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Coronavirus fears have caused a hand sanitizer shortage in the U.S. which has lead some people to make it at home. Ethanol ("grain alcohol") is an ingredient you can use to make your own hand sanitizer at home. Help protect against coronavirus by cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces and objects in your home like tables, doorknobs, light switches, counter tops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, sinks, etc. You can purchase ethanol online here without a license or permit.
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Hand Sanitizer Tool Kit From USP Demand for alcohol-based hand sanitizers from traditional large-scale commercial manufacturing has surpassed its supply and some of the ingredients traditionally used in hand sanitizers are in shortage. In response to this, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and other public health organizations have developed important guidance for compounding hand sanitizers, and for the preparation of hand sanitizers by manufacturers and other facilities, such as distilleries. USP has also issued recommendations developed by its Compounding Expert Committee for the compounding of hand sanitizers, including different formulations and utilizing alternative ingredients.
Information For Compounders
The WHO provides a practical guide for use at the pharmacy bench during the actual preparation of the hand sanitizer formulations. Information in the guide includes materials required for small volume production and 10-liter preparations. Formulations include starting material of ethanol 96% for final product concentration of ethanol 80% (v/v) or starting material of isopropyl alcohol 99.8% for final product concentration of isopropyl alcohol 75% (v/v).
The FDA issued “Policy for Temporary Compounding of Certain Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Products During the Public Health Emergency” Immediately in Effect Guidance for Industry.” TThe guidance explains that FDA does not intend to take action against compounders that prepare alcohol-based hand sanitizers for consumer use and for use as health care personnel hand rubs for the duration of the public health emergency provided certain circumstances are present. The circumstances include the following:
The hand sanitizer is compounded according to the following formula consistent with WHO recommendations:
- alcohol (ethanol) (80%, v/v) in an aqueous solution denatured according to Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulations in 27 CFR part 20; or isopropyl alcohol (75%, v/v) in an aqueous solution
- alcohol (ethanol) (if derived from synthetic processes, is used only if it meets USP or FCC grade), that is not less than 94.9% ethanol by volume;
- glycerol (1.45%, v/v), glycerin (glycerol) USP or FCC (also known as “food grade”)
- hydrogen peroxide (0.125%, v/v), USP Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrate or USP Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution
- sterile water (e.g., by boiling, distillation or other process that results in water that meets the specifications for Purified Water USP).
The alcohol (ethanol) is denatured either by the alcohol producer or at the point of production of the finished hand sanitizer product. See Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulations in 27 CFR part 20 and 21. The hand sanitizer is prepared under conditions routinely used by the compounder to compound similar nonsterile drugs (USP General Chapter <795>).
USP created a document outlining recommendations from its Compounding Expert Committee intended to address shortages of alcohol-based hand sanitizers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The document includes three formulations for the compounding of hand sanitizer and appropriate ingredient substitutions based on shortage issues.
- Formulation 1 – starting ingredient of ethanol 96% for final product concentration of ethanol 80% (v/v)
- Formulation 2 - starting ingredient of isopropyl alcohol 99% for final product concentration of isopropyl alcohol 75% (v/v)
- Formulation 3 – starting ingredient of isopropyl alcohol 91% for final product concentration of isopropyl alcohol 75% (v/v)
The starting ingredients for Formulations 2 and 3 provide alternatives to WHO’s formula using isopropyl alcohol 99.8%, due to shortage concerns. The hand sanitizer should be prepared under conditions routinely used by the compounder to compound similar nonsterile drugs (USP General Chapter <795>). Frequently asked questions are available for compounding alcohol-based hand sanitizer during the COVID-19 pandemic .
The National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations (NASPA) is providing information from the States related to compounding hand sanitizers.
- Download Ethanol Safety Data Sheets (SDS/MSDS) Here
- Buy Ethanol Online At LabAlley.com/Collections/Ethanol
- Ethanol Density: 789 kg/m³
- Ethanol Formula: C2H5OH
- Ethanol Solubility: Soluble In Water, Hexane, Chloroform, Water, Hexane, Diethyl Ether, Ethyl Acetate, Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Kerosene, Gasoline (Petrol), Carbon Tetrachloride (Tetrachloromethane/CCl4) And Heptane
- Solvent Miscibility Table
- Ethanol Miscibility: Completely Miscible
- Ethanol Structure: AKA Ethyl Alcohol, Abbreviated As EtOH, Ethanol Has One Methyl (-CH3) Group, One Methylene (-CH2-) Group And One Hydroxyl (-OH) Group
- Ethanol Boiling Point: 173.1°F (78.37°C)
- Ethanol Melting Point: -173.5°F (-114.1°C)
- Ethanol CAS Registry Number: 64-17-5
- Molar Mass: 46.07 g/mol
- Boiling Point: 173.1°F (78.37°C)
- IUPAC ID: Ethanol
- Ethanol ChemSpider ID: 682
- Ethanol PubChem CID: 702
- Ethanol Chemical Formula: C2H5OH | Can Be Written As CH3CH2OH
- Pka: Ethanol's pKa Value Is About 15.9
- Wikipedia Description Of Ethanol: Ethanol is a chemical compound and a simple alcohol. It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.
- PubChem Description Of Ethanol: Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Indeed, ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines.
Can't Get Your Hands On Hand Sanitizer? Make Your Own
By Megan Cerullo, April 3, 2020
Hand sanitizer is flying off store shelves in the U.S. as individuals and businesses stock up on supplies to protect them against coronavirus infection.
Public health experts advise that cleaning your hands with either soap and water, or an alcohol-based solution, is one of the best ways to avoid infection — guidance the public appears to be heeding. Consumer demand for hand sanitizers has soared 1,400% in recent weeks, according to retail industry data. Some sellers are limiting the number of containers customers can buy per visit, while others are jacking up their prices in stores and online.
Thankfully, experts have a feasible solution for consumers who can't find the personal disinfectant in stores: Make your own.
"Homemade hand sanitizers are just as effective as what you buy as long as you use the right percentage of alcohol," CBS News contributor Dr. David Agus told CBS MoneyWatch. "This is a good way to get around people price-gouging for Purell."
Do-it-yourself sanitizers must contain at least 60% alcohol, by volume, to work, Dr. Agus said. Isopropyl alcohol (better known as rubbing alcohol) or ethanol are both suitable varieties, experts told CBS MoneyWatch. Other doctors recommend using at least 90% alcohol to ensure the hand-made sanitizer is strong enough and to avoid any risk of diluting the compound if other ingredients are added, such as aloe vera.
"If you make it well, it's about as effective as using soap and water," said Dr. Stephen Morse, a professor of epidemiology at Columbia University in New York. "We know it works — just make sure it has enough alcohol in it."
