical solution of Silver Nitrate (for use on the skin) is used to cauterize infected tissues around a skin wound. Silver nitrate can also help create a scab to help stop bleeding from a minor skin wound.
For Biology: In histology, silver nitrate is used for silver staining, for demonstrating reticular fibers, proteins and nucleic acids. For this reason it is also used to demonstrate proteins in PAGE gels. It can be used as a stain in scanning electron microscopy.
Organic Synthesis: Silver Nitrate is used to separate mixtures of alkenes by selective absorption.
Silver Nitrate Hazards And Safety Information
Concentrated solutions of silver nitratewill produce irritation, ulceration, and discoloration of the skin; also causes severe irritation of the eyes. Ingestion will produce violent abdominal pain and other gastroenteric symptoms. The major hazards encountered in the use and handling of silver nitrate stem from its toxicologic properties.Toxicby all routes (ie, inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact), exposure to this odorless, colorless-to-white, crystalline substance may occur from its use in silver-plating, in photography, in the manufacture of inks, paints, pigments, and dyes, as an analytical reagent and as an antiseptic. Effects from exposure may include contact burns to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, argyria (a blue-gray discoloration of skin), mild chronic bronchitis, and death from large ingested doses. To safely store silver nitrate, it should be separated from combustible substances and reducing agents.
Despite its common usage in extremely low concentrations to prevent gonorrhea and control nose bleeds, silver nitrate is still verytoxic and corrosive. Brief exposure will not produce any immediate side effects other than the purple, brown or black stains on the skin, but upon constant exposure to high concentrations, side effects will be noticeable, which include burns. Long-term exposure may cause eye damage. Silver nitrate is known to be a skin and eye irritant. Silver nitrate has not been thoroughly investigated for potential carcinogenic effect.
Silver Chemical Properties And Reference Resources
Silver is a naturally occurring element. It is found in the environment combined with other elements such as sulfide, chloride, and nitrate. Pure silver is "silver" colored, but silver nitrate and silver chloride are powdery white and silver sulfide and silver oxide are dark-gray to black. Silver is often found as a by-product during the retrieval of copper, lead, zinc, and gold ores. Silver is used to make jewelry, silverware, electronic equipment, and dental fillings. It is also used to make photographs, in brazing alloys and solders, to disinfect drinking water and water in swimming pools, and as an antibacterial agent. Silver has also been used in lozenges and chewing gum to help people stop smoking.
Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.
Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is typically measured on a per-mille basis; a 94%-pure alloy is described as "0.940 fine". As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures.
Other than in currency and as an investment medium (coins and bullion), silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, jewellery, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware), in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery. Its compounds are used in photographic and X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect), added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters, and other medical instruments.
In medicine, silver is incorporated into wound dressings and used as an antibiotic coating in medical devices. Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver nanomaterials are used to treat external infections. Silver is also used in some medical applications, such as urinary catheters (where tentative evidence indicates it reduces catheter-related urinary tract infections) and in endotracheal breathing tubes (where evidence suggests it reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia). The silver ion is bioactive and in sufficient concentration readily kills bacteria in vitro. Silver ions interfere with enzymes in the bacteria that transport nutrients, form structures, and synthesise cell walls; these ions also bond with the bacteria's genetic material. Silver and silver nanoparticles are used as an antimicrobial in a variety of industrial, healthcare, and domestic application: for example, infusing clothing with nanosilver particles thus allows them to stay odourless for longer. Bacteria can, however, develop resistance to the antimicrobial action of silver. Silver compounds are taken up by the body like mercury compounds, but lack the toxicity of the latter. Silver and its alloys are used in cranial surgery to replace bone, and silver–tin–mercury amalgams are used in dentistry. Silver diammine fluoride, the fluoride salt of a coordination complex with the formula [Ag(NH3)2]F, is a topical medicament (drug) used to treat and prevent dental caries (cavities) and relieve dentinal hypersensitivity.
Silver is very important in electronics for conductors and electrodes on account of its high electrical conductivity even when tarnished. Bulk silver and silver foils were used to make vacuum tubes, and continue to be used today in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, circuits, and their components. For example, silver is used in high quality connectors for RF, VHF, and higher frequencies, particularly in tuned circuits such as cavity filters where conductors cannot be scaled by more than 6%. Printed circuits and RFID antennas are made with silver paints, Powdered silver and its alloys are used in paste preparations for conductor layers and electrodes, ceramic capacitors, and other ceramic components.
Silver-containing brazing alloys are used for brazing metallic materials, mostly cobalt, nickel, and copper-based alloys, tool steels, and precious metals. The basic components are silver and copper, with other elements selected according to the specific application desired: examples include zinc, tin, cadmium, palladium, manganese, and phosphorus. Silver provides increased workability and corrosion resistance during usage.
Silver is useful in the manufacture of chemical equipment on account of its low chemical reactivity, high thermal conductivity, and being easily workable. Silver crucibles (alloyed with 0.15% nickel to avoid recrystallisation of the metal at red heat) are used for carrying out alkaline fusion. Copper and silver are also used when doing chemistry with fluorine. Equipment made to work at high temperatures is often silver-plated. Silver and its alloys with gold are used as wire or ring seals for oxygen compressors and vacuum equipment.
Silver metal is a good catalyst for oxidation reactions; in fact it is somewhat too good for most purposes, as finely divided silver tends to result in complete oxidation of organic substances to carbon dioxide and water, and hence coarser-grained silver tends to be used instead. For instance, 15% silver supported on α-Al2O3 or silicates is a catalyst for the oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide at 230–270 °C. Dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde is conducted at 600–720 °C over silver gauze or crystals as the catalyst, as is dehydrogenation of isopropanol to acetone. In the gas phase, glycol yields glyoxal and ethanol yields acetaldehyde, while organic amines are dehydrated to nitriles.