Adding aloe vera will make it easier to apply to the skin and add thickness. And stirring in a few drops of an essential oil, such as lavender, will give the mixture a pleasing fragrance — so users don't smell like rubbing alcohol around the home or office. Here's a list of required ingredients to make your own hand sanitizer:
- 2/3 cup of rubbing alcohol
- 1/3 cup aloe vera gel
- 5-10 drops of essential oil (optional)
- Mixing bowl
- Two-ounce spray bottle or liquid soap container
- Masking tape and pen or marker for labeling the container (or adhesive labels)
Directions: Pour the alcohol and aloe vera in a bowl and stir until blended. Add several drops of essential oil and stir to help mask the smell of alcohol. Use the funnel to pour the eight ounce mixture into containers, then affix the strips of marked masking tape (or adhesive labels) to identify the bottles' contents.
Hand sanitizer doesn't kill all viruses, but it is effective against the coronavirus, Dr. Agus explained. The virus is protected by a shell, called an "envelope glycoprotein," which the alcohol scrambles. "When you take away the protective part of the virus, it dies pretty quickly," he said. While soap and water is also effective against the virus, hand sanitizer is often more convenient. "We are a lazy society — no one wants to sit around for 20 seconds and wash their hands," Dr. Agus said.
Plus, sinks are usually located in bathrooms, requiring users to touch a doorknob — and risk becoming reinfected — to exit. Eventually, the necessary ingredients to make hand sanitizer could end up in short supply. Until then, "Quick-fix sanitizers do work," according to Dr. Agus.
Dr. Sanjay Maggirwar, professor of microbiology at George Washington University, said homemade sanitizers can last weeks if they are properly stored in closed bottles.
- Acceptable Quality Grades
- Recommended Formulation
- Non-Medicinal Ingredients (NMIs)
- Formula Substitutions
- Use Of Non-USP Grade Alcohol
- Excise Tax Implications
- Obtaining A Licence, Registration And/Or Approved Formulation Under The Excise Act, 2001
- End Of Interim Approach
- Contact Health Canada
This document provides information on the use of ethanol as an ingredient in alcohol-based hand sanitizers sold in Canada. Numerous Canadian entities and industries not currently regulated by Health Canada have expressed interest in providing additional and/or alternate sources of ethanol (also known as anhydrous alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol) for use in the production of hand sanitizers to support the national response to the supply shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic.
To help reduce the risk of infection or spreading infection to others, Health Canada recommends that individuals wash their hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available. Similarly, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that individuals regularly and thoroughly clean their hands with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub, as part of proper hand hygiene.
On March 27, 2020, Health Canada released the Guide on Health Canada's Interim Expedited Licensing Approach for the Production and Distribution of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers. The purpose of that Guide is to support companies that intend to manufacture, package, label and/or distribute alcohol-based hand sanitizers in response to the current shortage by providing a simplified and expedited pathway to obtaining the required authorizations.
This document provides further guidance on the quality requirements for ethanol to be used in the production of hand sanitizers. It also highlights key formulation aspects and points to additional flexibilities that can be leveraged during this emergency situation.
To protect the health and safety of Canadians, Health Canada remains committed to its mandate while balancing the need for exceptional measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, the quality of ethanol used in manufacturing hand sanitizers must be fit for purpose and meet safety, efficacy and quality requirements.
This interim approach takes into account the current policies and best practices of foreign regulatory partners, including the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as well as the recommendations of the WHO and the US Pharmacopeia (USP).
Ethanol used for the production of hand sanitizers should conform to one of the identity and purity criteria published in any of the following quality standards, with any noted deviations provided in this interim guidance. For details on these quality standards, please refer to the weblinks provided below. Please note that some of these references may be accessed for free, while others require payment for full access:
- USP Monograph
- European Pharmacopeia (Ph. Eur.)
- Food Chemical Codex (FCC)
- British Pharmacopoeia (BP)
- Pharmacopée française (Ph.f.) (refer to monographs in subfolder “13-Formulaire national”)
- Pharmacopoeia Internationalis (Ph.I.)
- Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) (refer to page 896)
- National Formulary (NF)
The USP monograph specifies that ethanol must be 94.9% to 96.0% pure by volume, and provides the following concentration limits for impurities commonly found in ethanol:
- Methanol: No more than 200 µL/L
- Acetaldehyde and acetal: No more than 10 µL/L, expressed as acetaldehyde
- Benzene: No more than 2 µL/L
- Sum of all other impurities: No more than 300 µL/L
All formulations must meet the safety and efficacy requirements established in Health Canada’s Antiseptic Skin Cleansers (Personal Domestic Use) monograph.
Health Canada recommends the manufacturing of ethanol‑based hand sanitizer as per the WHO formulation. Specifically, the WHO-recommended handrub formulations (2010) provides a recipe for the preparation of a hand sanitizer with a final concentration of 80% v/v ethanol. While Health Canada’s monograph stipulates a range of 60%-80 v/v ethanol, an 80% v/v concentration is recommended for increased efficacy.
Formulation For A 10-Litre Preparation
Other Acceptable Formulations Include:
Records must be maintained on how the hand sanitizer is prepared, including details on how the final ethanol dilution in the finished product was derived. The amount of ethanol needed in the formulation should be calculated using the following equation (as set out in the USP guidance):
All NMIs added to a hand sanitizer product must be listed in Health Canada’s Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID), indicated with an acceptable purpose and comply with all listed restrictions (as per the NHPID). Additional information is outlined below on quality requirements for specific NMIs used in ethanol-based hand sanitizers, based on the WHO guidance:
|Hydrogen Peroxide||The low concentration of Hydrogen peroxide in the finished product (0.125%) is intended to help eliminate contaminating spores in the bulk solutions and recipients and is not an active substance for hand antisepsis.|
|Glycerol and other humectants or emollients||
Glycerol (also known as glycerine or 1,2,3-Propanetriol) is added as a humectant at a final concentration of 1.45%, to increase the acceptability of the product and not to enhance viscosity.
Other humectants or emollients at a similar concentration may be used for skin care, provided that they are affordable, available locally, miscible (mixable) in water and alcohol, non-toxic, and not likely to cause an allergic reaction. Glycerol has been chosen because it is safe and relatively inexpensive. Lowering the percentage of glycerol may be considered to further reduce the stickiness of the handrub.
|Use of proper
|While sterile distilled water is preferred, boiled and cooled tap water may also be used as long as it is free of visible particles.|
|Addition of other additives||It is strongly recommended that no ingredients other than those specified in this document be added to the formulations. All NMIs (including denaturants) must be listed in the Product Licence application. If additions or substitutions of an NMI are made after the product licence is issued, documentation must be maintained on the safety of the additive and its compatibility with the other ingredients. These documents must be available upon request by Health Canada. Any substitutions should come from approved ingredients in the NHPID. If the NMI that you intend to use is not found in NHPID, you can complete a Natural Health Products Ingredients Database Issue Form and submit to this email to add the ingredient. The full list of ingredients must be provided on the product label.|
|Denaturants||The use of denaturants is recommended to avoid the unintentional ingestion of hand sanitizers (particularly by children), but is not required under this interim approach. The NHPID includes a listing of acceptable denaturants that should be used if applicable in your formulation. Once this interim approach ceases to be in effect, to continue with the manufacture of hand sanitizer products, companies will be required to confirm with Health Canada that denaturants will be used from that point on.|
|Gelling agents||No data are available to assess the suitability of adding gelling agents to WHO-recommended liquid formulations; any additives selected for this purpose must be listed in Health Canada’s NHPID and comply with listed restrictions. The addition of a gelling agent must be included in the list of ingredients on the product label.|
|Fragrances||Adding fragrances, while not prohibited, is not recommended because of the risk of potential allergic reactions. As with other ingredients, a fragrance would be considered an NMI and must be included in the Product Licence application and be listed on the product label.|
Ingredients adhering to USP (or other acceptable standards, as listed above) should be used as the source of ingredients. However, given that there may currently be shortages of ingredients used to manufacture formulations of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, the following substitutions are acceptable:
- When components meeting compendial quality standards are not obtainable, components of similar quality – such as those that are chemically pure, analytical reagent grade, or American Chemical Society-certified – may be used.
- No ingredients should be added to enhance viscosity as they may decrease the effectiveness of the final preparation.
Disinfectant product ingredients, whether registered with the US Environmental Protection Agency or Health Canada, are not suitable as components for manufacturing hand sanitizers as they may not be safe for use on skin (i.e., may cause burns).
As per the Natural Health Products Regulations (NHPR), a Product Licence will not be issued if a product is likely to result in injury to the health of the consumer. Non-USP grade ethanol should be of a level of quality that is fit for human use in the finished hand sanitizer formulation.
For any products containing ethanol with specifications that deviate from the recommended standards, such as higher than permitted level of impurities in the above referenced standards, a risk assessment must be conducted and submitted to Health Canada for review. Each risk assessment will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if the ethanol is safe for use in hand sanitizer production. In the risk assessment, particular attention should be given to identify and quantify impurities, which are expected to be present (or likely to be present) as a result of manufacturing processes, starting materials, etc. An example of some impurities that would be expected in a non-USP or food grade ethanol product include acetaldehyde, benzene and methanol, though there may be others as well. Documentation including certificates of analysis (CoA) must be kept on record and made available at the request of Health Canada.
The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) administers the Excise Act, 2001 which governs the federal taxation of several commodities, including spirits, and regulates activities involving the manufacture, possession and distribution of these products. For example, persons who produce and package spirits, persons who use non-duty-paid spirits in the manufacture of non-beverage spirit-based products such as cosmetics or hand sanitizers, and persons who operate warehouses to store non-duty-paid alcohol must possess an excise duty licence issued under the Excise Act, 2001.
Depending on the circumstances, a person may require a spirits licence, a user’s licence and/or a specially denatured alcohol registration in order to legally produce hand sanitizer using non-duty-paid alcohol in Canada. There are a number of ways hand sanitizer can be produced by licensees or registrants without incurring an excise duty liability, for example:
- A user licensee can produce hand sanitizer in accordance with an approved formulation without the payment of excise duty on the final product.
- There are also provisions that would allow a specially denatured alcohol registrant to possess and use certain grades of specially denatured alcohol to produce hand sanitizer without the payment of duty.
- A spirits licensee is authorized under the Excise Act, 2001 to denature spirits according to specified criteria, which are not subject to excise duty.
- Although it could be cost prohibitive, there is also the option to use duty-paid alcohol to produce hand sanitizer.
The requirements under the Act will vary depending on the circumstances of each case and the proposed activities to be undertaken.
A number of spirits licensees, licenced users and brewer licensees (excise licensees) have expressed an interest in using non-duty-paid alcohol to make hand sanitizer. These are existing excise licensees who are seeking to temporarily expand their operations in response to the shortage in supply as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In some cases, excise licensees are requesting specially denatured alcohol registrations to allow them to possess and use specially denatured alcohol for this purpose. In other cases, spirits or brewer licensees are requesting users’ licences and approved formulations. The CRA is also receiving enquiries from non-licensees who would like to apply for a specially denatured alcohol registration or user’s licence and approved formulation for the purpose of producing hand sanitizer. In response to the current circumstances, the CRA has implemented a streamlined process to expedite the review and approval of these applications.
Applications for users’ licences and specially denatured alcohol registrations should be submitted to your regional excise duty office using Form L63 Licence and Registration Application Excise Act, 2001. Applications for formulation approval should be submitted using Form Y15D - Request for Formula Approval. Note that a sample is not currently required for excise licensees applying for an approved formulation for the production of hand sanitizer. For questions or further information, please visit this website Excise Duties, Excise Taxes, Fuel Charge and Air Travellers Security Charge, which also includes the contact information for your regional excise duty office. These regional offices are your best source for information on excise taxes.
This interim approach is in effect immediately, and will be in effect until March 31, 2021 or until a notice is issued by Health Canada to licence holders (whichever is earliest). When the approach expires, production must cease, although existing product stock can be exhausted.
If you have questions in relation to this Guide or the licensing of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, please contact Health Canada's Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate at email@example.com.
Hand sanitizer is a liquid, gel, or foam generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. In most settings, hand washing with soap and water is generally preferred. Hand sanitizer is less effective at killing certain kinds of germs, such as norovirus and Clostridium difficile and unlike soap and water, it cannot remove harmful chemicals. People may incorrectly wiped off hand sanitizer before it has dried, and some are less effective because their alcohol concentrations are too low.
In most healthcare settings alcohol-based hand sanitizers are preferable to hand washing with soap and water. Reasons include it being better tolerated and more effective. Hand washing with soap and water; however, should be carried out if contamination can be seen, or following the use of the toilet. The general use of non-alcohol-based hand sanitizers has no recommendations.
Alcohol-based versions typically contain some combination of isopropyl alcohol, ethanol (ethyl alcohol), or n-propanol, with versions containing 60% to 95% alcohol the most effective. Care should be taken as they are flammable. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer works against a wide variety of microorganisms but not spores. Compounds such as glycerol may be added to prevent drying of the skin. Some versions contain fragrances; however, these are discouraged due to the risk of allergic reactions. Non-alcohol based versions typically contain benzalkonium chloride or triclosan; but are less effective than alcohol-based ones.
Alcohol has been used as an antiseptic at least as early as 1363 with evidence to support its use becoming available in the late 1800s. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer has been commonly used in Europe since at least the 1980s. The alcohol-based version is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$1.40–3.70 per liter bottle.
The Clean Hands campaign by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) instructs the public in hand washing. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is recommended only if soap and water are not available.
When using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer:
- Apply product to the palm of one hand.
- Rub hands together.
- Rub the product over all surfaces of hands and fingers until hands are dry.