The photosensitivity of the silver halides allowed for their use in traditional photography, although digital photography, which does not use silver, is now dominant. The photosensitive emulsion used in black-and-white photography is a suspension of silver halide crystals in gelatin, possibly mixed in with some noble metal compounds for improved photosensitivity, developing, and tuning. Colour photography requires the addition of special dye components and sensitisers, so that the initial black-and-white silver image couples with a different dye component. The original silver images are bleached off and the silver is then recovered and recycled. Silver nitrate is the starting material in all cases. The use of silver nitrate and silver halides in photography has rapidly declined with the advent of digital technology. From the peak global demand for photographic silver in 1999 (267,000,000 troy ounces or 8304.6 metric tonnes) the market contracted almost 70% by 2013.
Nanosilver particles, between 10 and 100 nanometres in size, are used in many applications. They are used in conductive inks for printed electronics, and have a much lower melting point than larger silver particles of micrometre size. They are also used medicinally in antibacterials and antifungals in much the same way as larger silver particles. In addition, according to the European Union Observatory for Nanomaterials (EUON), silver nanoparticles are used both in pigments, as well as cosmetics.
Pure silver metal is used as a food colouring. It has the E174 designation and is approved in the European Union. Traditional Pakistani and Indian dishes sometimes include decorative silver foil known as vark, and in various other cultures, silver dragée are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items. Photochromic lenses include silver halides, so that ultraviolet light in natural daylight liberates metallic silver, darkening the lenses. The silver halides are reformed in lower light intensities. Colourless silver chloride films are used in radiation detectors. Zeolite sieves incorporating Ag+ ions are used to desalinate seawater during rescues, using silver ions to precipitate chloride as silver chloride. Silver is also used for its antibacterial properties for water sanitisation, but the application of this is limited by limits on silver consumption. Colloidal silver is similarly used to disinfect closed swimming pools; while it has the advantage of not giving off a smell like hypochlorite treatments do, colloidal silver is not effective enough for more contaminated open swimming pools. Small silver iodide crystals are used in cloud seeding to cause rain.
Silver compounds have low toxicity compared to those of most other heavy metals, as they are poorly absorbed by the human body when digested, and that which does get absorbed is rapidly converted to insoluble silver compounds or complexed by metallothionein. However, silver fluoride and silver nitrate are caustic and can cause tissue damage, resulting in gastroenteritis, diarrhoea, falling blood pressure, cramps, paralysis, and respiratory arrest. Animals repeatedly dosed with silver salts have been observed to experience anaemia, slowed growth, necrosis of the liver, and fatty degeneration of the liver and kidneys; rats implanted with silver foil or injected with colloidal silver have been observed to develop localised tumours. Parenterally admistered colloidal silver causes acute silver poisoning. Some waterborne species are particularly sensitive to silver salts and those of the other precious metals; in most situations, however, silver does not pose serious environmental hazards. In large doses, silver and compounds containing it can be absorbed into the circulatory system and become deposited in various body tissues, leading to argyria, which results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Argyria is rare, and so far as is known, does not otherwise harm a person's health, though it is disfiguring and usually permanent. Mild forms of argyria are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis. Metallic silver, like copper, is an antibacterial agent, which was known to the ancients and first scientifically investigated and named the oligodynamic effect by Carl Nägeli. Silver ions damage the metabolism of bacteria even at such low concentrations as 0.01–0.1 milligrams per litre; metallic silver has a similar effect due to the formation of silver oxide. This effect is lost in the presence of sulfur due to the extreme insolubility of silver sulfide. Some silver compounds are very explosive, such as the nitrogen compounds silver azide, silver amide, and silver fulminate, as well as silver acetylide, silver oxalate, and silver(II) oxide. They can explode on heating, force, drying, illumination, or sometimes spontaneously. To avoid the formation of such compounds, ammonia and acetylene should be kept away from silver equipment. Salts of silver with strongly oxidising acids such as silver chlorate and silver nitrate can explode on contact with materials that can be readily oxidised, such as organic compounds, sulfur and soot.
Silver Sulfate Chemical Properties And Reference Resources
Silver sulfate (Ag2SO4) is an ionic compound of silver used in silver plating and as a non-staining substitute to silver nitrate. This sulfate is stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage, though it darkens upon exposure to air or light. It is minimally soluble in water.
The compound adopts the structure seen for anhydrous sodium sulfate.
Silver(II) sulfate The synthesis of silver(II) sulfate (AgSO4) with a divalent silver ion instead of a monovalent silver ion was first reported in 2010 by adding sulfuric acid to silver(II) fluoride (HF escapes). It is a black solid that decomposes exothermally at 120 °C with evolution of oxygen and the formation of the pyrosulfate.
Silver(I) sulfate is a white compound that is used in the silver plating process in an effort to replace silver cyanide. Research has shown that silver(I) sulfate is not as effective in silver plating as silver cyanide, and it doesn't produce the same high quality plating as silver cyanide.
Silver(I) sulfate is used for medicinal purposes. Silver is a documented antibacterial agent. Bandages used to cover woulds ranging from basic skin wounds to serious lacerations and skin abrasions are impregnated with silver compounds including silver sulfate. These bandages do not stick to the skin, which is a big relief to the patient!
Silver has the ability to kill bacteria cells, and the bandage prevents bacteria from coming in contact with the wound. Now let's investigate silver(II) sulfate.