- Do not go near flame or gas burner or any burning object during applying hand sanitizer.
- The current evidence for the effectiveness of school hand hygiene interventions is of poor quality.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers may not be effective if the hands are greasy or visibly soiled. In hospitals, the hands of healthcare workers are often contaminated with pathogens, but rarely soiled or greasy. In community settings, on the other hand, grease and soiling is common from activities such as handling food, playing sports, gardening, and being active outdoors. Similarly, contaminants like heavy metals and pesticides (generally found outdoors) cannot be removed by hand sanitizers. Hand sanitizers may also be swallowed by children, especially if brightly-coloured.
Some commercially-available hand sanitizers (and online recipes for homemade rubs) have alcohol concentrations that are too low. This makes them less effective at killing germs. Poorer people in developed countries and people in developing countries may find it harder to get a hand sanitizer with an effective alcohol concentration. Fraudulent labelling of alcohol concentrations has been a problem in Guyana.
Hand sanitizers were first introduced in 1966 in medical settings such as hospitals and healthcare facilities. The product was popularized in the early 1990s.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is more convenient compared to hand washing with soap and water in most situations in the healthcare setting. Among healthcare workers, it is generally more effective for hand antisepsis, and better tolerated than soap and water. Hand washing should still be carried out if contamination can be seen or following the use of the toilet.
Hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol or contains a "persistent antiseptic" should be used. Alcohol rubs kill many different kinds of bacteria, including antibiotic resistant bacteria and TB bacteria. They also kill many kinds of viruses, including the flu virus, the common cold virus, coronaviruses, and HIV.
90% alcohol rubs are more effective against viruses than most other forms of hand washing. Isopropyl alcohol will kill 99.99 % or more of all non-spore forming bacteria in less than 30 seconds, both in the laboratory and on human skin.
The alcohol in hand sanitizers may not have the 10–15 seconds exposure time required to denature proteins and lyse cells in too low quantities (0.3 ml) or concentrations (below 60%). In environments with high lipids or protein waste (such as food processing), the use of alcohol hand rubs alone may not be sufficient to ensure proper hand hygiene.
For health care settings like hospitals and clinics, optimum alcohol concentration to kill bacteria is 70% to 95%. Products with alcohol concentrations as low as 40% are available in American stores, according to researchers at East Tennessee State University.
Alcohol rub sanitizers kill most bacteria, and fungi, and stop some viruses. Alcohol rub sanitizers containing at least 70% alcohol (mainly ethyl alcohol) kill 99.9% of the bacteria on hands 30 seconds after application and 99.99% to 99.999% in one minute.
For health care, optimal disinfection requires attention to all exposed surfaces such as around the fingernails, between the fingers, on the back of the thumb, and around the wrist. Hand alcohol should be thoroughly rubbed into the hands and on the lower forearm for a duration of at least 30 seconds and then allowed to air dry.
Use of alcohol-based hand gels dries skin less, leaving more moisture in the epidermis, than hand washing with antiseptic/antimicrobial soap and water.
There are certain situations during which hand washing with soap and water are preferred over hand sanitizer, these include: eliminating bacterial spores of Clostridioides difficile, parasites such as Cryptosporidium, and certain viruses like norovirus depending on the concentration of alcohol in the sanitizer (95% alcohol was seen to be most effective in eliminating most viruses). In addition, if hands are contaminated with fluids or other visible contaminates, hand washing is preferred as well as after using the toilet and if discomfort develops from the residue of alcohol sanitizer use. Furthermore, CDC states hand sanitizers are not effective in removing chemicals such as pesticides.
Alcohol gel can catch fire, producing a translucent blue flame. This is due to the flammable alcohol in the gel. Some hand sanitizer gels may not produce this effect due to a high concentration of water or moisturizing agents. There have been some rare instances where alcohol has been implicated in starting fires in the operating room, including a case where alcohol used as an antiseptic pooled under the surgical drapes in an operating room and caused a fire when a cautery instrument was used. Alcohol gel was not implicated.
To minimize the risk of fire, alcohol rub users are instructed to rub their hands until dry, which indicates that the flammable alcohol has evaporated. Igniting alcohol hand rub while using it is rare, but the need for this is underlined by one case of a health care worker using hand rub, removing a polyester isolation gown, and then touching a metal door while her hands were still wet; static electricity produced an audible spark and ignited the hand gel. Fire departments suggest refills for the alcohol-based hand sanitizers can be stored with cleaning supplies away from heat sources or open flames.
Research shows that alcohol hand sanitizers do not pose any risk by eliminating beneficial microorganisms that are naturally present on the skin. The body quickly replenishes the beneficial microbes on the hands, often moving them in from just up the arms where there are fewer harmful microorganisms.
However, alcohol may strip the skin of the outer layer of oil, which may have negative effects on barrier function of the skin. A study also shows that disinfecting hands with an antimicrobial detergent results in a greater barrier disruption of skin compared to alcohol solutions, suggesting an increased loss of skin lipids.
In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) controls antimicrobial handsoaps and sanitizers as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) because they are intended for topical anti-microbial use to prevent disease in humans.
The FDA requires strict labeling which informs consumers on proper use of this OTC drug and dangers to avoid, including warning adults not to ingest, not to use in the eyes, to keep out of the reach of children, and to allow use by children only under adult supervision. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, there were nearly 12,000 cases of hand sanitizer ingestion in 2006. If ingested, alcohol-based hand sanitizers can cause alcohol poisoning in small children. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommends using hand sanitizer with children to promote good hygiene, under supervision, and furthermore recommends parents pack hand sanitizer for their children when traveling, to avoid their contracting disease from dirty hands.
There have been reported incidents of people drinking the gel in prisons and hospitals, where alcohol consumption is not allowed, to become intoxicated leading to its withdrawal from some establishments.
On April 30, 2015, the FDA announced that they were requesting more scientific data based on the safety of hand sanitizer. Emerging science suggests that for at least some health care antiseptic active ingredients, systemic exposure (full body exposure as shown by detection of antiseptic ingredients in the blood or urine) is higher than previously thought, and existing data raise potential concerns about the effects of repeated daily human exposure to some antiseptic active ingredients. This would include hand antiseptic products containing alcohol and triclosan.
Hands must be disinfected before any surgical procedure by hand washing with mild soap and then hand-rubbing with a sanitizer. Surgical disinfection requires a larger dose of the hand-rub and a longer rubbing time than is ordinarily used. It is usually done in two applications according to specific hand-rubbing techniques, EN1499 (hygienic handwash), and EN 1500 (hygienic hand disinfection) to ensure that antiseptic is applied everywhere on the surface of the hand.
Some hand sanitizer products use agents other than alcohol to kill microorganisms, such as povidone-iodine, benzalkonium chloride or triclosan. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the CDC recommends "persistent" antiseptics for hand sanitizers. Persistent activity is defined as the prolonged or extended antimicrobial activity that prevents or inhibits the proliferation or survival of microorganisms after application of the product. This activity may be demonstrated by sampling a site several minutes or hours after application and demonstrating bacterial antimicrobial effectiveness when compared with a baseline level. This property also has been referred to as "residual activity." Both substantive and nonsubstantive active ingredients can show a persistent effect if they substantially lower the number of bacteria during the wash period.
Laboratory studies have shown lingering benzalkonium chloride may be associated with antibiotic resistance in MRSA. Tolerance to alcohol sanitizers may develop in fecal bacteria. Where alcohol sanitizers utilize 62%, or higher, alcohol by weight, only 0.1 to 0.13% of benzalkonium chloride by weight provides equivalent antimicrobial effectiveness.
Triclosan has been shown to accumulate in biosolids in the environment, one of the top seven organic contaminants in waste water according to the National Toxicology Program Triclosan leads to various problems with natural biological systems, and triclosan, when combined with chlorine e.g. from tap water, produces dioxins, a probable carcinogen in humans. However, 90–98% of triclosan in waste water biodegrades by both photolytic or natural biological processes or is removed due to sorption in waste water treatment plants. Numerous studies show that only very small traces are detectable in the effluent water that reaches rivers.
A series of studies show that photodegradation of triclosan produced 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD). The 2,4-dichlorophenol itself is known to be biodegradable as well as photodegradable. For DCDD, one of the non-toxic compounds of the dioxin family, a conversion rate of 1% has been reported and estimated half-lives suggest that it is photolabile as well. The formation-decay kinetics of DCDD are also reported by Sanchez-Prado et al. (2006) who claim "transformation of triclosan to toxic dioxins has never been shown and is highly unlikely."
Alcohol-free hand sanitizers may be effective immediately while on the skin, but the solutions themselves can become contaminated because alcohol is an in-solution preservative and without it, the alcohol-free solution itself is susceptible to contamination. However, even alcohol-containing hand sanitizers can become contaminated if the alcohol content is not properly controlled or the sanitizer is grossly contaminated with microorganisms during manufacture. In June 2009, alcohol-free Clarcon Antimicrobial Hand Sanitizer was pulled from the US market by the FDA, which found the product contained gross contamination of extremely high levels of various bacteria, including those which can "cause opportunistic infections of the skin and underlying tissues and could result in medical or surgical attention as well as permanent damage". Gross contamination of any hand sanitizer by bacteria during manufacture will result in the failure of the effectiveness of that sanitizer and possible infection of the treatment site with the contaminating organisms.
Alcohol-based hand rubs are extensively used in the hospital environment as an alternative to antiseptic soaps. Hand-rubs in the hospital environment have two applications: hygienic hand rubbing and surgical hand disinfection. Alcohol based hand rubs provide a better skin tolerance as compared to antiseptic soap. Hand rubs also prove to have more effective microbiological properties as compared to antiseptic soaps.
The same ingredients used in over-the-counter hand-rubs are also used in hospital hand-rubs: alcohols such ethanol and isopropanol, sometimes combined with quaternary ammonium cations (quats) such as benzalkonium chloride. Quats are added at levels up to 200 parts per million to increase antimicrobial effectiveness. Although allergy to alcohol-only rubs is rare, fragrances, preservatives and quats can cause contact allergies. These other ingredients do not evaporate like alcohol and accumulate leaving a "sticky" residue until they are removed with soap and water.
The most common brands of alcohol hand rubs include Aniosgel, Avant, Sterillium, Desderman and Allsept S. All hospital hand rubs must conform to certain regulations like EN 12054 for hygienic treatment and surgical disinfection by hand-rubbing. Products with a claim of "99.99% reduction" or 4-log reduction are ineffective in hospital environment, since the reduction must be more than "99.99%".
The hand sanitizer dosing systems for hospitals are designed to deliver a measured amount of the product for staff. They are dosing pumps screwed onto a bottle or are specially designed dispensers with refill bottles. Dispensers for surgical hand disinfection are usually equipped with elbow controlled mechanism or infrared sensors to avoid any contact with the pump.
In 2010 the World Health Organization produced a guide for manufacturing hand sanitizer, which received renewed interest because of shortages of hand sanitizer in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Dozens of liquor and perfume manufactures switched their manufacturing facilities from their normal product to hand sanitizer. In order to keep up with the demand, local distilleries started using their alcohol to make hand sanitizer. Distilleries producing hand sanitizer originally existed in a legal grey area in the United States, until the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau declared that distilleries could produce their sanitizer without authorization.
There are cautions against making your own hand sanitizer. Some widely-circulated home recipes are ineffective or even poisonous.
World Health OrganizationThe has published a guide to producing large quantities of hand sanitizer from chemicals available in developing countries, where commercial hand sanitizer may not be available:
|FORMULATION 1||10-L prep.||Active ingredient (v/v)||FORMULATION 2||10-L prep.||Active ingredient (v/v)|
|Distilled water||added to 10000 mL||18.425%||Distilled water||added to 10000 mL||23.425%|
|Ethanol 96%||8333 mL||80%||Isopropyl alcohol 99.8%||7515 mL||75%|
|Glycerol 98%||145 mL||1.45%||Glycerol 98%||145 mL||1.45%|
|Hydrogen peroxide 3%||417 mL||0.125%||Hydrogen peroxide 3%||417 mL||0.125%|
The WHO formulation are less viscous than commercial sanitizer gel, so like alcohol, they are a greater fire hazard.
Consumer alcohol-based hand sanitizers, and health care "hand alcohol" or "alcohol hand antiseptic agents" exist in liquid, foam, and easy-flowing gel formulations. Products with 60% to 95% alcohol by volume are effective antiseptics. Lower or higher concentrations are less effective; most products contain between 60% and 80% alcohol.
In addition to alcohol (ethanol, isopropanol or n-Propanol), hand sanitizers also contain the following:
- additional antiseptics such as chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium derivatives,
- sporicides such as hydrogen peroxides that eliminate bacterial spores that may be present in ingredients,
- emollients and gelling agents to reduce skin dryness and irritation,
- a small amount of sterile or distilled water,
- sometimes foaming agents, colorants or fragrances.
Hydrogen peroxide may be added to inactivate spores within bottle of hand sanitizer but does not play a role when the hand sanitizer is used.
Hand Hygiene Recommendations | Guidance for Healthcare Providers about Hand Hygiene and COVID-19 From The CDC
The exact contribution of hand hygiene to the reduction of direct and indirect spread of coronaviruses between people is currently unknown. However, hand washing mechanically removes pathogens, and laboratory data demonstrate that ABHR formulations containing 80% ethanol or 75% isopropanol, both of which are in the range of alcohol concentrations recommended by CDC, inactivate SARS-CoV-2.
CDC recommends using ABHR with greater than 60% ethanol or 70% isopropanol in healthcare settings. Unless hands are visibly soiled, an alcohol-based hand rub is preferred over soap and water in most clinical situations due to evidence of better compliance compared to soap and water. Hand rubs are generally less irritating to hands and are effective in the absence of a sink.
CDC does not have a recommended alternative to hand rub products with greater than 60% ethanol or 70% isopropanol as active ingredients. Benzalkonium chloride, along with both ethanol and isopropanol, is deemed eligible by FDA for use in the formulation of healthcare personnel hand rubs. However, available evidence indicates benzalkonium chloride has less reliable activity against certain bacteria and viruses than either of the alcohols.
The USP hand sanitizer toolkit formulas have final concentrations of 80% ethanol or 75% isopropyl alcohol concentrations. A final concentration of 80% ethanol or 75% isopropyl alcohol recommended in the USP hand sanitizer toolkit are aligned with World Health Organization (WHO) formulations.
COVID-19: Hand Sanitizers Inactivate Novel Coronavirus, Study Finds Tests have confirmed that two hand sanitizer formulations recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) inactivate the virus that causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The tests also provide reassurance that store-bought sanitizers combat the virus. The results of the new tests have been published as a preprint in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. In the absence of a vaccine or effective antiviral drugs, hand hygiene is a mainstay of efforts to prevent the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. People who have the infection may show few, if any, symptoms, but still be able to transmit the virus. The virus spreads via droplets in the air or on commonly used surfaces, such as door handles. Washing the hands thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds is a highly effective way to defend against harmful bacteria and viruses. Handwashing isn’t always practical, however, especially for healthcare workers. This is due to a lack of access to running water, and a lack of sufficient time to wash the hands thoroughly. Meanwhile, this group may be exposed to infection from a variety of sources throughout the course of each day. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers provide a quick, simple alternative. However, there has been a lack of hard evidence that they are effective against SARS-CoV-2. Guidelines to date have stemmed from research showing that the sanitizers inactivate other coronaviruses.
The WHO recommend two alcohol-based sanitizer formulations to prevent the spread of pathogens in general. Now, scientists in Germany and Switzerland have tested the sanitizers’ effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2. The first sanitizer comprises:
- ethanol — 80% by volume (vol/vol)
- glycerine (also known as glycerol) — 1.45% vol/vol
- hydrogen peroxide — 0.125% vol/vol
The second sanitizer comprises:
- isopropanol (also known as 2-propanol or isopropyl alcohol) — 75% vol/vol
- glycerine — 1.45% vol/vol
- hydrogen peroxide — 0.125% vol/vol
The researchers exposed SARS-CoV-2 virus particles to each formulation for 30 seconds. When they tested the subsequent ability of the virus to infect cells in lab cultures, they found that both formulations had inactivated the virus. The team was led by Professor Stephanie Pfänder, of the Department for Molecular and Medical Virology at Ruhr-Universität Bochum, in Germany. “We showed that both WHO-recommended formulations sufficiently inactivate the virus after 30 seconds,” says Prof. Pfänder.
Stocks Running Low
The results of the present study are particularly relevant because supplies of hand sanitizers have been running low throughout the coronavirus pandemic. The new study gives community and hospital pharmacies the green light to make their own sanitizers quickly and easily using the WHO formulations, confident that they will be effective. However, the team cautions, their findings rely on the assumption that the sanitizer is in contact with the virus for at least 30 seconds. This may not always be the case in practice. In its advice to the public on hand hygiene, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest that sanitizing the hands with gel should take about 20 seconds.
The scientists also tested ethanol and isopropanol — the active ingredients of each WHO-recommended formulation — in isolation and in varying concentrations. Their results suggest that either ethanol or isopropanol at a concentration of at least 30% vol/vol is sufficient to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. For comparison, the CDC recommend that hand sanitizers contain at least 60% alcohol. Hand sanitizers sold in pharmacies and shops typically have an alcohol concentration of around 60%. Homemade hand sanitizers made without the necessary skills, equipment, and medical-grade ingredients, however, may not contain alcohol concentrations high enough to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. For example, pure rubbing alcohol, or “surgical spirit” in the United Kingdom, and vodka have alcohol concentrations of around 70% and 40%, respectively. But repeated use of rubbing alcohol on the hands can dehydrate the skin, causing inflammation and irritation. And vodka is unsuitable for making hand sanitizer, according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, because it is not the right grade of alcohol.
Studies: Hand Sanitizers Kill COVID-19 Virus In a study today in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Swiss and German researchers found that alcohol-based hand sanitizers recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) are effective in killing the novel coronavirus.
Commercially Available Sanitizers Kill Coronavirus In the hand sanitizer study, the researchers evaluated the effectiveness of different concentrations of two WHO-recommended and two modified hand sanitizer formulations on COVID-19 virus. The WHO recommends two formulas: (1) 80% ethanol, 1.45% glycerol, and 0.125% hydrogen peroxide; and (2) 75% 2-propanol, 1.45% glycerol, and 0.125% hydrogen peroxide. However, these formulations failed to meet the effectiveness requirements of European Norm 1500, which measures how much live bacteria remain on contaminated fingertips after using hand sanitizer. In response, Suchomel and colleagues, who were not involved in today's study, modified the formulations by adding more ethanol or isopropanol and using less glycerol after finding that glycerol reduced their effectiveness. The modified versions used in this study consisted of (1) 80% ethanol, 0.725% glycerol, and 0.125% hydrogen peroxide; and (2) 75% 2-propanol, 0.725% glycerol, and 0.125% hydrogen peroxide. The Swiss and German researchers also tested dilutions of the alcohols ethanol and 2-propanol, the active ingredients of hand sanitizers on the market. They tested virus activity after 30 seconds of exposure to the hand sanitizer using a suspension of 1 part virus, 1 part organic material, and 8 parts disinfectant solution in different concentrations. They found that all sanitizer formulations and dilutions of 40% or more killed the coronavirus and reduced the virus to background levels within 30 seconds. The two WHO formulations had a virus reduction factor of >3.8, while the modified versions had a reduction factor of ≥5.9. Both ethanol and 2-propanol reduced virus to background levels in 30 seconds, with reduction factors of 4.8 to ≥5.9, and a concentration of ≥30% of either ingredient was effective in killing SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The findings reveal that the novel coronavirus has an inactivation profile similar to those of related coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The authors noted that while 30 seconds is the recommended time to rub hand sanitizers into the skin and was the time used in this study, most people don't use them for that long. The study findings, however, support use of WHO sanitizer formulations in healthcare settings during viral outbreaks, they said. "Our findings are crucial to minimize viral transmission and maximize virus inactivation in the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak," they wrote.
Inactivation Of Surrogate Coronaviruses On Hard Surfaces By Health Care Germicides
Background: In the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak, finding viral nucleic acids on hospital surfaces suggested surfaces could play a role in spread in health care environments. Surface disinfection may interrupt transmission, but few data exist on the effectiveness of health care germicides against coronaviruses on surfaces.
Methods: The efficacy of health care germicides against 2 surrogate coronaviruses, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), was tested using the quantitative carrier method on stainless steel surfaces. Germicides were o-phenylphenol/p-tertiary amylphenol) (a phenolic), 70% ethanol, 1:100 sodium hypochlorite, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), instant hand sanitizer (62% ethanol), and hand sanitizing spray (71% ethanol).
Results: After 1-minute contact time, for TGEV, there was a log10 reduction factor of 3.2 for 70% ethanol, 2.0 for phenolic, 2.3 for OPA, 0.35 for 1:100 hypochlorite, 4.0 for 62% ethanol, and 3.5 for 71% ethanol. For MHV, log10 reduction factors were 3.9 for 70% ethanol, 1.3 for phenolic, 1.7 for OPA, 0.62 for 1:100 hypochlorite, 2.7 for 62% ethanol, and 2.0 for 71% ethanol.
Conclusion: Only ethanol reduced infectivity of the 2 coronaviruses by .3-log10 after 1 minute. Germicides must be chosen carefully to ensure they are effective against viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
Coronavirus: Not All Hand Sanitisers Work Against It – Here’s What You Should Use
March 13, 2020
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, sales of hand sanitisers have soared. It’s become such a sought-after product that pharmacies and supermarkets have started limiting the number that people can buy at one time. New York state has even announced it will start producing its own hand sanitiser to meet demand. Though hand sanitisers can help reduce our risk of catching certain infections, not all hand sanitisers are equally effective against coronavirus. As with other viral respiratory infections – like the common cold and flu – the novel coronavirus (called SARS-CoV-2) is mainly spread when virus-laden droplets from a person’s mouth or nose are transferred to other people. However, a recent study has suggested that it can also spread through faeces. Aside from inhaling droplets, you can also get respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 by touching anything contaminated with the virus and then touching your face, in particular your mouth or nose. We touch our faces a lot without even realising it. A study from New South Wales found that people touch their faces about 23 times an hour. Washing with warm water and soap remains the gold standard for hand hygiene and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Washing with warm water (not cold water) and soap removes oils from our hands that can harbour microbes. But hand sanitisers can also protect against disease-causing microbes, especially in situations when soap and water aren’t available. They’re also proven to be effective in reducing the number and type of microbes. There are two main types of hand sanitisers: alcohol-based and alcohol-free. Alcohol-based hand sanitisers contain varying amounts and types of alcohol, often between 60% and 95% and usually isopropyl alcohol, ethanol (ethyl alcohol) or n-propanol. Alcohol is known to be able to kill most germs. Alcohol-free hand sanitisers contain something called quarternary ammonium compounds (usually benzalkonium chloride) instead of alcohol. These can reduce microbes but are less effective than alcohol. Not only are alcohol-based hand sanitisers found to be effective at killing many types of bacteria, including MRSA and E coli, they’re also effective against many viruses, including the influenza A virus, rhinovirus, hepatitis A virus, HIV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
Alcohol attacks and destroys the envelope protein that surrounds some viruses, including coronaviruses. This protein is vital for a virus’s survival and multiplication. But a hand sanitiser needs to be at least 60% alcohol in order to kill most viruses. Hand sanitisers with less than 60% alcohol were also found to be less effective at killing bacteria and fungi and may only reduce the growth of germs rather than killing them outright. And even hand sanitisers containing 60% alcohol can’t remove all types of germs. Studies have found that hand washing is more effective than hand sanitisers at removing norovirus, Cryptosporidium (a parasite that can cause diarrhoea), and Clostridium difficile (bacteria which cause bowel problems and diarrhoea). With shortages leading some people to try and make their own hand sanitisers, it’s also important to know these might not be as effective as commercially available products. Food Grade Ethanol Is Safe If Used Properly Safe food grade alcohol sanitizers are often made from food grade ethanol purchased online at LabAlley.com. Food grade alcohol sanitizers are used to disinfect equipment and surfaces. The majority of food grade alcohol that has been ordered online at LabAlley.com in 2020 is being used by botanical extract makers and to make antiviral hospital grade disinfectants, hand sanitizers, coronavirus disinfectants, antibacterial sprays, wipes and household cleaners. The Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) is a compendium of internationally recognized standards for the identity, purity, and quality of food ingredients. FCC standards are recognized around the world by regulatory agencies, food processors, and ingredient suppliers as the basis for defining "food grade" ingredients.
Buy Ethanol And Antiviral Alcohol For Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Protection Ethanol that contains at least 60% alcohol, by volume, is suitable for do-it-yourself hand sanitizers that protect against coronavirus infection. Ethanol at 80% concentration is highly effective against enveloped viruses in hand disinfection. Ethyl alcohol, at concentrations of 60%–80%, is a potent virucidal agent. Enveloped viruses are extremely vulnerable to 70% ethanol.
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- Buy 1 Pint Of Denatured Isopropyl Alcohol For $16
- Buy 190 Proof Alcohol Formula SDA 40B Denatured With tert-Butyl Alcohol For Compounding FDA COVID-19 Hand Sanitizers In Bulk 55 Gallon Drums For $700
ORDER FOOD GRADE ETHANOL ONLINE 200 PROOF ETHANOL BY QUANTITY OR VOLUME | PURE | NON-DENATURED | 100% ETHYL ALCOHOL | ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL | FAST SHIPPING IN THE USA | BUY MEDICAL GRADE ETHANOL | BUY LAB GRADE ETHANOL
- Buy A 1 Pint Bottle Of Food Grade Ethanol: $30
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- Buy Extraction Grade Ethanol
- 95% Denatured (Alcohol) 1 Pint: $23
- Ethanol 1 Gallon: $90
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- Ethanol 1 Liter $30
- Ethanol 1 Gallon $79
- Ethanol 4 Liters $79
- Ethanol 4x1 Gallon $240
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- Ethanol 55 Gallon Drum $700
Buy High Purity Denatured Ethanol (95%) Blended With Heptane (4.5%) And Water (0.5%) No federal excise tax is charged. HAZMAT fee is required.
- 1 Gallon: $40
- Case Of 4 Bottles - 1 Gallon Bottles: $130
- 5 Gallon Pail: $150
- Bulk 55 Gallon Drum: $700
- Bulk 270 Gallon Tote: $2,700
Buy Ethanol Online At LabAlley.com/Collections/Ethanol
- Buy ethanol extraction supplies, ethanol extraction equipment, ethanol extraction machines, ethanol extraction centrifuges, ethanol extraction filters, ethanol extraction products and ethanol extraction vessels here.
- Review information on ethanol chemical properties, ethanol extraction uses, ethanol solubility, ethanol miscibility and ethanol hazards here.
- Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) Formula, Uses, Solubility, Miscibility, Hazards, Density, Structure, Chemical Properties, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Hazards And CAS Registry Number
- Use A 10% Discount Code
What Is Tax Free Alcohol?
You do not have to pay excise tax on denatured alcohol. Denatured ethanol products do not require the payment of a Federal Excise Tax. You can buy tax free denatured alcohol from Lab Alley in the United States. Tax-free alcohol is non-denatured alcohol used for non-beverage purposes in scientific research and medicinal uses by educational organizations, hospitals, laboratories, etc. The use of alcohol free of tax is regulated to prevent illegal diversion to taxable beverage use. If you want to obtain an ethyl alcohol permit or download the application for an industrial alcohol user permit from the TTB, click here. For more information on denatured alcohol tax, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, TTB tax, TBB liquor and the excise tax on ethanol, click here.
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) Phone Numbers | Ethyl Alcohol and SDA Permits | Nonbeverage Drawback Alcohol/Pure Alcohol | Contact Info
If you have questions about industrial alcohol regulations, call the Regulations and Rulings Division of the Alcohol And Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau in Washington, DC at 202-453-2265. If you have questions about non-beverage drawback alcohol formulas and specially denatured alcohol, contact the Scientific Services Division in Ammendale, MD at 240-264-1594. Nonbeverage drawback alcohol is pure alcohol, the same as that used for consumption. However, when a manufacturer uses that alcohol in the production of a food, flavor, medicine or perfume that is approved by the Nonbeverage Products Laboratory as unfit for beverage purposes, he or she can claim a return on most of the distilled spirits excise tax paid. Click here for more contact information.
Specially Denatured Alcohol (SDA) Information From Nonbeverage Products Laboratory
SDA is alcohol to which denaturing materials have been added. Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations part 21 lists all the SDA formulas authorized by TTB. Manufacturers may use SDA in the manufacture of any product that is not intended for consumption. Generally, SDA is used in cosmetic products but its use extends to pharmaceuticals, chemical manufacturing, and products where SDA is the solvent or reactant.
Process for Using SDA
- Obtain a permit from the National Revenue Center to purchase SDA from a distilled spirits plant.
- Complete a formula application, TTB Form 5150.19, Formula and/or Process for Article Made with Specially Denatured Spirits.
Submit completed form to:
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
Nonbeverage Products Laboratory
6000 Ammendale Road
Beltsville, MD 20705-1250
- Approval process takes approximately three weeks.
- The formula must be approved prior to manufacture.
- Direct any technical questions to 240-264-1588.
Uses Of Pure Ethanol
Pure ethanol is a grade or classification of ethanol that is suitable for all food, beverage, medicinal and nutritional supplement applications in which the product, or derivatives of the product, come into contact with humans. It is commonly used to extract components, flavor molecules, and essential oils from plants. It is used as a solvent in labs. The pure ethanol sold by Lab Alley is not used for fuel. In 2015, the USA became the world's largest producer of ethanol fuel. You should not drink pure ethanol, unless it is substantially diluted, because you will experience harmful effects. Lab Alley primarily sells pure ethanol to industrial and manufacturing firms, food processing companies, plant and extraction facilities, labs, universities and individual consumers.
Where You Buy Specially Denatured Alcohol (SDA) Ethanol
A type of ethanol classified as SDA is a specially denatured alcohol. Specially Denatured Alcohol (SDA) is alcohol to which denaturing materials have been added. Ethanol SDA is one of many types of denatured alcohol specified under the US Code of Federal Regulations. To read the TTB's overview of Specially Denatured and Completely Denatured alcohol including links, laws, regulations, and other formal public guidance, click here. Commonly used SDA ethyl alcohols include SDA 1-1, SDA 1-2, SDA 2B-2, SDA 2B-3, SDA 3A, SDA 3C, SDA 23A, SDA 23H, SDA 29-3, SDA 30, SDA 35A, SDA 39C and SDA 40B. The CAS Number is 64-17-5. Manufacturers may use SDA in the manufacture of any product that is not intended for consumption. Often "SDA" versions of ethanol are used in cosmetic products but can also be used in chemical manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and solvents. The use of denatured non-beverage suitable alcohol in the United States avoids excise taxes on alcohol. Order 200 Proof Specially Denatured Alcohol Here
What Is Ethanol? Ethanol is a chemical compound (2-carbon alcohol) and renewable fuel produced by plant material (grain and sugar) fermentation and petrochemical processes. It is a colorless, volatile, flammable, clear liquid. It is sold in the United States, both on the retail and wholesale level, as a solvent, fuel and intoxicating agent used in liquors. Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The term ethanol was invented as an outcome of a resolution adopted in 1892 at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature in Switzerland. The terms "alcohol" and "ethanol" often get intermingled. Even though “alcohol” refers to a wider group of substances in chemistry lingo, most people today use "alcohol" as the name of ethanol.
Names Used To Classify and Describe Ethanol
- Ethyl Alcohol
- Grain Alcohol
- Pure Ethanol
- 190 Proof Ethanol
- Pure Grain Alcohol
- Drinking Alcohol
- Pure Ethanol
- Absolute Ethanol
- 100% Alcohol
- Industrial Alcohol
- 200 Proof Alcohol
- 95 Pure Grain Alcohol
- 190 Proof Alcohol
- 200 Proof Ethanol and Bio-Ethanol
- Ethyl Alcohol Anhydrous
- Ethyl Hydrate
- Ethyl Hydroxide
- Fermentation Alcohol
- Molasses Alcohol
- Spirits of Wine
Inhalation of ethanol can cause coughs, headaches, fatigue and drowsiness. It can dry out your skin. If it gets in your eyes it causes pain, burning and redness. If you drink it or swallow you many notice a burning sensation. If too much ethanol is consumed you may get a headache, feel confused or tipsy. It can even make you black out. It causes terrible reproductive and fetal effects. Click here for more warnings about ethanol.
Shipping and Transportation Of Ethanol In The USA
Some chemicals are classified as "Hazardous Materials" or "Hazmat". A hazardous material is any item or agent (biological, chemical, radiological, and/or physical), which has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors. The transportation of ethanol purchased from Lab Alley which require special shipping by our common carrier FedEx. By law, hazmat fees will be added to your order for all hazardous chemicals and related laboratory products. Hazmat fees from FedEx are $35.00. Hazmat chemicals and related laboratory products can only be shipped via Ground and not Air (2nd day, Overnight, etc.). Ethanol is a hazardous material. For ethanol shipping and transportation regulations in the United States, click here. Bulk ethanol is shipped in the USA by trucks, trains and boats. To Read UPS' Guide For Transporting Hazardous Materials, click here. To read the USDOT Hazardous Materials Table 49CFR 172.101, click here. To Read the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations document titled "Table of Hazardous Materials and Special Provisions", click here.